Different Values, Different
A value per Milton Rokeach, U.S. researcher of
“…an enduring belief that one mode of conduct or
end-state of existence is preferable to an opposing
mode of conduct or end-state of existence.”
“A value system is an enduring organization of
beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or
end states of existence along a continuum of
Desirable The Desired
The norm, what ought What people want for
Approval, Disapproval Choice
What is good, right Attractive, preferred
For people in general For me and for you
• Values represent beliefs that “a specific mode of
conduct or end-state of existence is personally or
socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct
or end-state of existence.”
• We consider, pursue, join and remain
associated with organizations based on
what our notions of what “ought” and
“ought not” to be!
• Milton Rokeach work organizing values into
terminal and instrumental value.
• Terminal are desirable end-states to be
achieved: instrumental are preferred modes of
behavior or ways to achieve terminal values.
5 U.S. Segments:
What Makes Us
• Born before 1945.
• 10% of workforce.
• Influenced by the Military.
• 30 million people.
• Most affluent group.
• The 1st Generation.
• Delayed Gratification -work
first, pleasure later!
2. Baby Boomers
• Born 1945-1964.
• Most influential group.
• 80 million people.
• Work ethic defined by time.
• Important to be a team
• Contributors to the team are
• Honor trust, loyalty, and
responsibility, but distrust
3. Gen Xers
• Born 1964-1980.
• Prove it to me.
• 45 million people.
• Loyal to people, NOT
• Move from job-to-job more
• Carpe Diem – Seize the day!
• Grew up with AIDS & MTV.
Value flexibility, life options,
and achieving job satisfaction.
• Born after 1980.
• 75 million people.
• Instant gratification.
• Quick feedback.
• Busy outside of work.
• Reward with time.
• Grew up in prosperous times. High
expectations, seek meaning in their
work. Career goals aligned with
becoming rich (81%) and famous
5. Generation Z / iGen
• Comfortable with
tech/social media savvy.
• Came of age 9/11 & Great
conscious of their futures
and the challenges they
- Patrick Cooper
• Values can’t be observed directly.
• Inferred from cultural products (fairy tales,
children’s books, TV shows, movies, music,
advertising) or ask members of a society to
score their values by listing preferences.
• Learned subconsciously.
• Culture always affects personal values.
• Consumer psychologists measure individual
behavior within social systems (cultures,
Measuring Cultural Values
• We describe/define cultures based on
characteristics and place into value
categories of national
• Common dimensions include amount of
economic evolution or modernity.
Power Distance: The extent to which less
powerful members of a society accept and
expect power to be distributed unequally.
Individualism/Collectivism: People look
out for themselves, their families, and those
closest to them.
Masculinity/Femininity: Masculine focus on
achievement, success feminine society focus on
caring for others and quality of life.
Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which
people feel threatened by uncertainty and
ambiguity and try to avoid it.
Long/Short Term Orientation: Long term
perspective entails embracing there is no ONE
truth. People pursue perseverance, thrift, and
peace of mind. East Asian countries score high on
this, Anglo-Saxons score low.