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Second Big Deals survey: Preview of the results

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EUA has published a preview of the results of the latest edition of its Big Deals survey. The large-scale initiative covers 31 consortia in Europe, representing universities and other organisations, responsible for the negotiation of Big Deal contracts with publishers.

The preliminary results show that more than one billion euros are spent every year across Europe in electronic resources, of which more than 700 million go to periodicals alone. These numbers are subject to an average annual increase of 3.6%. Notably, universities support about 72% of these costs.

The survey results illustrate EUA’s contribution to increasing transparency in the publishing area, particularly from the point of view of universities. This aim is also in line with the recent complaint that EUA presented to the European Commission, DG Competition, on the lack of transparency and competition in the academic publishing market in Europe and beyond.

Conducted in 2018, this is EUA’s second Big Deals survey. The first edition was published early last year. Not only has the number of surveyed consortia increased from 27, but the quality of the data gathered has improved greatly. EUA will link the outcomes of this survey with other key areas in its work, namely institutional policies on Open Access, research assessment methodologies and its impact analysis of Plan S .

The full survey report will be published in April 2019 on the occasion of the EUA Annual Conference.

Published in: Education

Second Big Deals survey: Preview of the results

  1. 1. February 2019 Second Big Deals Survey: Preview of the results EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY ASSOCIATION #BigDealsReport
  2. 2. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Key information Data collection: August-November 2018 Respondents: 31 Consortia in 30 countries negotiating on behalf of the university sector and other higher education and research performers Focus on five major publishers: Elsevier, SpringerNature, Taylor & Francis, Wiley, American Chemical Society – periodicals only Data analysed in aggregated fashion Most data refers to big deal contracts ongoing in 2017 or 2018 2
  3. 3. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Organisations at national level involved in negotiating big deals 3 n= 31/31 19% 52% 10% 7% 3% 10% Consortia of universities and other higher education institutions Consortia of universities and other higher education institutions, plus other organisations Consortia of libraries Only the national library Only the government Other
  4. 4. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 University leadership has a role in the negotiation of big deals 4 n= 31/31 University leadership has a role as: n= 17/18 58% 42% Yes No Other includes: negotiation only for some publishers; defining strategy. 18% 24%59% Part of the negotiating team The lead negotiator Other
  5. 5. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Main points of concern for higher education and research institutions in the negotiation process 5n= 31/31 81% 65% 65% 58% 42% 32% 29% 26% 26% 16% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cost control Cost reduction Inclusion of subscriptions and Open Access in one agreement Maintain content (journals) across contracts Early termination rights Preservation and access via local, consortium or national infrastructure Set embargo periods in accordance with funder requirements on regional, national or European level Service-level agreements on Open Access services provided by publishers (e.g. CC-BY) Provisions for text and data mining Number of Open Access articles in hybrid journals (as a percentage of total articles published) Percentage of consortia
  6. 6. © EUA 2019 EUA Big Deals Survey 2018 Total annual expenditure on big deals 6 For all subscriptions to electronic resources (including periodicals, databases, e-books) by national consortia: Total (31 consortia, representing 30 European countries) = ~ 1 025 253 055 EUR (estimate for 2018) This is a conservative figure not including: - Article Processing Charges (APCs) - Consortia other than those participating in the survey - Individual institutional contracts with publishers For periodicals only in the surveyed consortia: Total (31 consortia, representing 30 European countries) = ~ 726 350 945 EUR (average yearly increase 3.6%) Proportion of costs covered by universities in the consortia = 519 973 578 EUR (~72%)
  7. 7. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Origin of funds for big deals 7n= 31/31 Is information on expenditure on electronic documentary resources publicly available? n= 31/31 61% 39% Yes No 16% 42% 7% 36% Only universities Universities and government/government agency Only government/government agency Other
  8. 8. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Is there a national Open Access strategy or policy? 8 n= 31/31 Yes 68% No 32% Provisions for OA Currently (%) In the future (%) No 55 0 Yes, only for green Open Access 10 10 Yes, only for gold Open Access 7 10 Yes, for both green and gold Open Access 13 64 Other 16 16 Do current big deal contracts include specific provisions for Open Access?
  9. 9. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 9 n= 30-31/31 APCs and subscriptions in same contract Currently (%) In the future (%) Yes 19 65 No (subscriptions and APCs in different contracts) 55 7 Other 26 3 Not yet decided 26 Are APCs and subscriptions included in the same contractual framework?
  10. 10. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 When APCs and subscriptions are included in the same contract, is there any provision or policy to prevent “double dipping”? 10 n= 6/6 Yes 67% No 33% When APCs and subscriptions are not included in the same contract, are there any monitoring systems in place to collect data on the funds spent on APCs? n= 16/17 Yes 31% No 69%
  11. 11. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Are there laws facilitating the transparency of contracts? 11n= 31/31 Do freedom of information laws exist? n= 31/31 71% 29% Yes No 74% 26% Yes No
  12. 12. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Division of costs by publisher (periodicals only) 12 Total reported = 475 267 400 EUR (data for 29 countries) 56% 18% 16% 7% 3% Elsevier (incl. Cell Press) Wiley Springer (incl. Nature) Taylor & Francis American Chemical Society Typically, the publishers’ annual increase varies between 3.3% - 4.7%. On average, the annual increase is 3.6%.
  13. 13. © EUA 2019 Big Deals Survey 2018 Relationship between amount spent on five big publishers per year and GDP per capita 13 Calculation: Amount spent annually on five big publishers / GDP per capita Interpretation: the result represents the number of people who need to work for one year (person/year), given a certain GDP per capita, in order to reach the same monetary value as the cost of the five big publishers in that country. GDP per capita: source Eurostat (data from 2016) ** Data for 2 publishers *** Data for 3 publishers **** Data for 4 publishers 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 C2 C9 C1 C14 C20**** C18 C17**** C5 C11 C24 C8 C7**** C21 C28 C19 C22 C6**** C10 C25 C4 C13 C3*** C30 C32** C16 C31**** C15*** C12 Person/year
  14. 14. © EUA 2019 Key messages • There is wide coverage of European countries and their situations on big deal negotiations. • University leadership is increasingly involved in big deals (strategy and/or negotiation), but there are still major differences across countries. • There are different levels of knowledge on the total spent on big deals and other related publication costs (APCs) across countries. • Most contracts do not have Open Access provisions (currently). • Many countries want to combine subscriptions and APCs in the same contract; other countries think this is not yet advantageous for their situations. • There are stark variations in big deal costs across countries compared to GDP per capita. 14
  15. 15. Thank you for your attention © EUA 2019 Follow us on: www.eua.eu

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