Green Chemistry Biomimicry Slideshow Oct 2006


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  • Green Chemistry Biomimicry Slideshow Oct 2006

    1. 1. Green Chemistry / Biomimicry [email_address] Mark Dorfman
    2. 2. Common synthetic chemical-based products: Fire retardants Synthetic fabrics Adhesives, paints, solvents, and coatings Plastics and synthetic rubber Detergents and cleaning chemicals Electronics chemicals Fuels
    3. 3. Agricultural insecticides and fertilizers Artificial flavors and fragrances Personal care products Pharmaceuticals Meat processing hormones and antibiotics
    4. 4. There’s no such thing... as a FREE LUNCH
    5. 5. <ul><li>Energy requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Material inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to potentially toxic or hazardous substances… </li></ul>Products do not come to the home or market without a “price”: … at any point along the Commercial Chemical Chain
    6. 6. The Commercial Chemical Chain <ul><li>A Man-Made Largely Linear Phenomenon in a Cyclic Natural World </li></ul>
    7. 7. Raw Material Extraction <ul><li>Crude oil </li></ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul>
    8. 8. Refining / Purification <ul><li>Gaseous fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Jet fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Home heating oil </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Tar </li></ul><ul><li>BTX </li></ul><ul><li>Ethylene </li></ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul>
    9. 9. Synthesis / Formulation <ul><li>Fabrics </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Generic Chemical Synthesis Compound “A” Compound “B” Product “C” By-products Reaction Vessel This is just to cover
    11. 11. Some products require multiple steps to get from raw materials to final product. Each step may release potentially toxic or hazardous substances.
    12. 12. Consumption / Utilization of Final Product <ul><li>Emergency Response </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Arts/Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul>
    13. 13. The next slide lists quantities of potentially toxic and hazardous substances released to the environment in a single year. They are limited to: <ul><li>Routine releases (excludes accidental releases), </li></ul><ul><li>The largest facilities in the USA, </li></ul><ul><li>650 of the 100,000+ chemicals registered for commercial use, </li></ul><ul><li>Releases from manufacturing (excludes releases from products inside homes, offices, or dumps). </li></ul>RELEASES TO THE ENVIRONMENT
    14. 14. <ul><li>Air ------------------------- 105,000,000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water ------------ 20,000,000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Underground ------------- 81,000,000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Landfill ------ 2,000,000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Haz Landfill -------- 19,000,000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>“ Other” --------------------- 20,000,000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>(currently 1,234 former manufacturing or waste sites placed on the US “Superfund” list due to severe contamination) </li></ul>Releases to:
    15. 15. Product Use and Disposal <ul><li>100,000+ chemicals in commercial use. </li></ul><ul><li>For 650 chemicals used in New Jersey: </li></ul><ul><li>575 million kgs/yr of bioaccumulators, carcinogens, heavy metals, halo-organics ozone depleters, are shipped in products. </li></ul><ul><li>741 million kgs/yr of all reported chemicals NOT intended as a product component end up in the final product. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Potential Environmental and Public Health Impacts from Exposure to Commercial Chemicals <ul><li>Single chemical health effects largely unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple chemical health effects almost entirely unknown. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Emerging Picture <ul><li>Global impacts (ex. ozone hole, climate change, worldwide Hg contamination). </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor air more polluted than outdoor. </li></ul><ul><li>Home chemicals found in U.S. streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal disruption found in male fish, polar bears, alligators, frogs, and other wildlife species. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Impacts on the Human Fetus? <ul><li>Umbilical cord blood contains artificial musks, alkylphenols, bisphenol-A, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates, organochlorine pesticides and triclosan. </li></ul><ul><li>100+ commercial chemicals in human breast milk (too contaminated for sale as food in U.S.). </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine disruption at much lower levels than previously considered safe. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>“ [Man] can make something new which is better than anything in nature or naturally produced.” (Slosson, 1921) </li></ul>This 1940’s Mobil gas ad (as well as the following 1920s quote) illustrate the perspective during most of the 20 th century that petroleum and the chemical laboratory could improve the world… …how ironic that the ad shows the earth coated with oil.
    20. 20. … and into the Nano-Bio-Technology Age As we step out of the Petro-Chem-Technology Age…
    21. 21. BEWARE! <ul><li>Petro-Chem-Tech Era : </li></ul><ul><li>Tetra ethyl lead. </li></ul><ul><li>DDT, PCBs, CFCs. </li></ul><ul><li>NOx, SOx, CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>Di-Ethyl-Stilbestrol (DES). </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine disruptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-Bio-Tech Era : </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 micron particles cause health impact… </li></ul><ul><li>… but nanoparticles are 1,000 times smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn and edible fish genetically modified to produce pharmaceuticals. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Buckyballs” enter the brains of sportfish. </li></ul>
    22. 22. HAVE WE LEARNED ANY LESSONS? If so, the following 12 “ GREEN CHEMISTRY PRINCIPLES ” offer a means to enjoy the fruits of an industrial society while reducing their impacts on public and environmental health
    23. 23. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Waste Prevention : It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Atom Economy : Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all [essential] materials used in the process into the final product. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis : Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Designing Safer Chemicals : Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries : The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Design for Energy Efficiency : Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Use of Renewable Feedstocks : A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Reduce Derivatives : Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Catalysis : Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Design for Degradation : Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention : Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Green Chemistry Principle <ul><li>Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention : Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    35. 35. The general public tends to assume that “chemicals” are man-made, and that nature is something other than chemical. This section is designed to show that the natural world is indeed a chemical one.
    36. 36. <ul><li>The Rise of Our Chemical Planet </li></ul>
    37. 37. The BIG BANG 14 Billion Years Ago
    38. 38. Earth 4.5 –3 Billion Years Ago ammonia carbon dioxide hydrogen nitrogen phosphorous sulfur oxygen ozone layer water vapor minerals amino acids heavy metals radio nuclides
    39. 39. Chemicals on the early Earth interact spontaneously in reactions that take the path of least resistance, such as: <ul><li>Minerals dissolving in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Rust forming from iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone created from lightning strikes. </li></ul>
    40. 40. 3 Billion to 350 Million Years Ago <ul><li>Living systems arise harnessing solar, chemical, and thermal energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex chemical compounds (such as DNA, proteins, enzymes, etc.) are created, </li></ul><ul><li>Complex compounds give rise to biological systems such as bacteria, blue-green algae, amphibians, and insects. </li></ul>
    41. 41. 350 Million to 10,000 Years Ago <ul><li>Fibers (wood, cotton, silk, wool, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrances / Flavors / Dyes / Medicines (flowers, leaves, seeds, bark, insects) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Toxins (snakes, sea creatures, insects, plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil / coal / natural gas </li></ul>
    42. 42. Bio- and inorganic-chemicals interact with each other, the environment, and living things in cycles such as the CARBON CYCLE
    43. 43. … turning ashes (burning wood) GLUCOSE + OXYGEN CO 2 + Water + Heat <ul><li>GLUCOSE + OXYGEN CO 2 + Water + Sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>back into trees (photosynthesis) </li></ul>Biology accomplishes amazing chemical feats, such as…
    44. 44. <ul><li>Abalone Shell </li></ul>Chalk Both are made of calcium carbonate, but Abalone is…
    45. 45. <ul><li>Twice as hard as high-tech ceramics. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaves like metal under stress. </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>CaCO 3 hexagonal disks </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in brick-wall motif </li></ul><ul><li>Protein “mortar” stretches, slides, or oozes upon stress </li></ul>Strength and Resilience of “Nacre” due to:
    47. 47. Nacre micrograph
    48. 48. How Abalone Do It <ul><li>Marine water. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mortar” proteins self- assemble framework. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Wallpaper” proteins self- assemble on inner surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization initiates “brick” formation from dissolved CaCO 3 . </li></ul>
    49. 49. How Industry Makes Ceramics <ul><li>BEAT… clay to proper consistency. </li></ul><ul><li>BAKE… at high temperatures (2000 - 3000 O f). for prolonged periods (15 – 50 Hours). </li></ul><ul><li>(Ceramics Industry Major Contributor To Global Warming) </li></ul>
    50. 50. Mussel Byssus
    51. 51. Components and Characteristics <ul><li>Adhesive : works underwater </li></ul><ul><li>Disc : hard, resists cracks/stress </li></ul><ul><li>Thread : gradient, rigid to springy </li></ul><ul><li>Sealant : tough, biodegradable </li></ul>
    52. 52. How a Mussel Makes its Byssus <ul><li>Adhesive and Disc: </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins Secreted </li></ul><ul><li>Fold, Twist, Crosslink </li></ul><ul><li>Creates hard foam structure </li></ul>
    53. 53. Thread and Sealant <ul><li>Hollow Tube </li></ul><ul><li>Thread - Strategic Protein Release - Cross-Link - Springy-Rigid Gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Sealant - Protein Release - Self-Assemble - Seal </li></ul>
    54. 54. Potential Industrial Applications <ul><li>Adhesive : No-blister paint; underboat coat; medical suture </li></ul><ul><li>Disc : dental surface, coating </li></ul><ul><li>Thread : prostheses tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Sealant : slow-degrade coat over fast-degrade material </li></ul>
    55. 55. HOW THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY MAKES ADHESIVES AND PLASTICS <ul><li>Reactive starting materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially toxic “initiators”. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially toxic additives for: </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility / Stiffness </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Stability, etc . </li></ul>
    56. 56. Gecko feet
    57. 57. Synthetic Gecko tape: Polyimide nanofibers
    58. 58. Mimic to: <ul><li>Generate an electric current. </li></ul><ul><li>Split water to produce hydrogen gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive solar-based manufacturing . </li></ul><ul><li>Create a switch for super fast computing . </li></ul>Photosynthesis
    59. 59. <ul><li>Photons split water into oxygen and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen gas released from cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen stored at H+ ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Light-induced electron flow sets up charge separation. </li></ul><ul><li>Charge separation shuttles H+ ions into cell. </li></ul><ul><li>H+ build-up drives ATP synthase. </li></ul>Energy from ATP plus enzyme NADPH is used to build sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. Artificial photosynthetic system
    60. 60. Most Common Human Ways of Generating Power <ul><li>Burning fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric dams </li></ul>
    61. 61. Common Characteristics of Chemistry in Nature <ul><li>Self-assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Protein-mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Water-based </li></ul><ul><li>Non toxic, renewable feedstocks </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical “bottom-up” structures </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable end-products (cyclic) </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient temperatures and pressures </li></ul>
    62. 62. VAST UNTAPPED POTENTIAL <ul><li>270,000 Species of Plants </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 Fungi / Lichens </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 Protozoa / Algae </li></ul><ul><li>75,000 Spiders / Scorpions </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 Mollusks </li></ul>
    63. 63. GLOBAL TRENDS Extrapolating current technologies and practices
    64. 64. <ul><li>Stone Age Impact </li></ul>Space Age Society… GLOBAL TRENDS Utilizing Green Chemistry and Biomimicry (??)