• Time: British Versus Jamaican
• Communication Style: group–oriented
cultures versus individual cultures (ex.
American vs. Native American)
• Audience Selection
• Greetings & Hospitality
Cultures Differ Based On…
Process Versus Product
• STEP 1: Establish the communication strategy.
• STEP 2: To write or not to write?
• STEP 3: IF you decide to write, divide your
activities into FIVE steps:
– Focus the information
• STEP 4: Rethink, re-organize, make changes.
• SYNTHETIC Approach: The internet, the
library, emails, reading, and interviewing.
• ANALYTIC approach: Define your topic,
identify your sub-topics, and your approaches
using the journalist 5Ws & HOW approach.
• Ask rhetorical questions such as:
– What does this mean?
– How do I define this?
– What are the consequences…?
– How do I compare…?
Approaches to Researching
• Imagine the reader skimming your document:
what does the reader NEED to know the MOST.
• “NUTSHELL” your ideas: present the MAIN
idea in only a few sentences.
• “Teach” your ideas: How would you teach the
nutshell to someone else?
• Formulate a Thesis Statement: synthesize
your information to a new ideanew idea with an original
point of view.
• Simulate an elevator presentation “pitch.”
• Use the “BUSY BOSS” two (2) minute rule:
– “I don’t have the time to read through your entire
document. Tell me your main ideas in TWO
• Compose in ANY order: write the parts that you
are the most comfortable with first. Write your
• Avoid editing: drafting is an entirely CREATIVE
• Print a hard copy: this will help you to edit
faster, by seeing the ENTIRE document.
• Schedule a TIME gap: leave time between
finishing the drafting stage of the document
and the beginning of the editing process.
– See it with a FRESH set of eyes.