Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Social and emotional development gains of children attributed to martial arts training

625 views

Published on

Social competence and emotional maturity is recognised as a vital component of children’s learning success and overall wellbeing. This paper reports findings from case study research on how martial arts training was thought to be improving the well-being of participating children. The data collected provides evidence of beliefs about the strong link between martial arts training and improvements in children’s mood, behaviour, motivation, peer interaction, communication, confidence, and persistence with difficulty tasks. These positive attributes nourish and support a child’s self-belief and emotional resilience. Several participants in this study noted the change in approaches to learning of individual children, manifesting in a positive mindset, increased confidence and persistence with difficult tasks.

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Social and emotional development gains of children attributed to martial arts training

  1. 1. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Eva Dobozy, PhD – WA ECEC Conference 8 August 2015 Social and emotional development gains of children attributed to martial arts training
  2. 2. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Organisation of the presentation: 1. Background 2. MA training at WAIMA 3. Discussion 4. Limitations 5. Implications and future studies 6. Conclusion
  3. 3. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 1. Background to the study 1.1 Health benefits of regular and vigorous physical activity 1.2 Positive and negative effects of power sports
  4. 4. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 1.1 Health benefits of regular and vigorous physical activity  WHO (2014), AMA (2014) and numerous research reports attest to the health benefits of regular and vigorous physical activity  In 2014, Australia produced its first Physical Activity Report Card. Alarming finding: only 19% of Australian children and young people aged 5- 17 years meet the physical activity recommendations
  5. 5. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 1.1 Health benefits of regular and vigorous physical activity (cont.)  ABS data (2013): • 9-11 year olds participate most in organised sports (66%) • 5-8 year olds participate least in sporting activities (56%) • 12-14 year olds participate more than very young children, but less than 9-11 year olds (60%)
  6. 6. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 1.2 Positive and negative effects of power sports  Power sports: wrestling, boxing, martial arts  Possible positive intervention strategy for troubling teenagers  Positive effects of MA reported in the research literature: • Increasing children’s attention span • Lowering aggression
  7. 7. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 1.2 Positive and negative effects of power sports (cont.)  Negative effects of power sports reported in the research literature: • Concerns about safety issues and sports injuries • Increase in antisocial behaviour and greater risk of juvenile delinquency for male but not female adolescents “Participation in physical activity, including sports remains one social milieu for sociali[s]ation experiences which may be just as likely to teach and reinforce antisocial behavio[u]r as they are prosocial behavio[u]rs.” (Faulkner et al., 2007, p. 155)
  8. 8. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2. Martial Arts training at WAIMA 2.1 Research objective 2.2 Research questions 2.3 Research design 2.4 Research findings
  9. 9. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2.1 Research objective  To investigate the physical and psychosocial benefits of MA training for children and adolescents at WAIMA’s two established training locations as perceived by trainers, parents and students.
  10. 10. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2.2 Research questions 1. What are the physical and psychosocial benefits of pedagogically designed martial arts programs at WAIMA as perceived by different stakeholders within the WAIMA community? 2. How similar and different are the views of various stakeholder groups concerning perceived physical and psychosocial benefits of martial arts training? 3. What pedagogical practices are observed during formal classes?
  11. 11. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2.3 Research design  Case study methodology • theoretical framework: sociocultural theory and grounded theory  Formal, semi-structured interviews with stakeholder groups • Trainers (excl. junior instructors who were also school-aged students) • Parents of all eligible school-aged WAIMA students (5-17 years of age) • Students (school-aged children or adolescents – 5-17 years of age)  Written narrative responses  Observations of training sessions
  12. 12. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2.4 Research findings 2.4.1 Philosophy and pedagogy of martial arts at WAIMA 2.4.2 Case stories
  13. 13. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2.4 Research Findings 2.4.1 Philosophy and pedagogy of martial arts at WAIMA  Combination of classical transmission education and constructivism • Methodical instruction of specific moves, broken down into small steps, first demonstrated and then practised • The chronologically ordered steps are transmitted via direct instruction • Elements of creative problem-solving and ‘self-authoring practices’ (Dobozy, 2014) through personalised, peer-assisted learning tasks and the creation of ‘free forms’, which requires goal-oriented behaviour and self-motivation
  14. 14. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 2.4 Research Findings 2.4.2 Case stories Themed vignette approach: • information from multiple similar views are synthesised allowing for the construction of a unique story or vignette Vignette 1: Belongingness “The energy and camaraderie in the session was fantastic. To see new students being welcomed into the class by members is great. I love seeing kids when they finally ‘get it’ where the skills they are learning are finally mastered.”
  15. 15. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Interview questions: Question topic Q 1 What was the single best thing about the training session today? Q 2 If you could suggest one single thing that could be change about the training session today, what would it be? Q 3 Why do you [bring your child/come to] martial arts training/ [work] at WAIMA? Q 4 What, if any, changes in behaviour or mood did you observe in [your/a] child since her/his commencement of training at WAIMA? Q 5 Do you believe that martial arts training at WAIMA is character building? If so, how? Q 6 Do you believe that martial arts training at WAIMA is contributing to [your/a] child’s physical development? If so, how? Q 7 Do you believe that martial arts training at WAIMA is contributing to [your/a] child’s social development? If so, how? Q 8 Do you believe that martial arts training at WAIMA is contributing to [your/a] child’s academic development? If so, how? Q 9 Is there anything else you would like to tell me about [your/a] child’s martial arts
  16. 16. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Themes by stakeholder groups: Qs 1-3 Question Trainer views Parent views Student views Sub-themes Q 1 (best)  Belongingness  Mastery learning  Peer-support and civility  Quality instruction  Physical activity  Life skills  Physical activity  Self defence  Personal attention Q 2 (change)  Time efficiency  Feedback to parents  New games  Absolutely nothing  Smaller classes  Affordability  Nothing  Smaller classes  New warm-ups Q 3 (why WAIMA)  Rewarding job  Fun and inspiring  Use what I was taught  Fitness, protection and self- defence  Discipline  Atmosphere and staff attitude  Fitness and protection  Self confidence  Parents made me come  Friends
  17. 17. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Themes by stakeholder groups: Qs 4-6 Question Trainer views Parent views Student views Sub-themes Q 4 (behaviour/ mood) • Respectful, outgoing and polite – no more naughty or shy • Find school less troublesome • Attitude change • Feeling positive and happy • More self-discipline • More confident • Feeling happier Q 5 (character building) • Confidence for success • Enthusiasm is contagious • Building resilience • More positive • Walking away from trouble • Life skills • More responsible and more respectful • Be a better person • Confidence and responsibility • Skills for life Q 6 (physical) • Physical goals • Speed, stamina and control • Physical transformation • Keeping active, fit and healthy • Improved coordination and improved self-esteem • Not very ‘sporty’ children • Better endurance • It’s worth it • As fit as I’ve ever been
  18. 18. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Themes by stakeholder groups: Qs 7-9 Question Trainer views Parent views Student views Sub-themes Q 7 (social)  Community spirit  Overall behaviour  Confidence and friendships • Different genders, ages and communication • Looking out for others • No longer shy • Confidence and friendship  Talk to each other  Improved communication skills  Being shy Q 8 (academic)  Focus, concentration and attention  Good behaviour  Word of the month • Mental preparedness • Promotes thinking • Showing personality  Focus and concentration  Self confidence  Little goals and big goals Q 9 (anything else)  Positive role models  Catering for student variability  Changing people’s lives • Motivation • Bullying • Confidence and social skills • Instructors as role models • Special needs children  Confidence, respect and control  Mental health  Fun but serious
  19. 19. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud Q 1: What was the single best thing about the training session today?
  20. 20. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud analysis Q 1  Words and phrases used most often: learning, class, best, hard, better, great, new and training. • “Learning how to defend myself on the street and in everyday life and learning basic kicks and punches. Also learning a new grab defence and I am able to do it by the end of the drill.” (Vignette 7) • “When one tries hard, it encourages others to try just as hard if not harder.” (Vignette 3) • “My favourite part was the warm-up, even though it was very hard.” (Vignette 6)
  21. 21. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud Q 2: If you could suggest one single thing that could be changed about the training session today, what would it be?
  22. 22. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud analysis Q 2  One keyword that clearly stands out is “classes”, which was used in very different contexts: • “I love watching the commitment [my child] puts into his classes” (Vignette 12) • “Smaller classes could help [my son] focus better.” (Vignette 13) • “Having smaller classes.” (Vignette 16)
  23. 23. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud Q 3: Why do you (work) bring your child (come) to martial arts training at WAIMA?
  24. 24. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud analysis Q 3  Words and phrases used most often: help, love and life. • “You get to help people achieve goals in all areas of their lives” (Vignette 18) • “It’s fun to inspire and help kids with confidence issues. …I love what I do – I love teaching skills they can use in life.” (Vignette 19) • “I love that I can use the mindset I was taught.” (Vignette 20)
  25. 25. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud Q 9: Is there anything else you would like to tell me about martial arts training at WAIMA?
  26. 26. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Word cloud analysis Q 9  The keywords that were most often used were: ‘WAIMA’, ‘training’, ‘confidence’, ‘skills’ and ‘child’. • Trainers: “We have a strong character development program at WAIMA. For me, this is as important, if not more important than the physical skills.” (Vignette 74) • Trainers: “Talking to kids about life skills and morals and values is a crucial part of WAIMA operation and to empower a child with only the physical skills and not the values, morals and ethics, means we only have done part of the job and in my opinion this is the most important part of the journey.” (Vignette 75) • Students: “WAIMA has given me many opportunities in life now. I have gained a lot more confidence and I would recommend it to anyone that needs help with confidence.” (Vignette 82)
  27. 27. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J The idea that martial arts can change people’s lives for the better was expressed by all stakeholder groups, and was a reoccurring theme throughout the interviews.
  28. 28. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 3. The psychosocial benefits of martial arts training  MA promotes positive personal development and well- being. It contributes to children’s increased: • Personal happiness • Contentment • Confidence • Success  Testimonies from all stakeholder groups attest to the beneficial effects of MA in: • The physical domain • The socioemotional domain • The cognitive domain
  29. 29. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Key findings • Psychosocial effects of regular MA training What this study was able to show is that the wide ranging health-related impact of martial arts training is not confined solely to physical benefits. The psychosocial effects of regular martial arts training can have long lasting and wide ranging implications for the development of emotional resilience and school success through the development of cognitive skills, such as increased focus, attention, persistence, and motivation.
  30. 30. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Key findings (cont.) • Academic enablers Several participants in this study noted the positive change in approaches to learning of individual children, manifesting in a positive mindset, increased confidence and persistence with difficult tasks.
  31. 31. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Key findings (cont.) • Pedagogy of MA training at WAIMA The multitude of positive parent and student statements indicate that WAIMA trainers have achieved great success in bringing personalised teaching and performance mastery to individual children. The pedagogical focus of martial arts training at WAIMA is on the students’ individual needs and the development of positive habits of mind.
  32. 32. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Key findings (cont.) • Performance-focused, holistic and engagement- driven pedagogical practice What is most impressive is that if children’s behaviour is questionable in the home or at school, the particular child is denied a higher belt until her or his overall behaviour is on par with the martial arts ethos of respect for self and others. This practice brings authenticity to martial arts training and illustrates real-world consequences to children.
  33. 33. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Key findings (cont.) • Self-efficacy beliefs The influence that self-perception holds over actual performance is called self-efficacy belief. It is based on the premise that every successful person has experienced failure and has learned to successfully deal with failure and embrace it as part of the learning process. Getting children to accept failure as a vital companion to success and to find the inner strength to look at it as a temporary setback rather than a ‘fait accompli’ is not easy.
  34. 34. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 4. Limitations of the study  There are a number of limitations: • The study used self-report data and convenience sampling • Not all views very captured, it may well be possible that less favourable associations exist between MA training and reported behaviour and development • Other variables not investigated, such as SES background, gender, ethnicity etc may have influenced perceptions of effects of MA • The study was conducted of a singe case (MA training at WAIMA)
  35. 35. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 5. Implications and future studies  The stakeholder views are overwhelmingly positive, but the study may encourage WAIMA to review current practices, commission more research, and accept more possible corporate citizenship duties. • There is a need to better understand the physical activity habits of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) • What % of WAIMA students are in this age bracket? • What is their physical activity energy expenditures? • What is the retention rate of this WAIMA demographic group? • What are their special needs and aspirations? • What motivates them to attend classes? • What are their reasons for leaving?
  36. 36. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 5. Implications and future studies (cont.)  More research is needed to understand the psychosocial benefits of martial arts training for children with special needs. • Children with special needs, such as Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD), dyslexia and/or dyscalculia • What % of WAIMA students have special needs? • What is the enrolment ratio of children with or without special needs? • What is the retention rate of this WAIMA demographic group? • What are their special needs and aspirations? • What motivates them/their parents to come to WAIMA? • What are their reasons for leaving? • How does their attendance impact school behaviour (discipline issues GPA)?
  37. 37. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 5. Implications and future studies (cont.)  More research is needed to understand the psychosocial benefits of martial arts training for children from low SES backgrounds. • Children from low SES backgrounds • What % of WAIMA students come from low SES backgrounds? • What is the enrolment ratio of children from different SES backgrounds? • How can children from low SES backgrounds be encouraged to attend MA training at WAIMA? • Could scholarships be offered? • How does their attendance impact school behaviour (discipline issues GPA)? • What are their special needs and aspirations? • What motivates them/their parents to come to WAIMA? • What are their reasons for leaving?
  38. 38. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 5. Implications and future studies (cont.)  In the light of the above findings of the strong perceptions of the positive psychosocial effects of martial arts training, it is recommended that future research is conducted with specific demographic groups, investigating the psychosocial benefits of MA training at WAIMA.  Building on this study, further research could be conducted that documents the observable differences in children’s social behaviours at school and at home, their mental health, general mood, attitudes to school work, actual change of grades, changes in friendship groups and school behaviour.
  39. 39. Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Thank you. eva.dobozy@curtin.edu.au Questions ???

×