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The diverse landscape of doctoral education (EUA-CDE Annual Meeting presentation by Alexander Hasgall)

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EUA has carried out a study on the organisation of doctoral education in Europe. The outcomes of the study will inform future activities of EUA and its Council for Doctoral Education (EUA-CDE). The latter brings together a community of academic leaders and doctoral education professionals from more than 230 universities in over 30 countries. The final report will be published in beginning of 2019.

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The diverse landscape of doctoral education (EUA-CDE Annual Meeting presentation by Alexander Hasgall)

  1. 1. The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING Thursday, June 7, 2018 Alexander Hasgall Head of EUA Council for Doctoral Education Follow our event on Twitter: @euacde #EUACDE
  2. 2. Introducing EUA-CDE 2 Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING • Serves as a memberhip service of the European University Association • Unites a community of academic leaders and professionals from 243 universities in 35 countries • Drives doctoral education policies and good practices of common interest to our members • Organises regular conferences, workshops, focus groups, webinars and thematic peer groups, addressing fundamental and emerging topics of doctoral education • Participates in policy dialogues on the European and global levels • Provides as the “one-stop-shop” for doctoral education in Europe
  3. 3. Background of reforms of doctoral education in Europe • Salzburg Principles 2005 – Salzburg II 2010 – Salzburg III 2016 • Increased importance for the European Research Area • Innovation Union 2010 • Principles for Innovative Doctoral Training 2011 • National legislation • Much of this is connected to the discourse regarding the knowledge society as a driver for growth 3 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  4. 4. Excellent research as a base for doctoral education in Europe 4 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING • The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research • Doctoral candidates must be allowed independence and flexibility • Doctoral candidates need to be prepared for careers inside and outside of academia • Institutions are responsible for their doctoral candidates
  5. 5. Follow us on: 5 A «meeting place» ... The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  6. 6. A «meeting place» between... 6 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING • Research and higher education • Doctoral Candidates (different backgrounds: Social, cultural, national) • Within the institution (Doctoral education as shared responsibility) • Institutions (Inter-institutional collaboration. Joint doctoral programmes) • Within/Between Disciplines (disciplinary/multidisciplinary/Interdisciplinary doctoral programmes/schools) • Sectors (private, public) • ...
  7. 7. Follow us on: 7 Lets start with some Numbers The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  8. 8. The diverse landscape of doctoral education Numbers of doctoral candidates in Europe 2013: 853.360 | 2016: 884.353 8 Source: Eurostat EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 2013 2016 0 20.000 40.000 60.000 80.000 100.000 120.000 140.000 213.200 197.000
  9. 9. International mobility of doctoral candidates 9 1 Non-mobile doctoral candidates (2016) Mobile doctoral candidates (2016) Source: Eurostat The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  10. 10. Gender distribution of doctoral candidates in Europe (2016) (Total: 48% female doctoral candidates) 10 Source: Eurostat Male doctoral candidates (2016) Female doctoral candidates (2016) The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  11. 11. Follow us on: 11 Survey on doctoral education in Europe The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  12. 12. Survey on doctoral education in Europe Background • Together with researchers from the Ghent University (Prof. Jeroen Huisman) • November 2017 – February 2018 • For all European Universities addressing institutional leadership • 292 valid responses • 1 response per institution • Covers 40% of all doctoral candidates in Europe (according to ETER data) • Final report in beginning of 2019 12 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  13. 13. Graduates (ISCED 6) per 1 000 of the population aged 25-34 13 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 Source: Eurostat
  14. 14. Follow us on: 14 Common goal: Research Excellence in Doctoral Education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING The diverse landscape of doctoral education
  15. 15. Doctoral candidates are early career researchers... 15Thursday, June 7, 2018 To what extent does an average doctoral candidate in your institution spend her/his time on the following activities? To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Scientific/academic research Research related administration Teaching Internships, workplace training or experience Science communication Teaching related administration
  16. 16. and (mainly) seen as future academic and scholars, 16Thursday, June 7, 2018 To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent To what extent is doctoral education in your institution conceived as preparing the future generation of… The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Academics/scholars Highly skilled knowledge workers researchers outside of academia Leaders/managers
  17. 17. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Academics/scholars Highly skilled knowledge workers researchers outside of academia Leaders/managers but also increasingly seen as the research professionals of tomorrow. 17Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING To what extent is doctoral education in your institution conceived as preparing the future generation of… To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent
  18. 18. They focus on research competencies 18Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING In your institution, how important are the following elements of doctoral training? (Extremely) important Somewhat important (Somewhat) unimportant 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Specific research competencies Generic academic competencies Knowledge valorisation Teaching competencies Management and leadership competencies
  19. 19. but also acquire transversal competencies 19Thursday, June 7, 2018 In your institution, how important are the following elements of doctoral training? (Extremely) important Somewhat important (Somewhat) unimportant The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Specific research competencies Generic academic competencies Knowledge valorisation Teaching competencies Management and leadership competencies
  20. 20. 20 Funding for doctoral education comes from a variety of ressources To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent To what extent are doctoral candidates at your institution financially supported by the following sources? The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Ministry, research council, etc. University employment University grant, scholarship, etc. Mix of several sources No financial support Employer (private, public, NGO) Non-domestic (International) source
  21. 21. Follow us on: 21Thursday, June 7, 2018 Diversity in the organisation of doctoral education The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  22. 22. Institutions establish diverse, often parallel structures for doctoral education … 22Thursday, June 7, 2018 To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent To what extent is doctoral education in your institution organised as…? The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Doctoral education is organised in programmes Doctoral education is managed through an organisational unit doctoral school Doctoral education is managed through an inter- organisational unit Doctoral education is led by individual supervisors
  23. 23. ... based on the different levels of University governance (university, faculty, discipline) 23Thursday, June 7, 2018 To what extent is doctoral education in your institution organised at or around …? To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% The disciplinary level The faculty level Themes or societal challenges
  24. 24. Variety of criteria to institutionally evalute doctoral education 24Thursday, June 7, 2018 In your institution, to what extent are the following aspects/criteria used to assess/evaluate doctoral education? To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Academic publications by doctoral candidates Completion rates of doctoral candidates Staff qualifications Satisfaction of doctoral candidates Qualitative indicators Level of internationalisation Level of competitive funding received Careers of doctoral graduates Relevance for society Relevance for the economy
  25. 25. Follow us on: 25Thursday, June 7, 2018 Supervision The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  26. 26. Key aspects of the supervisor- supervisee relation are regulated 26Thursday, June 7, 2018 In most/all doctoral programmes In about half of doctoral programmes Never/in some doctoral programmes The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING In your institution, are there rules or guidelines regarding the following aspects of doctoral supervision? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Appointment of supervisor(s) Formal reporting by doctoral candidate Formal feedback by supervisor(s) Written agreements Supervisor-doctoral candidate conflicts Minimum number of meetings Voluntary training for supervisors Maximum number of doctoral candidates Obligatory training for supervisors
  27. 27. The practice of the supervision is highly diverse even within a single institution 27Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING To what extent are doctoral candidates in your institution supervised by …? In most/all doctoral programmes In about half of doctoral programmes Never/in some doctoral programmes 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% A supervisory team - internal to this institution A single supervisor A supervisory team including other universities
  28. 28. Follow us on: 28Thursday, June 7, 2018 Strategy The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  29. 29. There are multiple strategic priorities within a single institution... 29Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent To what extent are the following issues currently considered a strategic priority in doctoral education within your institution 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Funding Research ethics Attracting DC from abroad Gender equality Career development Open Access / Open Science Increasing the number of DC Health/wellbeing of DC University-business cooperation Societal engagement of DC
  30. 30. ... addressing the structural questions of doctoral education as much as broader policy issues 30Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING To a great extent/always To some extent Not at all/to a small extent To what extent are the following issues currently considered a strategic priority in doctoral education within your institution 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Funding Research ethics Attracting DC from abroad Gender equality Career development Open Access / Open Science Increasing the number of DC Health/wellbeing of DC University-business cooperation Societal engagement of DC
  31. 31. The diverse landscape of doctoral education Conclusions • The production of knowledge through original research is at the centre of doctoral education. • Doctoral education serves to prepare doctoral candidates for a variety of careers. • An overwhelming majority of institutions (about 90%) have established structures for doctoral education. • Doctoral schools and programmes coexist simultaneously with other support structures. • Doctoral education is an endeavour for all of the institutions – rooted in the different levels of governance. 31Thursday, June 7, 2018 EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  32. 32. Conclusions • Supervisors remain primus inter pares, increasingly working in tandem with colleagues from in- and outside the institution. • In most institutions, formal reporting and feedback between the doctoral candidate and supervisor(s) is required. • Doctoral education is evaluated based on the multiple – and potentially conflicting – criteria which reflect diverse demands from external stakeholders. • Key strategic policy prorities of doctoral education are similar to the key issues of European research policy today, while also addressing the specificities of early stage researchers. 32Thursday, June 7, 2018 The diverse landscape of doctoral education EUA-CDE ANNUAL MEETING
  33. 33. Follow us on: Thank you for your attention Alexander Hasgall Head of EUA Council for Doctoral Education alexander.hasgall@eua.eu www.eua-cde.org 33Thursday, June 7, 2018

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