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Circulatory System


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Circulatory System

  1. 1. Circulatory systemEugenia Cortes A01153936Clarisa Abella A01153796
  2. 2. • system that transports nutrients, respiratory gases, and metabolic products throughout a living organism, permitting integration among the various tissues. The process of circulation includes the intake of metabolic materials, the conveyance of these materials throughout the organism, and the return of harmful by-products to the environment.What is the funcion of thecirculatory system?
  3. 3. • Health promotion• Specific protectionPREPATHOGENIC PERIOD
  4. 4. • It is an abnormal rhythm of the heart and is caused by problems with your hearts electrical system.Arrhythmia
  5. 5. • There are two basic kinds of arrhythmias. Bradycardia is when the heart rate is too slow - less than 60 beats per minute.• Tachycardia is when the heart rate is too fast - more than 100 beats per minute. There are two types of tachycardia: Atrial tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia• Heart block• Atrial fibrillation• Bradycardia• Animation • of arrhythmia
  6. 6. • Abnormal levels of potassium or other substances• Heart attack, or a damaged heart muscle from a past heart attack• Heart disease that is present at birth (congenital)• Heart failure or an enlarged heart• Overactive thyroid glandCauses
  7. 7. • Arrhythmia may also be caused by some substances or drugs, including: • Alcohol, caffeine, or stimulants such as amphetamines • Beta-blockers • Cigarette smoking (nicotine) • Drugs that mimic the activity of your nervous system • Medicines used for depression or psychosis
  8. 8. • A single premature beat may be felt as a "palpitation" or "skipped beat."• Premature beats that occur often or in rapid succession may cause a greater awareness of heart palpitations or a "fluttering" sensation in the chest or neck.Symptoms
  9. 9. • When arrhythmias last long enough to affect how well the heart works, more serious symptoms may develop: • Fatigue • Dizziness • Lightheadedness • Fainting or near-fainting spells • Rapid heartbeat or pounding • Shortness of breath • Chest pain • In extreme cases, collapse and sudden cardiac arrest
  10. 10. • Monitor your pulse • You should know how to take your pulse in order to monitor your heart rate. • Put the second and third fingers of one hand on the inside of the wrist of the other hand, just below the thumb OR on the side of your neck, just below the corner of your jaw. • Feel for the pulse. • Count the number of beats in one full minute. • Keep a record of your pulse along with the day and time taken and notes about how you felt at the time.Diagnose
  11. 11. • Prevent blood clots from forming to reduce stroke risk• Control your heart rate within a relatively normal range• Restore a normal heart rhythm, if possible• Treat heart disease/condition that may be causing arrhythmia• Reduce other risk factors for heart disease and strokeTreatment Goals
  12. 12. • The treatment depends on how serious the arrhythmia is, in some cases there is no treatment required.• When arrhythmia is serious, to restore normal rhythm, you´ll need urgent treatment, like: • Electrical "shock" therapy • Implanting a short-term heart pacemaker • Medications given through a vein (intravenous) or by mouthTreatment
  13. 13. • Term used to describe high blood pressure.• Blood pressure: a measurement of the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body.• Given as two numbers -- for example, 120 over 80 (written as 120/80 mmHg). One or both of these numbers can be too high.HYPERTENSION
  14. 14. I. Promotion of health• Maintain regular body mass index• Have a balanced diet• Drink enough water PRIMARY PREVENTION
  15. 15. II. Specific protection• Adults over 18 should have their blood pressure checked regularly.• Lifestyle changes may help control your blood pressure.• Follow your health care providers recommendations to modify, treat, or control possible causes of high blood pressure.
  16. 16. • How much water and salt you have in your body• The condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels• The levels of different body hormonescauses
  17. 17. • Are obese• Are often stressed or anxious• Drink too much alcohol (more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men)• Eat too much salt in your diet• Have a family history of high blood pressure• Have diabetes• SmokeHigh Risk factors
  18. 18. • Most of the time, there are no symptoms. For most patients, high blood pressure is found when they visit their health care provider or have it checked elsewhere.• Because there are no symptoms, people can develop heart disease and kidney problems without knowing they have high blood pressure.• If you have a severe headache, nausea or vomiting, bad headache, confusion, changes in your vision, or nosebleeds you may have a severe and dangerous form of high blood pressure called malignant hypertension.SYMPTOMS
  19. 19. • Your health care provider will check your blood pressure several times before diagnosing you with high blood pressure. It is normal for your blood pressure to be different depending on the time of day.• Your doctor will perform a physical exam to look for signs of heart disease, damage to the eyes, and other changes in your body.• Tests may be done to look for: • High cholesterol levels • Heart disease, such as an echocardiogram or electrocardiogram • Kidney disease, such as a basic metabolic panel and urinalysis or ultrasound of the kidneysEXAMS AND TESTS
  20. 20. • Goal: to reduce blood pressure so that you have a lower risk of complications. You and your health care provider should set a blood pressure goal for you.• If you have pre-hypertension, your health care provider will recommend lifestyle changes to bring your blood pressure down to a normal range. Medicines are rarely used for pre-hypertension.TREATMENT
  21. 21. Medicines• Diuretics• Beta-blockers• Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors• Angiotensin II receptor• Calcium channel blockersBlood pressure medicines that are not used as often include:• Alpha-blockers.• Centrally acting drugs• Vasodilators• Renin inhibitors• Often, a single blood pressure drug may not be enough to control your blood pressure, and you may need to take two or more drugs. It is very important that you take the medications prescribed to you. If you have side effects, your health care provider can substitute a different medication.TREATMENT
  22. 22. • When blood pressure is not well controlled, you are at risk for:• Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs• Chronic kidney disease• Heart attack and heart failure• Poor blood supply to the legs• Stroke• Problems with your visionCONVALESCENCE
  23. 23. STATISTICS
  24. 24. STATISTICS
  25. 25. • Second cause of death by a disease in Mexico• According to the WHO cardiovascular diseases take away 17.5 millions of lives each year.MORTALITY RATE
  26. 26. STATISTICS
  27. 27. • Australian Heart Health Association• American Heart Association• Asociación MexicanaASSOCIATIONS
  28. 28. • Kaplan NM. Systemic hypertension: Treatment. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwalds Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 46.• Victor, RG. Systemic hypertension: Mechanisms and diagnosis. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwalds Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 45.•• enidos/estadisticas/2009/corazon09.aspBIBLIOGRAPHY
  29. 29. • as/overview.html•• http://0- ic/95457/arrhythmia• http://0- ic/118406/circulatory-systemBibliography