The Orchestra: From Chicago to Milano, an InstitutionHistorical Context Orchestra as we know it today spread from Italy, Austria, and Germany to Europeand beyond. This turning point in ensemble history depended on three factors:standardization and refinement of the orchestra; sociological shift in the rise of theconcert and music printing; and creation of classical style. Combined with the social,political, cultural, aesthetic, economic, and technological shifts, demands, anddiscoveries, the orchestra is continuously evolving and breathing as a musical creaturethat can adapt to any request. With the help of a conductor, whose exhaustive dutiesinclude being a metronome, artistic director, socializer, fundraiser, researching scholar,guide, disciplinarian, mentor, and inspirer, the orchestra brings music to, “resoundinglife.” (Discussed in detail below) As one can see, the role is only partly musical, but thesuccess of the orchestral unit and the music itself depend on this person, directly. Afragile balance in every aspect of the job description is absolutely necessary: sufficientlyimpressive to draw in enough listeners, but not to so much as to distract; respect forclassical repertoire, but still ambitious enough to premiere new works; court enoughdonors to make the concert a reality, but not take too much time from the music; keep upto date on new research on authenticity, but still have an idea of how the music shouldsound; demand much in the rehearsal setting, but still leave some emotion andimprovisation for the concert. Together, the orchestra and the conductor “reach out forperfection.” Orchestral music has always been the most prestigious of all forms ofinstrumental music. Due to the works’ size, public nature, and existence at the forefrontof stylistic change the symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem, and suite formthe DNA of the orchestra. However, instrumental music has not always been theorchestra’s primary role. For the first century an a half of its existence, the orchestraserved almost exclusively to provide music for stage works, as either accompaniment orintermedii, the lavish performances between acts. The affective power of this ensemble,so crucial to dramatic development, was first displayed in Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo in 1607.The musical – dramatic integration achieved by Wagner or Verdi would have beeninconceivable even a few years earlier, but instead reveals how significantly music’s rolein dramaturgy had shifted forever. Whether “slavishly doubling,” or completelydetached, the proportion and importance of instrumental music in opera has continued togrow in the post-Wagnerian era. At the same time, orchestras have also begun to performtheir opera – based music as separate concert programs. This decision could be based onefficiency, to some extent, but it also enriches the concert program and highlights greatorchestral music that might otherwise be ignored. The orchestra has maintained a following , one might claim, because its job is tohighlight emotion, whether or not the composer was aware of that specific emotion! Thisquickly becomes a daunting task when considering the unprecedented diversity inaesthetic, style, and technique. With music ranging from “bizarre” to imitations ofancient styles, accessible to impossibly complex, it is hard to remember that many
consider the diversified creations unified. This claim does not concern language, butrather a common problem and strategy for solving it, through music; the diversity in newmusic for the orchestra is a necessary part of the composers’ responses. At the other end of the spectrum from new music, one must remember theretrospective nature of the orchestral repertoire. Not too long ago, Haydn’s works wouldhave been performed very few times over a brief period; however, by the middle of thenineteenth century, the orchestra had been transformed into a museum for the display ofgreat works from the past. The “classics” of the orchestral repertoire have immortality inthe audience’s eyes, forming the canon of standard works. The only way for “New”music to enter this coveted stage is through the living composers themselves or musichistorians, who revive forgotten music of past generations. However, the incumbent orreigning champions have an overwhelming advantage. Both the crowded repertoire andprestige of established works make it all but impossible to achieve extended performanceexposure within major orchestras. As a museum of art, modern music struggles with the great music of the past fororchestral airtime. The modern concert hall chooses to display this “classical” musicwithout its context. Although the rise of concerts brought with it new music solely for aperformance, many of the immortal works routinely performed by orchestras around theworld have their original purposes stripped. Some claim this process makes the pieces nolonger the same; they cannot be the same, since different people listen with very differentexpectations of the music. Thus, the business of giving concerts applies, externally, newstandards to the music. This process significantly intensifies our experience of a piece asa work of art. At a concert, aesthetics are the focus, not the original practicality, if such ause existed; with attentive concentration, listeners evaluate each work according to howrichly it rewards the exposure. Orchestras, thus, directly control the fate of a piece asmasterpiece or forgotten memory. Music that stands up to such intense concentrationmust not be merely entertaining, not merely spectacular, and not associated with anyparticular ritual outside of concertgoing. The select few pieces of music for the museumare pure art – for their own sake – where each listener, alone, forms an individualaesthetic experience taken very seriously. While preservation has obviously been successful, cultivation of the new is not assimple. As an art museum, the orchestra is ahistroical. Experiences are personal andimmediate, encountered in the present moment with no history. The history of why,where, and how a piece was composed serves only as a way to refine expectations. Otherthan as preparation for hearing music, a piece’s history does not matter and, furthermore,cannot compensate for a work’s lack of aesthetic appeal. The orchestra is living; thepieces are living; the orchestra hall is a collection, or rather, display, of living things fromeach era. As such, the orchestra invites the creation of new music from this era to bedisplayed next to previous masterpieces. The catch is that the creation must be on thesystem’s own terms. New music must behave like music already in the repertoire,meeting expectations of both performers and audience. Some markets display a constantthirst for novelty. The orchestral market is not this market. Old pieces constitute therepertoire. Instead of old pieces falling out of the repertoire as quickly as new piecescome along to replace them, the core changes slowly, if at all. Only peripheral worksleave the repertoire, and the newest entries remain the most peripheral. The fact thatorchestras invite the creation of new music seems rather hollow, and futile if sincere.
Criteria For Success Complicating the process even more than just the number and quality of worksalready in the canon is the fact that expectations have become so difficult to achieve thatdirectors and listeners no longer agree on which pieces should belong in the repertoire, letalone the criteria for making decisions. In any attempt to outline these expectations,dedicated composers encounter contradictory demands from performers, audiences, andcritics, including lasting value, links to tradition, individuality, and familiarity. If it is notobvious how subjective these guidelines already are, the “association clause” makes itcrystal clear. The more central a work is to the repertoire, the more often it is performed,refusing to fade after numerous exposure. Some purely functional pieces do not last, butother compositions, no less worthy, receive modern performance not because of theirown merit but simply because they are by a composer whose larger works have become acentral part of the repertoire. The longevity and endurance of a piece that is so important is also so temporaryand dependent. Classics must not just be classics in their respective genres, but “artmusic” as the museum defines it. All candidates must be part of the “Western” tradition,with a specific test of time. Thus, however ironically, music that may have been popularor utilitarian in Verdi’s time may be art music now, but considering the current popularmusic seems ridiculous. In addition to popular music, tradition requirements also excludeart music that seems too radically innovative. Even when given many years of hindsightto realize the historical significance of works, composers must link music with the pastand how logically it resulted from past development in the history of music. Whenencountered with unknown music, we can only begin to understand them by placing themin the framework of the familiar, but this limit is balanced by the fact that a piece cannotbe too similar to music already in the repertoire. Being both traditional and innovativepresents a particularly fine-lined challenge to composers. Finding this distinctively individual style is paramount. Critics and audiencesalike demand personal stylistic differences both between composers, and even within asingle composer’s résumé. The great composers are esteemed for the strength of theirpersonalities, so new composers must have an equally distinctive personality to beconsidered by an orchestra. Each generation has responded to this demand, to the degreethat music sounds as different among contemporaries as it does in very different eras.Whereas old pieces heard for the first time can be fairly accurately identified based onsimilarities with known hallmarks, when composers of new music set out to definethemselves the resulting style could easily be unlike any known idiom. Herein lies theproblem with recruiters for new canon-members, which transfers to the orchestraplanning its season: the more unfamiliar a piece is, the more likely it will be difficult forlisteners to understand and enjoy it on the first hearing; the les enjoyable orcomprehensible a work is on first hearing, the less likely it will receive the repeatedhearing that allows it to become familiar and well loved. Attempting to make inadequatecomparisons is just as likely to help, as it is to confuse, in approaching moderncomposer’s work. Next, valiant attempts to differentiate music makes it more difficultfor modern music as a whole to appeal to a wide audience. Even attempts to connectwith other kinds of contemporary music offer little help, since so many of the potential
inks have been broken. Orchestras, then, must cultivate new music that is both familiarand lovable and, while this may seem to place limits on a composer, it also develops anarrow, “creative tension” between what is familiar and what is unique in the orchestra.This is harder than one would think when the audiences are waiting for the next starconductor’s interpretation of Beethoven and standard works, not new music. An evenmore frustrating balance imposed on the composer is that of the one between immediateand lasting value. Without this equilibrium, a piece can only hope to disappear intooblivion (after a immediate appeal) or find niche-limited success. For those orchestras attempting to find the next great master, the only thing onecan guarantee is the unpredictability of fame. Considering the elusive intrinsic quality,politics, publicity, influence, and not to mention accident, so much depends on futuregenerations of orchestras, their conductors, critics, composers, and performersenthusiastically campaigning and promoting the music. Orchestras must giveperformance opportunity to these composers who choose to write music that will be richenough to stay alive, disregarding the lack of appeal. It is a true dilemma for the musicdirector when composers approach the point where composers proclaim unpopularity tobe a virtue in new music. The director’s job becomes even more difficult when thecriteria for evaluation must be applied to a repertoire that is so very heterogeneous. Bygenre, classical music has no definite style, as it as a collection of many differentcountries and generations. Whereas previous masters achieved fame by putting a stampon the prevailing style of their place and time, no such dominant style presents itself forcopyright. Composers and orchestras must thus find alternative methods for originality.Balancing Act Continues Many claim the unifier among the Western diversity is a natural, singularevolutionary process that organizes the history into a coherent pattern. Between beingshaped by laws of nature and aesthetics, honoring the idea of progress, and finding somesynthesis of the two, composers guaranteed the continuity of the tradition By necessity,pieces are classical in aspiration and inspiration yet wholly individual, therefore makingemulation and progress two sides of the same direction. With some feelings of anotherbalance, it is important for the composer to offer music that is in some senses old, and inother ways, modern. Whether intensifying some common element, applying one newelement within a traditional setting, reinterpreting an aspect or trying to create somethingthat is like classical music yet different, it is ultimately up to the orchestra to decide inwhat direction to go. Orchestras are beginning to seek a more varied repertoire, but theorchestra’s attempts to embrace modernity will be on their audience’s terms.Amateurs and Professionals The current situation is far removed from the days of Beethoven. Then everybodyseemed to know how to play. Music was looked upon as something easy, that one couldlearn in passing. Conversely, today New York’s music scene is precisely the opposite.Music has become a business, where 150 concerts are given in a single New York weekwithin the many concert halls. Players are polished graduates of the finest conservatoriesand hire artist-management or public – relations firms to book them around the country.
“Everything is professional, everything is marketable, but very little is worth hearing.Enormous quantities of music are consumed but none of it means much…The concertworld is taken over by incompetent soloists and by overcompetent orchestral conductorswho streamline the already predigested classics to a point of suavity where they gothrough everybody like a dose of castor oil.” Musical culture is now at the point ofdecadence, but is still unable to reach he mainstream public. For all the economicprosperity, orchestras play mostly nineteenth-century music, but do not soundconsiderably better than 20 years ago; orchestras maintain a dedication to inherited musicwithout embracing new music; and for all the expanding audiences from grants,recording, promotion, and more concerts, musical illiteracy and lack of contact with themaking of music have never been more prevalent among nonprofessionals. Some blame this decline in the vitality of musical life on the disappearance of theamateur. In the past, training in musical skill was required for any aspiring person.Those home players were also ready to play in public, so the public musical lifedeveloped quickly, creating a social role for the orchestra itself. In a sense the orchestrais now living out the destiny established so many years ago, when it became institutionthat required extensive income to maintain itself in the image developed by sponsors.Eventually, the orchestra became completely professional and closely affiliated with thelocal city. However, the two lives never merged; the amateurism and professionalismcomplement each other. Amateurs attended concerts to see hero-musicians who had risenfrom “life,” but they were still in contact with everyday life. Both amateurs andprofessionals sacrifice their personal musical ambitions for the ensemble, whether theorchestra or that of daily life. As music appealing to the amateur became harder andharder, it transcended the amateur’s ability but could not touch desire, thus creating theamateur listener. There are lessons for the orchestra in this transformation, sinceorchestras’ ability to captivate the audience can – and usually should – transcend theaudience’s ability, but always respect position as listener, challenged only so much.Similarly, orchestras must remember their origins. Some call the professionalization oforchestras dangerous, but not necessarily. Such critics claim something is beingsacrificed by the removal of music from amateur’s hands, but “out of every ten people…nine and three-quarters must have acquired their knowledge of it as amateurs and fromamateurs.” Thus, raising the bar for future amateurs is occurring, but professionals muststill be amateurs who rose through the ranks from increased ability. If one claims theprofessional musician requires that music support him instead of being supported by him,then one assumes that the professional musician does not teach, educate, publicize, orpromote his familial orchestra. This is not the case. A reality that one must accept is the increasing demand for quality. First with theintroduction of the player piano, then recordings, then the shifting of importance from theamateur soiree to the concert hall’s opening night, and concerts in general. Somehow, asthis occurred society disturbed the cultural ambition of the amateur, separating musicaleducation and playing. Orchestras have managed to recombine some aspects of a “crashcourse” preceding the more difficult concerts, and this should be applauded. Suchinvolvement strengthens the relationship between audience and listener, in addition tofurther intensifying the musical experience. As people accepted the fact they can onlyshare in the rewards of other musicians’ successes, the orchestra began to become
recognized by society. It is true that many of these same people become professionallisteners who more attuned to the performance due to their training, but orchestras mustavoid, at all costs, the tendency to apply “mere recitation.” As orchestras develop a newpiece’s appreciation, they repeat it; if one remembers a child demanding his favorite storybe read in exactly the same manner as the first time, one understands to what theorchestra is appealing. Orchestras naturally want to maintain a fresh quality to eachperformance, but also want to appeal to their audience’s wishes. Some are hearing apiece for the first time, while others are listening to the piece as a reminder of previousemotions. In the attempt to appeal to the amateur listener, as opposed to the professional,many orchestras also perform works with more easily accessible melodies, harmonies,and even assimilating aspects of popular culture. Such Pops concerts can be detached orcombined with more classical music in an attempt to expose listeners to other kinds ofmusic. The orchestra’s involvement with new music, or lack thereof, has both beenblamed on the conductor and regarded as victim of itself. Regardless of cause and effect,the conductor and orchestra alike will continue to suffer until the conductor is allowed toregain the position as creative link between composers and audience. The performancecan never be truly controlled by the conductor or otherwise, but the orchestra itself caneither cultivate an open, welcoming atmosphere for innovation or one that is involved insimple recitation.Conductor’s role This man or woman is solely responsible for the way things go. Whetherconsidered the driver of the vehicle, or some other metaphor, it is the manner in which itis driven that matters. Much depends on perception in this vital relationship. Throughoutthe past, sources of this position have come from the concertmaster, continuo – player, orsomeone else within the orchestra. With every single quality or trait, there are conductorsat each end of the spectrum, so the orchestra must just find someone who successfullycreates beautiful music and directs the orchestra in a successful manner, given theirparticular time and place. People have always agreed that the composer-conductor has the best ability topull the music out of the ensemble, but the job does not stop here. If either the conductoror the ensemble views the other negatively in any respect, relationships will quicklydeteriorate. An important component of this relationship includes money andcompensation. These vary considerably from orchestra to orchestra, but within anorchestra, players pay close attention to the comparisons of fairness. Some orchestrashave gone to equal pay for everyone to eliminate this source of tension. In addition to just conducting, the professional conductor must get works acceptedby the performing musicians and the conservative public. He must inspire and disciplinethe performers; ideally, the musicians want to both play with and for the conductor.What makes the conductor’s job so difficult is that as the conductor “you must have thescore in your head and not your head in the score.” The conductor may design theprogram itself, study the scores, and inspire great music; he must have a qualityinterpretation, which art of its own. The balance for any orchestra is to find someone
with personality and individuality, but also technical correctness; some claim that there isa tradeoff between showmanship and being a reliable interpreter, but hopefully not. If one remembers the orchestra as a museum of art, then the conductor is thecurator. It is up to the orchestra and conductor whether they play the same piece at home,on tour, and when having guest conductors to expedite the process, or if they will take thechallenge of learning new pieces. Some regard this and the other aspects of role, status,characteristics, and differences between conductors as superficial or inessential to theaccomplishment of musical ends, but this temptation is dangerous.ManagementWithin the orchestral hall, much parallels the outside word, where unique individuals ofvarying skills and temperaments are bound together for the sole purpose of theproduction. It is revealing to point out the fact that musicians refer to cities themselves,such as Berlin, New York, Chicago, when discussing their related orchestras, but with nomention of the word. As such, the orchestra and manager have profound effects.General managerVery highly paid, but never know when the phone will ringThe old concept of “The job of a manager is to manage,” is outdated.Enormous compensations and prestige Being in the swim of the world’s musical lifeMost have little authority of their own The playing is what matters, so cannot simply get rid of someone because a pain Reduce rising temperatures by soft words, calling meetings and explaining Unions complicate matters dramatically Must maintain the equilibrium and a cool head at all timesCannot ever imagine that he has a single friend among the players Must not refuse to have a drink with the musicians Can’t meet the same ones Live on a different plane But meet them on theirs, never at his ownCan’t appear to be refusing the players anythingNever be too busy to answer a question Never disinterested/ unamusedWhen to be at the right place at the right time Prevent anything badThose who hate the manger will always want him in times of troubleSexual tensions, jealousy, etc are many problems Conductor must stay removed from thisMust regard the people and job compassionately Exhausting Always in the office, people give the manager a hard time about it Part of the job if you take the job to heart
FixerPerson who has the list of players for all instruments when a substitute is neededMuch overlap, yes, but each orchestra has its own musical bibleAuditions for the permanent vacancies Berlin auditionees play for the entire orchestra Others are more secretive Others have an outside assessorAttendantsConsidered part management May pass on information to the manager Part of a plan if management agrees Otherwise, make sure he knows it is not his duty to interfereLive only indirectly related to the music, but know much about itMust be able to do almost anythingGreat loyaltyWord-of-mouthKnows his duties, and about all the players moods/ whimsDon’t put up with the absurdity of musicians Can say things that others cannot Sources of information / wisdom to playersDuties Packing instruments Transportation Setting up Instinctive knowledge of distances between chairs/ stands Set up larger instruments Musicians, if at all possible, stay in charge of their own instruments Must be available at all timesConductor’s personal servantKeep fans and wives out after the concert
LibrarianRead music fluently Retired orchestral player or maybe even still playingUnderstand orchestral routine perfectlyHires all scores/ partsEnsure everything is clean and fit to play from Check unsure notesKnowledge of music publishers, personalities, musical works Must know every players’ parts Have pieces in different pitches, in casePlaces on correct standsCASE STUDY: Chicago to Milano
Whereas American orchestras are historically supported by bi businesses,European orchestras make up the huge difference between soaring costs and ticket priceswith state support. Gone are the days where one wealthy patron can support an orchestra
alone. Typically, European orchestras have much better “life coverage,” but Americanorchestras and unions are quickly adding pensions and holidays. Chicago was once the “dirty job” city of America, an aspirer of cultural things,not participant. Music had entered into a new era, where it was no longer a classprivilege; instead, it is only based on ability and desire to pay ticket price. Many claimChicago did not really have the support necessary to bring in a professional orchestra.There is strong evidence supporting the claim that Chicago was unprepared in bothsupport and professionals since the founder had to bring 60 people in from New York toform the nucleus of the new orchestra. In 1891, though, he successfully found enoughwealthy support. Just as Thomas overcame the initial problems, though, he died.Eventually, the organization changed name of the orchestra away from Theodore Thomasto ensure the city’s connections and advertising potential. Following Thomas’ death,Stock founded the Civic Orchestra. The Civic orchestra ensured steady stream of trainedyoung musicians to prevent any future restrictions on the orchestra’s growth. Even withthis protection, wartime brought insecurity for the orchestra. In addition, Stockestablished popular concert series and series especially for children. He was the first oneto add pensions for Chicago players. As an American orchestra, Chicago has a much more demanding schedule than itsEuropean counterparts. Chicago was below average in respect to aesthetic sophisticationand curiosity, developed early in the orchestra’s history since Thomas nevercompromised with anyone. He condescendingly offered popular programs, evidence ofhis appraisal of the city’s level of sophistication. Since then, though, Chicago has come along way, as Chicago and Boston are considered champions of new music. In fact,people describe Chicago’s repertoire as one of the most diverse and catholic. In 1941, for
example, the CSO commissioned five pieces for their 50th birthday, including works byStravinsky, Milhaud, Harris, Kodaly, and Walton. In Chicago’s recent history, Solti and Barenboim have had relatively long liveswith the orchestra. In 2006, Bernard Haitnik became the principal conductor and PierreBoulez, conductor emeritus, all in preparation for Riccardo Muti to become MusicalDirector for the 2010 season, continuing the relationship that began in 1973. Hopefully,this man’s reputation as inflexible and authoritarian will not lead to another petitionasking him to resign. As discussed, though, each orchestra is a unique life all its own. The CSO is a 106-player orchestra, with a 30-week season, five concerts eachweek. Since 1911, the orchestra has participated in the Ravinia summer festival.Chicago, too, has maintained a beautiful space. In 1904, the hall was built for $750,000,but the recent renovation of Orchestra Hall and the encompassing Symphony Center cost$110 million. The orchestra offers twelve dollar student tickets, but reserved seats startaround thirty. Interestingly, Chiago has one of the largest and most comprehensivelibraries of scores and parts in the world – 3,000!
On the other side of the globe, Italy did no have its own symphonic work until 1881,since musical language and opera were its historical inputs. In Milan, Teatro alla Scalawas build on August 3rd, 1778 to replace the burned Royal Ducal Theater. It originallypresented opera buffa before adding opera seria and ballet. Famous conductor Toscananiarrived in the 1880s and brought radical reform with him. He revamped theorganizational aspects, dealt more with public relations, began the la-Scala-Verditradition, increased interest in Richard Wagner, and most importantly began to includesymphonic music. Since World War II, where bombs destroyed much of la Scala,Lucciano Berio, Riccardo Muti, and Claudio Abbado have conducted at this institution.In 1982, the Orchestra Filarmonica della Scala was established before the Foundationbrought la Scala under private ownership. Along with this, much modernization hasbeautified la Scala. On December 7th, 2004, Muti reopened the restored Scala, and laPrima of the 2007-2008 season began a close collaboration between Barenboim and laScala. As discussed, la Scala enjoys three state groups’ support: Amici della Scala,Amici del Loggione, and Milano per la Scala. Performers are essentially free agents whorent the theater and are paid extra. The fact that this check is separate from normal operawork, as the players are drawn from the opera orchestra, allows much political action tohappen withn this organization. Tickets cost between five and 85 euro for the normaltickets, but this does not include boxes and other types of seats. The Scala orchestraperforms much less often, sometimes only once a month. However, they bring in world-famous orchestras, in addition to traveling around the world themselves. The demands ofthe Scala setting are unusual since there are sometimes two performances each day,which means an entire opera set has to be brought on following the mid-day orchestraperformance!Management Settings
Orchestral Life The life of orchestral musicians can either be rewarding, challenging, exciting,frustrating, exhausting, or unfulfilling. Many professionals do not predict the tensionthey feel from the lack of personal expression experienced within the ensemble. For thedirector or programmer, ideas present themselves. Offering opportunities for trio,quartet, and quintet playing; solo playing within and without the larger orchestra; orchamber ensemble playing both exposes the public to more of the genre and keepsmusicians refreshed for the best orchestra performances. Orchestras are moreconsultative than in previous generations and seen as a community, so management mustfocus on preventing any schism creating a feeling of “them and us” from developing.Alternatively, by maintaining a more democratic system, professionals treat their job notlike a nine-to-five, but a more intimate relationship for which they give all their emotion,effort, and focus. Simply by keeping the musicians informed and involved with thedecisions, orchestras and their managers can formulate much more effective and efficientresults.Due to the high costs of all professional musical activities, increasing the numberof performance opportunities increases profits or decreases costs. Touring is animportant part of an orchestra’s life. Both international and domestic tours areintegral to an orchestra’s livelihood, due to both awareness and rewards. Toursare expensive, but sponsors help to reduce monetary pressure to make them abreak from the concert routine. On the other hand, exhaustion is typical in theprocess of developing an international profile:7:00 Coaches to airport8:00 Check-in9:00 Flight10:40 Coaches to new hotel11:00 Arrive at new hotel, rooms not ready11:10 leave suitcases, go to lunch5:00 Coach to hall5:45 – 6:30 Seating rehearsal7:30 ConcertREPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT Demands of delivering incredibly high standards of performance that canpotentially cause players to be anti-social, in addition to poor pay and badconditions, make the orchestral job quite stressful. As competition and economicpressures increase, the anxiety of the profession increases. More important thanaudience-driven stress, though, according to performers, is the pressure from peersas the demands of the music steadily increase. Players have found endless curesfor these stresses, some healthier than others: prescribed drugs, alcohol – forwhich they will be fired, jogging, yoga, meditation, Alexander Technique, and
many other coping mechanisms. Health and safety in other areas of a musician’slife are also very important, whether protecting one’s hearing or otherwise. Today’s orchestra is much more than music. With the growth ofmusicology, the educational role has never been more important. Technologicaldevelopments have only begun to impact this traditional ensemble. It should be clearfrom the case study how interconnected the world’s music organizations are. They allshare the same problems and joys. Orchestras may not look the same as they do,currently, and the numbers of economically viable orchestras may decrease, but there willalways be an audience for the orchestra. Hopefully, orchestras will find some way to fillthe seats, whether with drama, lasers, and a camera down the clarinet, or with beautifulmusic alone.
AppendixPossible Seating Arrangements…and Placement of Bass Section
Orchestral Concert Composition and Distribution
Popularity in American VS International Setting
Works Cited**Many sections of this paper are paraphrases, excerpts from many books, so no in- text documentation was used**"Chicago Symphony Orchestra." <http://www.cso.org>.Correspondent. "A Century of Art at La Scala." The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 37 (1896): 603-04.Douglas, C. W. "Arturo Toscanini." Music Educators Journal 54 (1968): 69-71.Filippi, Filippo. "La Scala at Milan." Musical Times 25 (1884).Harwood, Gregory W. "Verdis Reform of the Italian Opera Orchestra." 19th-Century Music 10 (1986): 108-34.Hurd, Michael. The Orchestra. New York, NY: Quarto, 1980.Jefferson, Alan. Inside the Orchestra. Chatham, Great Britain: W & J Mackay Limited, 1974.Lawson, Colin, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Orchestra. New York: Cambridge UP, 2003.Mueller, John H. The American Symphony Orchestra. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1951.Peyser, Joan. The Orchestra: Origins and Transformations. New York, NY: Charles Scribners Sons, 1986.
Russell, Charles E. The American Orchestra and Theordore Thomas. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, & Company, 1927.Special Correspondent. "Arturo Toscanini: The New Conductor at La Scala." The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 39 (1898): 662-63."Teatro alla Scala." <http://www.teatroallascala.org/en/index.html#>.