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Functional printing on paper subtrates

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By Matija Mraovic, Insitut za celulozo in papir (CTP). This was presented during the New Ideas for the Paper Industry: Young Researchers' Presentations session, organised as part of European Paper Week 2015. More at http://www.cepi.org/epw

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Functional printing on paper subtrates

  1. 1. Functional printing on paper substrates Matija Mraović matija.mraovic@icp‐lj.si
  2. 2. What is?  Intelligent packaging  Meta‐paper / Frequency Selective Screen
  3. 3. 3 Interdisciplinary approach: • Paper science, • Graphical science, • Physics,  • Chemistry, • Biology, • Electronics, • Management, • … New designs, New materials, Nanomaterials? Printed  antennas, sensors Printed displays, indicators Intelligent packaging
  4. 4. Includes:  Internal and external sensing   Monitoring of parameters vital for the goods inside  Parameter recording and storing for later analysis (optimization)  Shelf life calculation  Communication  Protection (anti‐tampering, anti‐counterfitting, damaged…)  Transport and storage monitoring  Life cycle monitoring 4 Intelligent packaging
  5. 5. TRENDI RAZVOJA Bar code >>>> RFID 5 QR code + mobile phone  extra info  web shopping, marketing  …  Intelligent packaging
  6. 6. PRINTED ELECTRONICS  Flexible materials (paper, carton, foil…)  Functional printing inks  Conventional printing (not same perspective)  Passive electronic components (antennas, sensors …)  Active electronic components (displays, ICs …) Intelligent packaging
  7. 7. prevodna TB Printed electronics – functional inksConventional print (illusion) – (CMYK) … PRINTED ELECTRONICS Intelligent packaging
  8. 8. PRINTED HUMIDITY SENSORS  Capacitive humidity sensors  Gas sensor modification (functional coating)  RFID sensor platform Intelligent packaging
  9. 9. 9 FABRICATED WITH SCREEN PRINTING • Commercial conductive ink (polymer with  silver micro/nano‐particles) • Heat curing • Simple to fabricate • Low resolution • Surface roughness • Issue with electrical contacts TWO SENSOR TYPES • Lateral (comb) type capacitor ‐ A • Flat plate capacitor – B SENSOR DIMENSIONS • 1X1 CM (A,B) • 2X2 CM (A,B) • 3X3 CM (A,B) • ARRAYS WITH ALL DIMENSIONS  OF BASE TYPE SENSORS.
  10. 10. 10 1x1 cm 2x2 cm 3x3 cm 3x3 cm array 2x2 array 1x1 array Flat plate 1x1 cm 2x2 cm Layout of the printing form
  11. 11. 11 MAIN GOALS: • Design and fabricate capacitive humidity  sensors of different geometry and configuration. • Test sensors on different cellulose based  substrates. • Find the optimum design (electrically and  economically) for future work. The ultimate goal is to fabricate a RFID enabled  system with screen printed sensors for use in  smart packaging applications. Substrates and sensor labeling Vimax (recycled paper) C1 (1×1 cm), C2 (2×2 cm), C3 (3×3 cm); comb type M‐Liner (cardboard) K1 (1×1 cm), K2 (2×2 cm), K3 (3×3 cm); comb type PackPro (food packaging paper) V2 (2×2 cm); comb type Poly‐carbonate foil PC (2×2 cm); comb type ASSUMPTION: SENSOR RESPONSE IS A FUNCTION OF SUBSTRATE.
  12. 12. 12 Testing in the humidity chamber at the  Faculty of electrical engineering, Ljubljana CONSTANT TEMPERATURE: T = 23°C RELATIVE HUMIDITY RANGE: 35 % ‐ 80 % Rh MEASURING QUANTITIES: • CAPACITANCE [F] • CONDUCTANCE [S]4 MEASUREMENT SERIES: From low (35 % Rh) to high (80 % Rh) – 5 % Rh step, step duration 1h From high to low – 5 % Rh step, step duration 1h Cycling the Rh from 35 % ‐ 80 % ‐ 40 % Rh – 10 % Rh step, 1h Cycling the Rh from 80 % ‐ 35 % ‐ 70 % Rh – 10 % Rh step, 1h • Can track up to 16 sensors simultaneously with arbitrary period ( 30s ). 
  13. 13. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x 10 -10 Capacitance[F] Time response 11:17 12:34 13:35 14:39 15:42 16:44 17:45 18:52 20:01 21:10 22:20 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Time Rh[%] C1 C2 C3 K1 K2 K3 PC V2 RhSet Rh 13 Time response plot DATA FROM CYCLING MEASUREMENT (35 % ‐ 80 % ‐ 40 % RH) • Lazy and lower response at low Rh (< 50 % Rh) • Saturation and over response at Rh > 80 %
  14. 14. 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 x 10 -10 Rh [%] Capacitance[F] Capacitance vs Rh C1 C2 C3 K1 K2 K3 PC2 V2 14 C vs Rh plot DATA FROM CYCLING MEASUREMENT (35 % ‐ 80 % ‐ 40 % RH) • Logarithmic response type • Hysteresis (evident at Rh > ~60 % Rh) higher capacitance with moist sensor (from 80 % to 40 % Rh) lower capacitance with  dry sensor (from 35 % to 80 % Rh)
  15. 15. 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Rh [%] SR [%] Relative sensitivity (SR ) C1dry C1moist C2dry C2moist C3dry C3moist K1dry K1moist K2dry K2moist K3dry K3moist PC2dry PC2moist V2dry V2moist P2dry P2moist 15 Relative sensitivity plot: SR vs Rh DATA FROM CYCLING MEASUREMENT (35 % ‐ 80 % ‐ 40 % RH) • All sensors in the same region of sensitivity (also P‐C foil) • More sensitive when moist
  16. 16. 16 In conclusion: • SENSOR RESPONSE IS NOT A FUNCTION OF SUBSTRATE, IT'S  A FUNCTION OF CONDUCTIVE INK (POLYMER). • LOGARITHMIC RESPONSE. • HYSTERESIS. • REPEATABILITY IS POOR. • CAN BE USED FOR SIMPLE APPLICATIONS WHERE IT'S ONLY  IMPORTANT TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DRY AND WET. • CHEAP (MASS PRODUCIBLE), EASILY FABRICATED AND  INTEGRATED INTO PRODUCTS (EG. PACKAGING). PROBLEMS • ENERGY SUPPLY • ELECTRICAL CONTACTS
  17. 17. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN • The frequency selective surfaces (FSS) are  periodic structures in either one or two  dimensions which perform a filter operation.  Depending on their construction, material and  geometry, they are divided into low‐pass, high‐ pass, band‐pass and band‐stop filters.  173D 2D - printed
  18. 18. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN APPLICATIONS • Frequency splitting • Cassegrain reflectors • Frequency filtering (reflecting) • EM radiation protection • Wireless data protection • Antenna power directing • IR radiation reflecting • … 18
  19. 19. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN STRUCTURE (2D – PRINTED) • Periodic conducting patterns (meta‐cells) • Dimensions proportional to wave‐length • Passive antenna (reflector) analysis approach 19
  20. 20. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN META‐CELL 20
  21. 21. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN MEASUREMENT RESULTS • Screen‐printing Ag‐ink • Operation @ 3,0 GHz 21
  22. 22. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN 22
  23. 23. META‐PAPER / FREQUENCY SELECTIVE  SCREEN • IR reflector (~10 micron print?) • Printed antennas (radar, Wi‐Fi; performance?) • Cheap solutions (maritime, cars…) 23
  24. 24. ALL ACHIEVABLE BY PRINT! • Intelligent packaging / electronic components • Meta‐paper (fundamental physical property of  paper altered) 24 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Thanks to Vipap d.d., for supporting and fully  financing the meta‐paper research.

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