APPENDIX D FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE ETHNICITY DATA ONLINE RESOURCEGeneral caveatsRounding procedures: Throughout most of the report figures are rounded to the nearest thousand orother convenient unit. This may result in a total disagreeing slightly with the total of the individual itemsas shown in a graph or table. Some figures will not be rounded, for example where finer detail isrequired, or where information is quoted from an original source.Data Limitations: Disaggregation of data by variables such as sex, age and geography is limited.Statistical significance is not presented for most of the data in the report, unless otherwise stated. Thisis because of the small sample sizes for some surveys used in the report, with margins of errorcompromising the statistical robustness of the data, particularly for smaller sized ethnicities such asMiddle Eastern, Latin American and African communities.Liability Statement: While all care and diligence has been used in processing, analysing and extractingdata and information in this report, the Office of Ethnic Affairs gives no warranty that it is error free andwill not be liable for any loss or damage suffered as a result of the use, directly or indirectly, ofinformation in this report.Office of Ethnic Affairs: ethnic population groups of interestThe term ethnic (matawaka), in the context of the mandate for the Office of Ethnic Affairs, refers toany segment of the population within New Zealand society with cultural values, customs, beliefs,languages, traditions and characteristics that differ from the wider society. This includes people fromNew Zealand born and established communities, recent migrants and refugees and people withmultiple ethnic identities. 1 This resource presents data based on ethnicity, including other ethnicpopulation groups that fall outside the Ethnic Affairs’ portfolio, such as Māori, Pacific peoples andNew Zealand Europeans. 2Asian ethnicitiesThe Asian ethnic group includes Chinese, Indian, Korean, Filipino, Japanese, Southeast Asian andother Asian ethnicities, and is New Zealand’s third largest ethnic group. In 2006, the total numberidentifying as Asian was 354,549. As a proportion of the total population, the Asian ethnic group hasgrown from three percent in 1991 to 10 percent in 2006. This equates to a 225 percent increase innumbers between 1991 and 2006.The Asian ethnic group is predominantly made up of Chinese and Indian ethnicities. In 2006, thoseidentifying as Chinese made up 39 percent of the total Asian ethnic group, while Indians (includingFijian-Indians) made up 27 percent. From 2001 to 2006 the number of people identifying as Indian orKorean each grew by 62 percent and Chinese grew by 39 percent.1 While this definition can include Māori and Pacific peoples, they are served by Te Puni Kōkiri (Ministry of Māori Development) and the Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs.2 Please see Interpreting Ethnicity Data and its Limitations (pg…) which provides definitions of ethnicity and information about Statistics NZ ethnicity classifications and standards.
Middle Eastern, Latin American and African ethnicitiesThe Middle Eastern, Latin American and African ethnic group (MELAA) consists of a diverse range ofnationalities and ethnicities, with little commonality in terms of culture, language and other aspects ofethnic identity. The MELAA group was established as a Statistics NZ level one ethnic group in 2006. 3The number of people identifying as a MELAA ethnicity (for example, as Chilean) is very small.Combining a disparate range of ethnicities with small numbers allows for a critical mass of numbers,increased visibility and robustness in statistics. 4At less than one per cent, the MELAA group is a very small proportion of the total population in NewZealand. Despite this small percentage, there has been a significant increase in the number of peopleidentifying with ethnicities that make up the MELAA group in the decade to 2006. In 1996 the numberof people identifying as MELAA was 15,288. In 2006 this had increased to 34,743 people. The sixlargest ethnicities in the MELAA group were African (nfd), 5 Iraqi, Iranian/Persian, Arab, Somali andLatin American (nfd).Continental European ethnicitiesContinental European ethnicities include Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Serbian and Russian,among others. In 2006, the largest Continental European ethnicity was Dutch with 28,641 people.Apart from those identifying as German (with just over 10,000 people), all other Continental Europeanethnicities each had less than 5000 people in 2006. 6 Continental European ethnicities that fall underthe Office of Ethnic Affairs’ mandate are not categorised as a separate Statistics NZ ethnic group,unlike the Asian and MELAA ethnic groups described above. Instead, the Statistics NZ ‘European’ethnic group is most commonly used. This grouping contains all Continental European ethnicities andalso includes New Zealand European, UK/Irish Republic, South African, Zimbabwean, Australian andNorth American ethnicities. 7Interpreting Ethnicity data and its limitationsThe ethnicity data used in this report has been sourced from Statistics New Zealand (Statistics NZ)and administrative and survey data from other government agencies. Most data, including StatisticsNZ’s data, is grouped using a total count method where individuals are counted in each ethnic groupthey identify with. This means percentages often add up to more than 100 percent. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.Sometimes, administrative and survey data from government agencies do not use a total countmethod. Instead individuals may be grouped according to a prioritised system. For example, ifsomeone identifies as being both Chinese and Māori, under the prioritised ethnicity method, they areclassified as Māori for the purposes of analysis. 83 For an explanation of Statistics NZ level one ethnic groups see Interpreting Ethnicity Data and its Limitations on pg….4 Statistics NZ combined MELAA ethnicities into a single ethnic group so that it was separated from the ‘Other ethnicity’ group. From 2006 the ‘other ethnicity’ group contained the ‘New Zealander’ ethnicity classification.5 ‘Nfd’ means not further defined, please see Notes at the end of this chapter for an explanation of this term.6 It is possible that people of Continental European origin may have identified themselves as ‘European (nfd)’ in the Census (this had a total of 21,855 responses in 2006).7 For consistency, most graphs, figures and tables in this report do not include a separate Continental European ethnic group. Rather, Continental European ethnicities are included in the Statistics NZ level one European category.8 The aim of prioritisation is to ensure that where some need exists to assign people to a single ethnic group, that those of policy importance, or of small size, are not engulfed by the New Zealand European ethnic group. 2
Statistics NZ Ethnicity Standard and Classification SystemThe 1in4 report adheres as much as possible to Statistics NZ’s Ethnicity Standard and ClassificationSystem. 9The current Official Statistics Ethnicity Standard, (Statistics NZ, 2005), defines ethnicity as the ethnicgroup or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Ethnicity is a concept quite separateand distinct from race, ancestry, nationality or citizenship, although it can incorporate elements ofthese concepts. In defining ethnicity, the Ethnicity Standard defines an ethnic group as one made upof some, or all, of the following characteristics: • a common proper name • one or more elements of common culture which need not be specified, but may include religion, customs, or language • a unique community of interests, feelings and actions • a shared sense of common origins or ancestry, and • a common geographic origin.As detailed in the Ethnicity Standard, six high-level ethnic groups are used when summarising data(referred to as level one). These are: European, Māori, ‘Other’ ethnicity, Asian, Pacific peoples andMELAA. In 2006, the ‘Other’ ethnicity group consisted largely of people who identified their ethnicity as‘New Zealander’. Most data in the report is presented as level one ‘ethnic groups’, which consist of anumber of specific ethnicities. For example, the Asian ethnic group consists of ethnicities such asChinese, Indian and Southeast Asian ethnicities.The six level one ethnic groups can be further disaggregated into level two, three and four categories,with over 200 ethnic categories at the most detailed level of classification.The table below shows level one and level two ethnic groups. These groups are the most commonlyused ethnic categories used throughout this report: Level One Level Two 1. European 10. European nfd* 11. New Zealand European 12. Other European 2. Māori 21. Māori 3. Pacific Peoples 30. Pacific Peoples nfd* 31. Samoan 32. Cook Islands Maori 33. Tongan 34. Niuean 35. Tokelauan 36. Fijian 37. Other Pacific Peoples 4. Asian 40. Asian nfd* 41. Southeast Asian 42. Chinese9 Statistics New Zealand, “Ethnicity Classification”. Retrieved from:http://www.stats.govt.nz/statistical-methods/classifications-and-related-statistical-standards/ethnicity/default.htm 3
Level One Level Two 43. Indian 44. Other Asian 5. MELAA 51. Middle Eastern 52. Latin American 53. African 6. Other ethnicity 61. Other ethnicity (includes ‘New Zealander’ responses) Notes: * ‘nfd’ indicates that the ethnicity category is ‘not further defined’Other related termsNot all agencies collect data based on ethnicity; other terms that feature in this report include: 10• Region of origin and nationality – these terms differ from ethnicity because they describe a geographic location rather than an aspect of cultural identity• Migrants and refugees – these terms refer to people now residing in New Zealand who were born overseas. Migrants enter into New Zealand through specific immigration approval categories. Migrants in the context this report are permanent or long-term migrants, meaning they intend to live in New Zealand for longer than 12 months. New Zealand uses the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ definition of a refugee as someone who “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”. 11 New Zealand accepts refugees according to humanitarian need and also based on a United Nations mandated quota system (often referred to as ‘quota refugees’).Further information about how to correctly interpret ethnicity data can be found from Goodyear R.K.(2009), The differences within, diversity in age structure between and within ethnic groups, Wellington, StatisticsNZ.TECHNICAL NOTESThe following section provides selected general and technical information about the data-sets(Census, survey, and administrative data) used in this resource. Web links have also beenprovided for most data-sets, to access further technical information.Statistics New Zealand – CensusThe Census is the official count of how many people and dwellings there are inNew Zealand. It takes a snapshot of the people in New Zealand and the places where we live. TheCensus provides a unique source of detailed demographic, social and economic data relating to theentire population at a single point in time. The key strength of the Census is its ability to provide datafor small geographic areas and small population groups.10 The Department of Labour, for example, uses terms such as ‘migrants’, ‘refugees’ and ‘region of origin’ when collecting data because of their requirements for setting immigration policy.11 The UNHCR 1951 Refugee Convention. Retrieved from: http://unhcr.org.au/unhcr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=179&Itemid=54 4
The Census covers all dwellings in New Zealand on 7 March 2006 and every man, woman, child andbaby alive in New Zealand on 7 March 2006 who was on New Zealand soil; on a vessel in NewZealand waters; or on a passage between New Zealand ports.Overseas residents and other people in diplomatic residences in New Zealand, includinghousekeeping staff, uniformed military personnel or members of diplomats’ families are included in theCensus, as are foreign military personnel and their families located in New Zealand on Census night(including foreign warships in New Zealand territorial waters on census night).Ethnicity is based on total response method. People who reported more than one ethnic group havebeen counted in each applicable group.Other/NZ Ethnicity includes the New Zealander category.Data results and totals do not include people whose responses were unidentifiable, outside the scopeof possible answers or not clearly stated.Confidentiality rules have been applied to the data by randomly rounding cells to a multiple of three.EthnicityEthnicity is the ethnic group or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Ethnicity is ameasure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality, or citizenship. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.The ethnicity data used in this report has been sourced from Statistics New Zealand. Statistics NewZealand’s data is grouped using a total count method where individuals are counted in each ethnicgroup they identify with. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnicgroup (with up to six ethnic responses counted in official collections).Ethnicity groupings have been defined using the groupings supplied in the 2006 Census data. Theseinclude the classifications: European, Māori, Pacific Peoples, Asian, Middle Eastern/Latin Americanand African (MELAA), and Other. Each of these groups is made up of individual ethnicities. For thesake of accurate analysis we have often referred to New Zealand European as its own grouping, whileit technically falls under the classification of European.Communities of interest: The Office of Ethnic Affairs’ responsibility is for New Zealand’s ‘ethnic’communities. For the purposes of this report this includes ethnicities outside of New ZealandEuropean, British and Irish, New Zealander, Māori and Pacific peoples. For the most part that meansthe ethnicities that we are interested in are the ‘Asian’ and ‘MELAA’ ethnicities, and ethnicities forcontinental-Europe. There are several exceptions to this (notably the South African ethnicity), whichhave been highlighted here.The individual ethnicities for each ethnic group are:• European - New Zealand European, English, Dutch, British (nfd), Australian, European (nfd), South African (nec), Scottish, Irish, German, American, Canadian, Russian, French, Welsh, Italian, Zimbabwean, Croatian, Greek, Swiss, Polish, Danish, Spanish, Romanian, Celtic (nfd), Afrikaner, Hungarian, Serbian and Other European. 5
• Asian - Chinese (nfd), Indian (nfd), Korean, Filipino, Japanese, Sri Lankan (nfd), Cambodian, Thai, Fijian Indian, Taiwanese, Vietnamese, Malay, Indonesian, Afghani, Asian (nfd), Pakistani, Eurasian, Bangladeshi, Malaysian Chinese, Laotian and Other Asian.• MELAA - African (nfd), Iraqi, Iranian/Persian, Arab, Somali, Latin American (nfd) Assyrian, Middle Eastern (nfd), Israeli/Jewish, Brazilian, Egyptian, Chilean, Ethiopian, African (nec) and Other MELAA.‘Nfd’ indicates the category is ‘not further defined’.‘Nec’ the category is ‘not elsewhere contained’. ‘Other’ Asian, European and MELAA refers to allindividual ethnicities for each ethnic group that had less than 1,000 responses at the time of the 2006Census.Each data set includes all of the people who stated each ethnic group, whether as their only ethnicgroup or as one of several ethnic groups. Where a person reported more than one ethnic group, theyhave been counted in each applicable group. All figures are for the Census’ usually residentpopulation.Ethnicity data has been output where the total number of responses in a category has exceeded1,000. All remaining categories have been grouped as Other (Asian/European/MELAA) and allresponses have been included.Changes to the ethnicity question used in the 1996 Census have resulted in data that is not consistentbetween 1996 and 2001, or between 1996 and 2006. For further information, refer to the ethnicityvariable on the 2006 Census Information About Data webpage: http://www.stats.govt.nz/census. Theinconsistencies include:• Ethnicity data for 1991 and 1996 has been output using up to three responses. The 2001 and 2006 data has been output using up to six responses.• ‘Zimbabwean’ was a new category introduced for the 2006 Census. The 2001, 1996 and 1991 data for Zimbabwean is included in the category African (nec).• Afrikaner was a new category introduced for the 2006 Census. The 2001, 1996 and 1991 data for Afrikaner is included in the category South African (nec). For the purposes of graphs in this section Afrikaner has been amalgamated with South African for 2006 Census results.• Eurasian was a category for the 1991 and 2006 Census. The 2001 and 1996 data for Eurasian is included in the category Asian (nfd).• Ethiopian was a new category introduced for the 2006 Census. The 2001, 1996 and 1991 data for Ethiopian is included in the category African (nec).• The 1991 data includes Not Specified. The 1996 and 2001 data includes Black, Other not further defined, Response Unidentifiable, Response Outside Scope and Not Stated. 6
Statistics New Zealand:Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS) (unpublished data)New Zealand Income Survey (NZIS)The HLFS is conducted quarterly in March, May, September and December. We include data thatcovers June 2009 through June 2010 to represent the variability across this time period as a result ofrecession. We also use June data to coordinate with the New Zealand Income Survey (NZIS), whichis an annual supplemental report to the HLFS.The HLFS suppresses data if there are fewer than 1,000 people included in any sub-population due tosampling errors being too high for any practical analytical purpose. We identify where these issuesexist for the MELAA and Chinese groups, and then comment as best we can on the remainingavailable data.Following Statistics New Zealand guidelines, ‘New Zealander’ is included as a possible ethnicity onforms. For the purpose of our report, New Zealander is included in the Other Ethnicity category.This is a sample survey and therefore the data is subject to sampling error.Respondents complete the survey based on information for the week prior to the survey.Data is based on the usually resident population aged 15 years and older.Ethnicity is based on the total response method. People who reported more than one ethnic grouphave been counted in each applicable group.The MELAA group includes Middle Eastern, Latin American and African ethnicities.Other/NZ Ethnicity includes the New Zealander category.Data results and totals do not include people whose responses were unidentifiable, outside the scopeof possible answers or not clearly stated.Results based on fewer than 1,000 people are suppressed as they are subject to sampling errors toohigh for most practical purposes.Data is not seasonally adjusted.The actual response rates, between 85.4% and 88.3% for June 2009 through June 2010 quarterlyperiods, were slightly lower than the target response rate of 90%.New Zealand Income Survey (June 2010), Statistics New ZealandThe NZIS is compiled in June each year as a supplemental report to the HLFS. Following StatisticsNew Zealand guidelines, ‘New Zealander’ is included as a possible ethnicity on forms. For thepurpose of the 1 in 4 report, New Zealander is included in the Other Ethnicity category.This is a sample survey and therefore the data is subject to sampling error. 7
Respondents complete the survey based on information for the week prior to the survey.Data is based on the usually resident population aged 15 years and older.Ethnicity is based on total response method. People who reported more than one ethnic group havebeen counted in each applicable group.The MELAA group includes Middle Eastern, Latin American and African ethnicities.Other/NZ Ethnicity includes the New Zealander category.Note, totals include people whose ethnicity was not specified.Statistics New Zealand: General Social Survey 2008 (GSS)EthnicityEthnicity is the ethnic group or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Thus, ethnicity isself-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group. Ethnicity is a measure of culturalaffiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality or citizenship.Total responses counts the number of responses, not the number of people. People with responsesthat fall into more than one group are counted once in each ethnic group at level one of the standardethnicity classification. A person may specify more than one ethnicity; therefore, the sum of individualcells in a table may add to more than the total population. For example, people of Samoan, Tongan,and German ethnicities would be counted (when outputting at the highest level of the classification)once in the Pacific ethnic group and once in the European group.Single and combination responses cover both people who reported only one ethnic group and peoplewith combination ethnic groups. People are counted just once in the ethnic group that applies to them,according to the ethnic group or combination of ethnic groups they have reported. For example, foroutputs of ethnic group, ethnic groups may include European/Māori, or Māori/Pacific. This means thatthe total population will be equal to the usual subject population for that variable, as individuals arecounted once only.The survey received few New Zealander responses. These are categorised in the Other Ethnicitygroup, which makes up 2 percent of the sample.Ethnic groups have different age structures and immigration patterns that can have some impact onhigh-level outcomes. For example, the Māori, Pacific, and Asian ethnic groups have younger medianage structures than the European grouping.Survey populationThe target population for the NZGSS is the usually resident population aged 15 years and over inprivate dwellings in the North Island, South Island or Waiheke Island of New Zealand.The target population includes: • New Zealand usual residents temporarily overseas 8
• New Zealand usual residents temporarily staying elsewhere in New Zealand (including other permanent and temporary private dwellings, institutions, and non-private dwellings; and people who have no fixed abode, but were found in private dwellings on the household enumeration date) • people in the New Zealand armed forces if they reside in a private dwelling • young adults at boarding schools (young adults who fall into this category are not surveyed in the personal questionnaire, but are included as members of the household in the household questionnaire).Further technical information can be found at the web link below:http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/people_and_communities/Households/nzgss_HOTP2008/Technical%20Notes.aspxQuality of Life Survey 2008 National ReportThis is a multi-agency research project, exploring quality of life issues in New Zealand. It is apartnership between 12 New Zealand Local Government Councils and the Ministry of SocialDevelopment. The aim of the survey is to measure residents’ perceptions of overall quality of life. TheQuality of Life Survey measures New Zealand residents’ perceptions of: quality of life; health andwellbeing; crime and safety; community, culture and social networks; council decision makingprocesses; environment; public transport and lifestyle – work and study. The Quality of Life Survey iscarried out every two years as a collaborative effort by the Quality of Life Project and the Ministry ofSocial Development.Representativeness of dataIdeally the number of achieved interviews should represent the population of New Zealand on a range ofdemographic, socio-economic and geographic characteristics. A number of measures were put in place toincrease the response rate and ensure the sample is as representative as possible. A final response rate of37 percent was achieved, an improvement on the 22 percent achieved in the 2006 Quality of Life Survey.Quotas were used to ensure the sample was representative by age, gender and ethnicity.Quotas were also set to ensure the 12 cities participating in the research had sufficient sample sizes foranalysis at sub-group level (i.e. each had a sample size of 500). As a result of this, at a National level, fourcities were under-represented (Auckland, Manukau, Christchurch and the Rest of New Zealand).Information about sample profiles, weighting and other technical information can be found in theAppendix of the Quality of Life 2009 National Report:http://www.bigcities.govt.nz/pdfs/Quality_of_Life_2008.pdfNew Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2009 (NZCSS)Measures the amount of crime experienced by New Zealand residents over the age of 15 by askingthem directly about their experience of criminal victimisation since the beginning of 2005. This surveyis part of an ongoing research programme. The future work will provide important information abouttrends in crime, as part of an alternative perspective to Police-recorded crime rates. The survey counts 9
all incidents of crime that are technically criminal (as they would be classified by the Police), andincludes unreported as well as reported crime.The ethnicity of the respondent was assessed using a question virtually identical to that in the 2006Census. Where respondents identified themselves as belonging to more than one ethnic group, eachwas used in analysis. Thus, a respondent who identified with both Maori and Pacific ethnic groups wasincluded in both for analysis purposes.Survey populationThe NZCASS findings are based on a national representative sample of people aged 15 years andover, who live in private households in New Zealand.The survey population excluded people usually resident in institutions, hospitals, retirement homesand prisons. Also excluded were members of the New Zealand armed forces, non-New Zealanddiplomats and their non-New Zealand staff, members of non-New Zealand armed forces stationed inNew Zealand, overseas visitors in New Zealand for less than 12 months and residents of offshoreislands, except Waiheke Island.Sample size and response rateThe total survey sample size was 6,106 respondents. This was an increase from the sample size of5,416 in 2006. Of the 6,106 respondents in the 2009 survey, 4,809 were from the main sample, and1,297 were from the Mäori booster sample. The overall response rate of the 2009 survey was 70percent.Further technical information can be found in the NZCASS 2009 Technical Report:http://www.justice.org.nz/publications/global-publications/c/NZCASS-2009/documents/The%20New%20Zealand%20Crime%20and%20Safety%20Survey%202009%20Technical%20Report.pdfAdditional technical information is available from the Ministry of Justice.New Faces New Futures: New Zealand, Findings from the LongitudinalImmigration Survey: New Zealand (LisNZ) – Wave 1 (2009)LisNZ surveys migrants who have been granted permanent residence in New Zealand. Interviewswere conducted with the same migrants at six months (Wave 1), 18 months (Wave 2), and 36 months(Wave 3) after taking up permanent residence. The figures in the 2009 report come from interviews atboth Wave 1 and 2 (over 6,000 respondents). Wave 1 interviews were held between 1 May 2005 and30 April 2007 and Wave 3 interviews were held between 1 November 2007 and 31 October 2009.Longitudinal migrants are those who were interviewed in all three waves of the survey (5,144respondents).As this is a sample survey, data is subject to sampling error.The target population was migrants (excluding migrants from Australia, Niue, Cook Islands andTokelau and all refugees) who were at least 16 years old and were approved for permanent residencein New Zealand from 1 November 2004 to 31 October 2005. 10
The LisNZ survey was limited to migrants who lived on the North Island, South Island or WaihekeIsland at wave 1 and spoke at least one of the designated languages of the survey (English, Mandarin,Cantonese, Samoan, Korean, Hindi and Punjabi).The response rate for Wave 1 was 66% (7,137 respondents out of 10.856 eligible migrants), Wave 2was 85% (6,069 respondents) and the response rate for Wave 3 was 85% (5,144 respondents).Longitudinal weights were produced after each wave so that the achieved sample for each wave wasweighted up to represent the longitudinal population of interest.All estimates provided have been randomly rounded to 10 to protect the confidentiality of therespondents.Further technical and other information can be found at:http://dol.govt.nz/publications/research/lisnz/Statistics New Zealand also publishes a series of short form reports using LisNZ data, called Hot offthe Press (HOTP) for Wave 1 and Wave 3 findings. These can be found at:http://www.stats.govt.nz/surveys_and_methods/completing-a-survey/faqs-about-our-surveys/longitudinal-immigration-survey-nz.aspxNielsen Media Research Panorama SurveyThis is a random survey of 3,000 people aged 10 years and over per quarter. For this research peopleare asked to identify the types of charities, non-profit and other community organisations they havepersonally supported in the previous three months.Support can be any of the following:Direct donation/sponsorshipDonation of money to an appealDonations of goodsVolunteering and other support (such as purchasing products that support the charity/worthy cause).The results are based on respondents’ self-classification and perceptions, as well as their recall oftheir actions.Further technical information about the survey can be accessed at the following web-link:www.nielsenmedia.co.nz, keyword: Panorama.The Social Report 2010This is an annual series that builds on the social monitoring framework first established by The SocialReport 2001. The report uses a set of statistical indicators to monitor trends across 10 “domains”, orareas of people’s lives. Together these domains provide a picture at a national, regional and territorialauthority level.The first edition of the Social Report was produced in 2001 by the Ministry of Social Policy. In 2002,the Ministry of Social Development undertook a review, inviting people around the country to give theirviews on the role of the Social Report and the things that were important to them. In the same year, 11
the report was updated and translated into an online format for the first time. Counting the 2002update, The Social Report 2010 is the 10th edition and the third to be published online only.Further technical and other information can be found online at:http://socialreport.msd.govt.nz/index.htmlNew Zealand Health Survey 2006/7The NZ Health Survey measures self-reported physical and mental health status (including doctor-diagnosed health conditions), risk and protective behaviours for health outcomes, and the use ofhealth care services, among the usually resident New Zealand population living in private dwellings.The 2006/07 NZ Health Survey is the fourth national population-based health survey. Previous NZHealth Surveys were conducted in 1992/93, 1996/97 and 2002/03.The 2006/07 survey involved face-to-face interviews in 12,847 households throughout New Zealand,with 12,488 adults (15 years and over) and the primary caregivers of 4921 children (aged from birth to14 years). By comparison, the 2002/03 survey involved face-to-face interviews with 12,929 adults, the1996/97 survey involved face-to-face interviews with 7862 adults and the primary caregivers of 1019children and the 1992/93 survey involved telephone interviews with 7065 adults.Survey populationA total of 98.9% of New Zealand’s 1.4 million permanent private dwellings (households) were eligiblefor participation in the NZ Health Survey. For practical reasons, a small number of households thatwere part of the defined target population were excluded from the survey population, but these havebeen accounted for in the final estimates via the survey weights. Households not included were thosein meshblocks with less than nine occupied dwellings (according to the 2001 New Zealand Census ofPopulation and Dwellings), and those located off the main islands of New Zealand (North, South andWaiheke), such as those on other sparsely inhabited off-shore islands, on-shore islands, waterwaysand inlets. Due to the small number of households omitted, any possible bias is likely to be extremelysmall.Further technical and methodological information can be found in the NZHS 2006/7 MethodologyReport:http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/pagesmh/7680/$File/methodology-report-for-nz-health-survey-08.docTracking Disparity: Trends in ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities inmortality, 1981-2004The New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (NZCMS) links mortality records for the three yearsfollowing each Census back to the 1981 Census, thus creating five short-term cohort studies. Thereport, “Tracking Disparity: Trends in ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, 1981-2004” isthe latest updated report on this study which links Census data with mortality data. Mortality recordswere assembled for people aged 1-74 years on the previous Census night who died within three yearsof each Census since 1981. Ethnicity was determined by:• Multiple ethnic group comparisons were carried out using three groupings based on total response output: Māori, Pacific, Asian (where possible) 12
• The remaining New Zealand population is used as a reference group, henceforth called European/other in the report.GlossaryMortality Rate: the number of deaths in a given three-year period for a given group, divided by theperson-years observed in that group (ie, just less than three times the number of census respondentsin that group).Standardisation: Direct standardisation, a statistical procedure whereby the age (or age-by-ethnic)specific mortality rates of the populations of interest are weighted by the age (or age-by-ethnic)structure of the standard population to generate standardised mortality rates. This allows thepopulations of interest to be compared without age or ethnic confounding.Standardised mortality rate: The mortality rate for a given group, standardised or weighted to anexternally specified age structure (and sometimes also ethnic structure).Asian ethnic group: The group of people who self-identify only as an Asian ethnic group, plus thosewho self-identify an Asian ethnic group as one of their two or more ethnic groups.Māori ethnic group: The group of people who self-identify only as Māori, plus those who self-identifyMāori as one of their two or more ethnic groups.Pacific ethnic group: The group of people who self-identify only as a Pacific ethnic group, plus thosewho self-identify a Pacific ethnic group as one of their two or more ethnic groups.European/Other: Pakeha, non-Māori, non-Pacific, non-Asian. This is a constructed group used foranalytical reference purposes. It largely comprises people of European ethnicities (including NewZealand European), but also includes people with African, Middle Eastern and Latin Americanethnicities, and other ethnicities – most notably, the growing ‘New Zealander’ group.Further technical information, such as record linkage, variable definitions and statistical methods canbe found on pp. 1-20 of the report and can be found here:http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/pagesmh/6689/$File/tracking-disparity-inequalities-in-mortality-1981-2004.pdfAsian Health Chart Book 2006The first comprehensive review of Asian health, and the first to systematically examine inequalitiesbetween Asian ethnic groups and between migrant and established Asian communities. The reportadopts an indicator approach in order to focus attention on specific health issues of particularimportance to Asian peoples. Information is presented on more than 80 indicators covering fourdomains: health status, health risk profile, social determinants of health and patterns of health serviceutilisation. 13
EthnicityTotal response output was used to categorise ethnicity in this report. A person is counted more thanonce if he/she self-reports more than one ethnic identity. The ethnic groups included are Chinese,Indian and Other Asian (combining Southeast Asians and all other Asians).Age groupsIndicators are stratified (where possible) into the following life-cycle stages: children (0–14 years)(sometimes disaggregated to 0–4 and 5–14 years), young people (15–24 years), young adults (25–44years), middle-aged adults (45–64 years) and older adults (65+ years).Further technical information can be found here:http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/asian-health-chart-book-2006 14
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