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The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon Constrained World

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Presentation at Green Energy Expo Conference in Daegu Republic of Korea by Eunyoung Kim, Synapse International, L.L.C.

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The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon Constrained World

  1. 1. Changing Climate/The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon Constrained World E u n y o u n g K i mS y n a p s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l k i m e u n y @ g m a i l . c o m
  2. 2. ; /
  3. 3. Ester Island
  4. 4. What isSustainability? Interconnectedness Interdependency
  5. 5. 391.76 ppm - 2011 2 12.5 C - 2011 2 1.91ppm 0.4389.85 ppm - 2010 2 12.1 C - 1901 - 2000 41.30ppm -23348.55 ppm - 1987
  6. 6. 350 ppm
  7. 7. .(IPCC) . (LA )“ NOAA, NASA .” ( ,2011 ,3 20 )
  8. 8. Greenpeace PLANSource:Energy Revolution: A Sustainable World Energy Out look2050 95% .2050 CO2 80% . . ($250 - $300billion- $63 billion) . .
  9. 9. Greenpeace ReportSource:Energy Revolution: A Sustainable World Energy Out look 2050 60% 20% . 32 . 2030 6
  10. 10. Greanpeace PlanSource:Energy Revolution: A Sustainable World Energy Out look $282B 2030 $782 billion 2030 $11.2 T - $17.9T
  11. 11. Greenpeace Report Source:Energy Revolution: A Sustainable World Energy Out look2015 . 2007 156GW 2010 158GW . 1 22030 . 850 . 2 4 .( 2 )
  12. 12. Jacobson & Delucchi PlanMark Z Jacobson - Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, California Mark A. Delucchi - Institute ofTransportation Studies, University of California at Davis, California2030 100% : Wind Water Solar
  13. 13. Jacobson & Delucchi Plan Wind Water and Solar , , , 2009, , Life Cycle - ,, , , , (WWS) WWS CO2
  14. 14. Jacobson & Delucchi Plan Wind Water and Solar, , , , , ,- CO2 - , , 25 - , .
  15. 15. Jacobson & Delucchi Plan Wind Water and Solar 12.5TW - 16.9TW in 2030 WWS 2030 11.5 TW ( 1.8TW) - 17% - 20%.- 75% - 86%.
  16. 16. Jacobson & Delucchi Plan Wind Water and Solar for 11.5TW 51% - 3.8Million 5 MW ( 73M ) - 1% 40% - PV 30% & CSP 10% - 0.33% 9%2030 16.9TW 1,3000
  17. 17. Jacobson & Delucchi Plan Wind Water and Solar for 11.5TWWWS - 2020 4 /kWh - .WWS - $100 Trillion16.5TW - $10 Trillion + + ,
  18. 18. Jacobson & Delucchi Plan Wind Water and Solar WWS - 1,700TW, 6,500TW - 40 -85 TW, 580TW- 0.02TW, 0.008 TW . .
  19. 19. International Energy Administration
  20. 20. U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. EIA annual report 2009
  21. 21. U.S. Renewable Energy EIA Annual Energy Outlook 20102010 16GW 2 60%45% of total US electric generation comes fromrenewable energy by 2035- 61%- 65% if federalproduction tax credit extended for 25 years.19% in 2008 to 32% in 2035 in the world based thenew policies that government live up to.
  22. 22. Number of States Accepting Various Types of Energy as “Renewable
  23. 23. Political Atmosphere80% of electricity from renewable energy by 2035 - renewableenergy: solar, wind, nuclear, clean coal and natural gas ( ObamaUnion Address)4B/ year fossil fuel subsidy directed to renewable energy(Obama Union Address) EPA - serious rules under the federal Clean Air Act that requireemitters to install best available control technology forgreenhouse gas reductionClimate Change bill is abandonedCongress passes a proposed national renewable energy standardNot enough without a price on carbon - renewable energy willnot match with fossil fuel price. The renewable energy price maydoomed to failure because the price is too expensive
  24. 24. Summery of State Renewable Energy Standards - DOEState Amount Year Organization Administering RPSArizona 15% 2025 Arizona Corporation CommissionCalifornia 33% 2030 California Energy CommissionColorado 20% 2020 Colorado Public Utilities CommissionConnecticut 23% 2020 Department of Public Utility ControlD.C. 20% 2020 DC Public Service CommissionDelaware 20% 2019 Delaware Energy OfficeHawaii 20% 2020 Hawaii Strategic Industries DivisionIowa 105 MW Iowa Utilities BoardIllinois 25% 2025 Illinois Department of CommerceMassachusetts 15% 2020 Massachusetts Division of Energy ResourcesMaryland 20% 2022 Maryland Public Service CommissionMaine 40% 2017 Maine Public Utilities CommissionMichigan 10% 2015 Michigan Public Service CommissionMinnesota 25% 2025 Minnesota Department of CommerceMissouri 15% 2021 Missouri Public Service CommissionMontana 15% 2015 Montana Public Service CommissionNew Hampshire 23.8% 2025 New Hampshire Office of Energy and PlanningNew Jersey 22.5% 2021 New Jersey Board of Public UtilitiesNew Mexico 20% 2020 New Mexico Public Regulation CommissionNevada 20% 2015 Public Utilities Commission of NevadaNew York 24% 2013 New York Public Service CommissionNorth Carolina 12.5% 2021 North Carolina Utilities CommissionNorth Dakota* 10% 2015 North Dakota Public Service CommissionOregon 25% 2025 Oregon Energy OfficePennsylvania 8% 2020 Pennsylvania Public Utility CommissionRhode Island 16% 2019 Rhode Island Public Utilities CommissionSouth Dakota* 10% 2015 South Dakota Public Utility CommissionTexas 5,880 MW 2015 Public Utility Commission of TexasUtah* 20% 2025 Utah Department of Environmental QualityVermont* 10% 2013 Vermont Department of Public ServiceVirginia* 12% 2022 Virginia Department of Mines, Minterals, and EnergyWashington 15% 2020 Washington Secretary of StateWisconsin 10% 2015 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin
  25. 25. U. S. Cap and Trademeaningful political debate stopped on thefederal level - political anathema ( )U.S. (2.2BT) & China (2.6BT) emission by2035 (U.S. EIA) - 12% of world emission isfrom U.S. coal.EU is the largest economy union and U.S. isthe second -together $29.61B Gross DomesticProduct -3/4 carbon emission fromDeveloped country and 1/3 of world wideemission
  26. 26. World Carbon MarketEU emission trading system alone - $2B programRGGI - 10 U.S. States - Capping emission of powersector at 10% by 2018 80% of sales from allowance auctions go back to thestate for energy efficiency and renewable energyThe auction raised $775M as of early 2011Some state diverted funds from clean energy to paydown the debt - a great cap-and-trade success storyRGGI is the classic cap-and-invest strategy and theresult is that total energy costs with RGGI are lowerthan without RGGI.
  27. 27. Cap-and-TradeCalifornia will start in 2012Modeled after EUGoal:1990s level emission by 202033% from renewable by 2020Cap applies to a host of emission sources (industrialprocesses)starts small encompassing power plants, then gracuallyadding the other resources, until the caps cover 85% of itseconomyAfter EU, CA will be the second largest in the world.-population 37 M and world 8th largest economy - CA canpressure U.S. congress for cap-and trade
  28. 28. The development of Californias carbon cap-and-trade scheme (Source: Point Carbon)
  29. 29. U.S. Solar Market1% of Total Renewable Energy consumptionin 20090.5% of National energy consumption The fastest growing industry in 2010; $3.6Bin 2009 to $6B in 2010 - 67% increase and20.5% reduction in pricePV installation will grow 5 times by 2015 -US global market share from 5% to 15%
  30. 30. U.S. Solar MarketTreasury program ( Section 1603) hasprovide key incentives and expires in 2011- Itis not clear if it continues - There is norhitoric that he will continue to supportTreasury’s Loan Guarantee Program facingbudger-cut by Congress.
  31. 31. U.S. Solar MarketStates are turning to more market basedincentives such as Solar Renewable EnergyCredits and a cap and tradeCalifornia is the biggest market and NewJersey is the most dynamicNevada, Arizona, and Pennsylvania
  32. 32. Green PoliticsWind and Solar being cost competitive withoutsubsidy with new fossil fuel by 2020Obama and Ken Salazar 758 Mt Coal in auction infew monthsThe beaurou of land management announced 1.6billion tons of coal will on sale in the futureHarvard study:1st generation CCS costs $150/CO2ton(20Cents/kWh) - Study also found that leaksfrom CO2 stored deep underground couldcontaminate drinking water
  33. 33. Emerging Clean Tech Green ConcreteAlgae Biofuel Green BuildingAlgae Food MaterialsThin-film Solar Artificial PhotosynthesisMolten Solt Storage BiocharRooftop Wind Power Custom BiofuelsWave Power/TidalPower Recycling e-Waste
  34. 34. Molten Salt StorageThe surplus heat produced during the daycan e used to warm up massive amounts ofsalt, which can absorb significant amounts ofheat. When the sun goes down that heat canbe used to generate steam and run an electricturbine.
  35. 35. Recycling e-WasteThe fast growing part of the solid wastestream- 20-50M mt/yearCloudBlue - New Jergy based companyarranging for direct pickup and recycleensure that valuable metals can be reusedensure no-waste end up in a landfill - poison a child inAfrica or China
  36. 36. Algae Biofuel Algae FoodSapphire Energy in CA & Algenol in FL -near commercial developmentSolazyme, South San Francisco - algae foodreplace egg, butter, oil, cookies - taste likesnack but nutritious like healthy olive oil.
  37. 37. Thin-FilmFirst Solar in Arizona & Nano Solar in SanJoseFirst Solar is the first publicly trade and oneof the most successful renewable energy firmFirst Solar 11.2% efficiencySolexant’ Oregon factory will hit 12% in late2012
  38. 38. Rooftop Wind Power Windtronics mini-wind turbine - 6 ft in diameter, a large circular window fan up to 1,500KW/h per year - (10 - 18 turbines would power a typical house in the US) no-rotaing gearbox, blades are equipped with magnets at the tips and are enclosed in a wheel that contains coiled copper - entire turbine is an electric generator The turbine is much quieter
  39. 39. Green Concrete &Green Building Material Novacem - Cement that absorbs CO2 - Carbon negative- near commercial use Serious Materials
  40. 40. Joule Biotechnologies - near commercialstatus
  41. 41. BiocharGeoscience - Offset 12%of global CO2 emissionrelatively little value onits owncarbon price needed

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