Antioxidants And Free Radicals


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Antioxidants And Free Radicals

  1. 1. Antioxidants and Free Radicals Eugene Fung
  2. 2. Two Guys in Our Body <ul><li>Today, let us introduce 2 guys in our body </li></ul><ul><li>A bad guy and a good guy </li></ul><ul><li>The bad guy is Free Radical </li></ul><ul><li>The good guy is antioxidant </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant and Free Radical are two sides of the same coin </li></ul><ul><li>When you have one, you have the other </li></ul>
  3. 3. Free Radicals in a Nutshell <ul><li>A free radical is simply an atom which has an odd number of electrons in its outer ring. </li></ul><ul><li>a &quot;free radical&quot; is any atom or molecule which has an &quot;unpaired electron&quot; in the outer ring. </li></ul><ul><li>Protons have a positive electrical charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons have a negative electrical charge. The electrons move around the central mass made up of protons and neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons have no electrical charge. The word is related to &quot;neutral.&quot; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Atom Structure
  5. 5. Free Radical- Example: Oxygen
  6. 6. Free Radicals – Example: Helium <ul><li>Let's take the example of helium </li></ul><ul><li>Where the helium atom has 2 electrons circling around the center, and its center is made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>If 1 of those electrons &quot;goes away&quot;, that electron would no longer have a mate! </li></ul><ul><li>What we would have here is a free radical. </li></ul><ul><li>It does have an odd number of electrons (1) in the outer ring (the only ring). </li></ul><ul><li>We should note that it is very difficult to take one electron away from helium - that is why helium is considered so stable. </li></ul><ul><li>Another word we need to understand in this situation is &quot;ion.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>An &quot;ion&quot; is an atom with some &quot;net electrical charge&quot; - an atom with either a &quot;+&quot; charge or a &quot;-&quot; electrical charge. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Free Radicals – Helium Atom
  8. 8. Free Radicals -1 <ul><li>Once an atom has fewer electrons, with a negative electrical charge, than protons, with a positive electrical charge, this atom now has more positive electrical charge than negative electrical charge </li></ul><ul><li>We therefore say that this atom is, itself, positively charged. </li></ul><ul><li>Because it is positively charged it attracts any available electron, with its negative charge. Opposites attract. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Free Radicals - 2 <ul><li>In summary, you should be comfortable with understanding what a &quot;free radical&quot; is. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an atom with an unpaired electron in the outer ring. </li></ul><ul><li>It is lacking an electron. </li></ul><ul><li>Does a free radical always have to be just one atom? No. It can also be a molecule, made up of 2 or more atoms. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Free Radicals - 3 <ul><li>Free radicals are atoms or molecules which contain unpaired electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Since electrons have a very strong tendency to exist in a paired rather than an unpaired state, free radicals indiscriminately pick up electrons from other atoms, which in turn converts those other atoms into secondary free radicals, thus setting up a chain reaction which can cause substantial biological damage. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Free Radical - 4 <ul><li>A free radical can be thought of as &quot;incomplete&quot; -- wanting a partner.  If there is a couple on the dance floor, and the man walks away from the woman on the dance floor, that would cause some concern for the woman </li></ul>
  12. 12. Free Radical - 5
  13. 13. What are Antioxidants -1 <ul><li>Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are Antioxidants -2 <ul><li>Antioxidants are found in many foods. These include fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, and some meats, poultry and fish </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant substances include: </li></ul><ul><li>Beta-carotene </li></ul><ul><li>Lutein </li></ul><ul><li>Lycopene </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul>
  15. 15. Most Commonly Known Antioxidants
  16. 16. Most Commonly Known Antioxidants (Cont’d) <ul><li>Vitamin A and Carotenoids Carrots, squash, broccoli, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, kale, collards, cantaloupe, peaches and apricots (bright-colored fruits and vegetables!) </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C Citrus fruits like oranges and lime etc, green peppers, broccoli, green leafy vegetables, strawberries and tomatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E Nuts & seeds, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, vegetable oil and liver oil </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium Fish & shellfish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken and garlic </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other Common Antioxidants: Some common phytochemicals <ul><li>Flavonoids / polyphenols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red wine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purple grapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pomegranate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cranberries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lycopene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomato and tomato products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pink grapefruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>watermelon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lutein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dark green vegetables such as kale, broccoli, kiwi, brussels sprout and spinach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lignan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flax seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oatmeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>barley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rye </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Antioxidants <ul><li>Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) </li></ul><ul><li>Glutathione (Master Antioxidant) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic germanium in BH ginseng </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summary <ul><li>Antioxidants are found abundant in beans, grain products, fruits and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for fruits with bright color - lutein in some of the yellow pigments found in corn; orange in cantaloupe, butternut squash and mango; red from lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon, and purple and blue in berries. </li></ul><ul><li>So enjoy eating a variety of these products. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, minimize the exposure of oxidative stress such as smoking and sunburn. </li></ul>