Administrative Office Management "QUALITY CIRCLE"


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Administrative Office Management "QUALITY CIRCLE"

  1. 1. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY CIRCLES Quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students),usually under the leadership of their supervisor (or an elected team leader), who aretrained to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutionsto management in order to improve the performance of the organization, and motivateand enrich the work of employees. When matured, quality circles become self-managing, having gained the confidence of management. Quality circles are one of the newest various techniques used successfully toimprove employee productivity. A voluntary group of eight to twelve employees whoperform similar or related work is a circle. Their duties are to meet on a regular basis toidentify, analyze and develop solutions to a variety of their work-related problems.Usually the meetings are held on company time and often schedule weekly forapproximately one hour. The success of quality circles is affected in part by the mannerin which these meetings are organized and operated. However, before the employeesbecome involved with a circle, they should thoroughly understand the purpose,composition and benefits of the concept. 1
  2. 2. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 Each group of quality circles will have a leader. So, the quality circles leader,who is responsible for conducting the weekly article meeting, is typically the supervisorof a work unit. The leader will help the members to define, analyze and solve work-related problems, by having a good grasp of the nature of the problem brought beforethe group. Instead, during the meeting, the leader will have the same position with otheremployees, so the meeting will run smoothly and successfully. As the leader are samelike others employees, they will be not afraid to share ideas. Besides that, a facilitator, who is responsible for working with the quality circlesand coordinating the activities involved in using the techniques will be appoint by mostorganizations. Furthermore, the facilitator also responsible for providing trainingexperiences for the circle leaders as well as for preparing a variety of written materialsfor use in improving the effectiveness of the techniques. 2
  3. 3. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 THE PHILOSOPHY OF QUALITY CIRCLE The Philosophy of Quality Circle is based on the concepts of ParticipativeManagement and Humanistic Management. Humanistic Management refers tomanagement that gives importance to people and their feelings. This is because peopleare the most valuable asset of a department. Participative Management means thatworker regardless of his/her position in the organization is given the opportunity to makemeaningful contribution to the department. Quality Circle is, therefore a mechanismwhereby workers are able to participate in the problem-solving process leading toimprovement of quality and productivity in their department. HISTORY OF QUALITY CIRCLE The history of Quality Circles were first established is in Japan in 1962, andKaoru Ishikawa has been credited with their creation. The movement in Japan wascoordinated by the Japanese Union of Scientist and Engineers (JUSE). The use ofQuality Circle then spread beyond Japan. Quality Circles have been implemented evenin educational sectors in India and Quality Circle Forum of India (QCFI) is promotingsuch activities. 3
  4. 4. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 NEED OF QUALITY CIRCLE The need for public and private businesses to improve quality of services is nolonger an option but a necessity. Since the early 1960‟sbusinesses across the Globehave been searching for ways to improve overall operational efficiency. This trend hasbeen more heightened with the onset of free open trade and Customers demanding somuch more for their dollars. Some organizations have successfully implemented the useof quality circles as part of an ongoing improvement programmed. Others haveexperimented with quality circles with the best intentions and faced several obstacles,but what is true is that this type of participatory management brings several benefits toall concerned. 4
  5. 5. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 OBJECTIVE OF QUALITY CIRCLE Change in Attitude. From "I don‟t care" to "I do care." Continuous improvement in quality of work life through humanization of work. Self Development Bring out „Hidden Potential‟ of people. People get to learn additional skills. Development of Team Spirit Individual Vs Team – "I could not do but we did it" Eliminate inter departmental conflicts. Improved Organizational Culture Positive working environment. Total involvement of people at all levels. Higher motivational level. Participate Management process. 5
  6. 6. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 CONCEPTS OF QUALITY CIRCLE It is based upon the human resource management considered as one of the keyfactors in the improvement of product quality and productivity. It has three major attributes which are; 1. Quality circle is a form of Participative Management. 2. Quality circle is a Human Resource Development Technique. 3. Quality circle is a Problem Solving Technique. 6
  7. 7. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012HOW TO USE THE CONCEPTS? In the Quality circles process there are three main parts to go through. The stepsare identifying, analyzing, and solving quality-related issues. After the quality circle isset up the next step would be to train the group. The training is to make sure all thevoluntaries understand the order and meaning of the steps and how to go through them.Following training is the first real step in the Quality circle process-problem identifying. At this step the members of the group are free to brainstorm about the problemsthey face in the workplace. Within this brainstorming session there are no bad ideas.After the members have some up with everything they can think of they go through thelist and analyze each problem individually. This step of problem analysis is to look closer at one problem at a time andhaving everyones input on how to solve it. This step involves opinions from themembers and research. The opinions are important because the members in this groupare the ones who are faced with the problems at hand. The research can help to showthe member what the result or effect will be with the way they may choose to solve aproblem. After they are done with the analysis and come up with the solution they haveentered the next step. 7
  8. 8. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 The last step in quality circles is the solution. The members prepare how theyintend to solve the problem that was first presented in the brainstorming. The solution isexplained in how it works and what the solution results should be. Those results arethen showed to the mangers and group as a whole in a presentation type of meeting.The three steps of identifying, analyzing, and solving are all very important in completingthe process of a quality circle 8
  9. 9. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 THE PROCESS OF QUALITY CIRCLE ORGANIZATION 8 - 10 members Same area Moderator TRAININGPRESENTATION Group ProcessImplementation Data Collection Monitoring Problem Analysis PROBLEM SOLUTION IDENTIFYING PROBLEM List AlternativesProblem Results Consensus Brainstorming PROBLEM ANALYSIS Cause & Effect Data Collection & Analysis 9
  10. 10. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF QUALITY CIRCLESTHE ADVANTAGES OF QUALITY CIRCLES ARE AS FOLLOWS: i) They help employees become more productive.  By having quality circles, employees will become more productive as they could discuss and changes their ideas during doing their duties and having more enthusiasm to done their job. ii) They increase the opportunities for employees to grow and develop.  Company can look forward for the potential employees and less potential employees, so the company wills growth successfully and known by the world. iii) They are economical to use.  Quality circles are not normally paid a share of the cost benefit of any improvements but usually a proportion of the savings made is spent on improvements to the work environment. 10
  11. 11. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012iv) They help increase job satisfaction.  Quality circles can help enrich the lives of workers or students and aid in creating harmony and high performance as they can share and change ideas among them.v) They improve the communication between management and employees.  Communication skills between management and employees can be improved. 11
  12. 12. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012THE DISADVANTAGES OF QUALITY CIRCLES: i) Some circles try to deal with problems outside the member‟s areas of expertise thus reflecting poorly on the concept.  The quality circle can come up with good ideas and management will fail to implement them. ii) Some circles lack top management support, although they have the support of lower level management, which they likely will result in their being less successful than they should or could be.  A group of employees, while possibly right on the points they are making, simply do not have the power to make the necessary changes they are suggesting. iii) Some supervisors whose subordinates participate in quality circles believe their authority is usurped by the process.  The employees might want to hold the higher position in the circles so he or she will being more respected than the others. 12
  14. 14. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012Members  Members are the basic element of the structure of quality circle.  Voluntarily join other employees of the same work area or those engaged in similar type of work to become members of quality circle, and participate in small group activities.  Contribute towards building of a cohesive group culture through which they try to achieve the highest standards of performance.  Take part in management presentations.Leaders  Leader is chosen by the members from amongst them.  He may be foreman/ supervisors/ charge man or any other man.  Member can decide on the leader for each project.  Leader is responsible for the effective performance of this circle.  He must be prepared to face challenges to each of his ideas.Facilitator  Facilitator is usually a manager of the shop/ department/ sections.  He is responsible for guiding and directing the activities of the quality circle in his area and enthuse other executives to get involved in supporting quality circle activities.  He publishes the concepts; enlist volunteer members, and providing training for members. 14
  15. 15. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012Coordinator  Coordinator also acts as facilitators is an individual responsible for coordinating and directing the quality circles activities within an organization and carries out such functions.Steering Committee  Apex body at the highest level of the unit division which oversees the functions of quality circle in the unit division and serves as an advisory body for quality circle. PURPOSE OF STERING COMMITTEE:-  Identify overall quality circle objectives.  Encourage quality circle activity by providing plan resources to make circle activity possible.  Authorizing circle actions as well as establishing policies and guidelines.  Suggest areas for suitable quality circle attention.Top Management  The success of the quality circles depends solely on the attitude of the Top Management and plays an important role to ensure the success of implementation of quality circles in the organizations. 15
  16. 16. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES The following techniques are most commonly used to analysis and solved workrelated problems;  Brainstorming  Check Sheets  Data Analysis  Data Collection  Flow Diagram  Ishikawa Diagram  Pareto DiagramThe tools used for data analysis are:-  Bar Charts  Circle Graphs  Control Charts  Histograms  Line Graphs  Scatter Plot  Tables 16
  17. 17. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 BRAINSTORMING Brainstorming is a group participative technique. It unlocks and discloses theuntapped creative talents and resources in people. It is also a technique for gatheringthe greatest number of ideas, which in turn spark enthusiasms and originality amongstthe member of the Quality Circle. Brainstorming are usually been used when the circlewants to identify a problem, investigate the cause and find a solution. THE PARETO CHART Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) is an Italian economist. His philosophy of 20% ofthe population has 80% of the wealth has been used and translated by the Juran as“vital few, trivial many. He noted that 20% of the quality problems caused 80% of thedollar loss. The usage of the Pareto Chart is to determine the priority for qualityimprovement activities. Besides that it also provide tool for visualizing the Paretoprinciples and determining which problem should be solved first and lastly it alsoprovides a before – and – after comparison. 17
  18. 18. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 THE ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM It is referred to as cause – and effective diagram, tree diagram, or fishbonediagram. The Ishikawa diagram displays the factors that affect a particular qualitycharacteristic, outcome or problem. It is the typically result of brainstorming. And themain goal represented by the trunk of the diagram, and primary factor represented asbranches. The major causes might be summarized under the categories referred to aspeople, methods, materials, procedures, machinery, environment, and/or policies.However, a Quality Circle may use any major category that emerges or helps peoplethink creatively. From this well-defined list of possible causes, the most likely areidentified and selected for further analysis. When examining each cause, look for thingsthat have changed deviations from the norm of patterns. For each cause, ask “why doesit happen?” and list the responses as branches off the major causes. This way, aQuality Circle looks for causes that appear repeatedly and will reach a tem consensus. 18
  19. 19. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 FLOW CHART Flowcharts are a graphical description of how work is done, and are used todescribe processes that are to be improved. Flowcharts provide excellentdocumentation of a program and can be useful for examining how various steps in aprocess are related to each other. Sometimes it is helpful to draw two flowcharts onewith the actual steps in a process and one with how the process should work.Comparing the two charts will show where there are differences and where problemsgenerally arise. Like what Dr. W. Edwars Deming had once said “Draw a flowchart forwhatever you do. Until you do, you do not know what you are doing, you just have ajob.” 19
  20. 20. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 CHECKSHEET Check sheets form a systematic means of collecting and analyzing data. Theyare special types of data collection forms, and facilitate an organized way of datapresentation. Above is the sample of check sheet showing defect type andcorresponding shift in which each occurs and its frequency. 20
  21. 21. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CIRCLE Improvement of human relations and workplace morale. Promotion of work culture. Enhancement of job interest. Effective team work. Reducing defects and improving quality. Improvement of productivity. Enhancing problem solving capacity. Improving communication and interaction. 21
  22. 22. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 QUALITY CIRCLE ADOPTIONSTAGES OF ADOPTION The quality circles programs have to be introduced very cautiously with care. So,that it can receive the acceptability and appreciation of one and all.This program can be adopted in the following stages:- 1. Evaluation of Feasibility.  A study of the organization is first necessary to understand its culture and general health, so as to determine the practical feasibility of introducing circles.  It is advisable to call in and outside consultant or agency to carry out the evaluation in an unbiased manner. 2. General Awareness Programs.  Before circles can be started people in the introducing these ideas at all levels have to make aware about it.  This awareness exercise may consist of informal discussions in suitable groups, talks to large gatherings, seminars, distribution of brochures and publicity literature on Quality Circles, prepared in 22
  23. 23. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 the local languages of workers, slide shows, video shows and films.3. Planning and Organization of Circles.  Having created the necessary awareness amongst all personnel, the areas in which circles are to be immediately formed are decided and accordingly, leaders and facilitators are chosen and a steering committee is formed.  It should be made explicitly clear that circles are not substitutes for the task plant council or suggestion scheme.  They are voluntary not management inspired or management nominated.4. Orientation of Facilitators and Leaders.  It is necessary to impart suitable guidelines to facilitators and instructions and training to leaders regarding the operation of circles.  This can be arranged in group either by the experienced and senior staff of the company or by an outside consultant. 23
  24. 24. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 20125. Adoption of Circles.  The leader of the circles can informally discuss the probable points of problems to be taken up and prepare the agenda in advance. Efforts should be made to select and discuss such problems which can bring out the innovative ability and potential capacity of workers.  All required help in the form of data, documents, and reports, assistance for analytical study by other knowledgeable staff or training inputs from outside experts should be made available to circles as per their requirements.6. Monitoring and Review of Activities.  The suggestions and recommendations given by the Quality Circle from time to time, have to be studied and appropriate actions taken for their speedy implementation.  It has to be ensure that Quality Circle once started, function smoothly and perform well for which cooperation from all concerned must be available. 24
  25. 25. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 AREAS OF INTEREST TO QUALITY CIRCLE Quality improvement. Efficiency improvement in service organization. Cost reduction. Process control during manufacturing. Safety in materials handling and equipment operations. Equipment and manpower utilization. Reduction in work in progress. Job improvement. Reduction in machine maintenance problems. Reduction in human errors. 25
  26. 26. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUCCESS OF CIRCLES.1. Support from the top management and cooperation from the middle management is an essential request for the success of circle. Half hearted support is not adequate.2. Management should be not expecting immediate results and short terms benefit from the circle. It should also be made clear that quality circle do not dilute the responsibilities or authority of different function. They may only reduce their burden and make things easier.3. Circle should not be taken as forums for grievances or personal problems. Such problems should always be discouraged by the leaders. For this purpose, the agenda of meeting must be decided earlier. The members should accept the role of the leaders and appreciate the basic purpose of these circles.4. A reasonably good climate spirit of cooperation and feeling of confidence between the workers and the management must exist. Workers should feel that improvement of the company‟s. Performance is not the responsibilities of the manager only but workers also play a vital role in this direction. 26
  27. 27. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 20125. Persons participating in the circle should be encouraged at appropriate times by the management.6. Training of leaders and circle members as of utmost important and this should be arranged by the management in best possible way. 27
  28. 28. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 THE COMPANY THAT INVOLVED IN QUALITY CIRCLES There are lots of company who are involves in improving their quality circle.However, we have taken an example of quality circle from the Toyota Motor Company. As we could see, Toyota is one of company whom are very highly contributed indoing the quality circle. Starting from the products, workers, or the model of their car wecould see that there are many improvement in Toyota products. Let say from quality, its what every Toyota has in common. From the hood tothe trunk, and everything in-between, quality is built right in. Their build it in becausevehicles cant be renowned for their reliability and durability without it. Over 80% ofToyotas sold in Canada in the last 20 years are still on the road today. The human factor of quality circle in Toyota is has come to the philosophy ofcontinuous improvement which is known as Kaizen (in Japanese). Kaizen is nowheremore evident than in the hundreds of quality circles. This is because, the quality circlesare constantly improving in all aspects of the production system by looking for andaddressing the root that will cause problems and fixing it so it will not going to comeback. 28
  29. 29. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 In Toyota Camry plant in Kentucky, members of a quality circle in the stampingarea challenged a standard practice in the automobile industry, figured out how to usean extra few feet on every roll of steel, and saved the company more than $100 00annually. This is a good example of why Toyota can keep improving upon the bestquality in the industry, and still maintain the affordable price for everyone. Toyota‟s industry-leading suggestion system is a fertile source of ideas forimprovement. At Toyota Motor Manufacturing in Kentucky, over the course of a yearalmost 40, 000 suggestions are received of which fully 99% are implemented. When ateam members feel that they can express their ideas and have them implemented, theywill participated enthusiastically in the concepts of continuous improvement and that ishow Toyota‟s improved their quality circles. For example; one suggestion that has been resulted in the construction of aspecial seats, synchronized with the assembly line which allows the team members tosee more easily and work in a very comfortable zone with the wheel wells. Despite thefact that the financial aspect of the program is downplayed, the combined hard dollarand labor savings from the suggestions system of quality circles has saves the tens ofmillions dollars of the Toyota Motor Company. 29
  30. 30. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 Other than the Toyota Motor Company, Xerox also is one of the large firms whoare using the quality circle to improve their relations with others. Xerox has an annualteamwork day and because of a past teamwork day were able to prevent 65 000 tons ofwaste going out to a landfill. Their solution at the time of seeing the problem with theabout of waste they were producing was a recycling program which is worked. Thisconcept has been shown to improve work productivity, save money and even to savelives. Xerox did a good thing by improving the world by making less waste. Lastly the third company that we had discovered who are successfully used theQuality circle is BHEL which is one of the largest company in INDIA. BHEL‟sTiruchirapalli Plant : A large heavy engineering units manufacturing boiler‟s and an entirerange of equipments required for a thermal power unit. BHEL pioneer in implementingthe quality circles in INDIA. Introduced in 1984 at the Tiruchirapalli Plant. The impactsof Quality Circles in BHEL are cohesive team work and team spirit. Work itself is moreenjoyable, improvement in interpersonal and intergroup relations, improvement in thequality of workmanship within the work group, greater and prompter response tosuggestions given, attitudinal towards workers changes, a greater sense of belonging tothe group and the organization as a whole positive approach and lastly mutual trust.Which is as the results the positive impact at the plant lead to the encouragement of theQuality Circle concepts and 10% increases in the number of Quality Circles at BHEL. 30
  32. 32. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012Xerox Takes Step Toward Zero Waste, PartnersWith Close the LoopNov 15, 2010NORWALK, Conn. -- Xerox Corporation launched a new return and recyclingprogram that aims to simplify the way customers return toner and supplies andexpands the company‟s effort to keep billions of pounds of waste out of landfills.Xerox is partnering with Close the Loop, one of the world‟s largest recyclers ofimaging supplies that specializes in cartridge returns. Close the Loop will collectcustomers‟ returns and manage the recycling on behalf of Xerox using apatented material separation process that recovers used materials for reuse innew printer cartridges and other products.Similar to Xerox‟s Eco Box program in Europe, customers in the United Stateswill place used supplies into a collection box. When the box is full, customersprint a free-of-charge shipping label and send the box to Close the Loop.Instructions are printed on the boxes, which are available in the United Statesstarting immediately. Customers can order the boxes through the redesignedreturn and recycling website, The website alsoincludes instructions and provides several features that make choosing and usinga returns process more convenient, including bundling returns together and otheroptions.This new effort is an extension of Xerox‟s Green World Alliance program, aninitiative launched in 1999 that established the company as a global leader inwaste reduction and environmental stewardship. "During the past 12 years, our collaboration with customers has kept more than143 million pounds of cartridges, bottles, and waste toner out of landfills,” saidPatricia Calkins, vice president, Sustainability, Environment, Health & Safety. “Aswe continue to make it easier for customers to participate in our remanufacturing,reuse and recycling efforts, we get closer and closer to our ultimate goal of zerowaste.”"Close the Loop also is working toward zero waste," said Jim Tocash, companypresident. The company returns cartridge component parts to the marketplace asuseable raw materials so nothing goes to the landfill. “Xerox is on the forefront ofzero waste initiatives – and was there long before it was popular,” Tocash said.“Our role at Close the Loop is to make the returns process that much simpler so 32
  33. 33. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012more customers join in on the effort. Working together with Xerox we push thegoal of zero waste forward to minimize our impact on the environment.” 33
  34. 34. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012OUR BUSINESSES > TATA COMPANIES > TATA STEEL > MEDIA RELEASES December 18, 2002 Tata Steel selected best private sector organization promoting quality circle movement Jamshedpur: The Quality Circle Forum of India is an apex body to promote and recognize quality circle movement in the country. It conducts chapter level and national level conventions on QC every year. This year, QCFI is hosting the International Level Convention at Luck now in India in which about 3000 delegates from all over the world will participate. A total of 375 case studies from all over the world will be presented in this convention. Along with two papers, 14 circles of Tata Steel, will also present their case studies, which will be recognized in this convention. From this year, some new awards have been introduced for recognizing organizations from public sector, private sector, service sector and small scale industries who are promoting the QC movement. Tata Steel has been selected the Best 34
  35. 35. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012Private Sector Organization in the country for this award.With a humble beginning in early 90s when there were veryfew circles, today, Tata Steel has more than 7500 registeredquality circles. More than 96% of its employees are involvedin this improvement initiative. This year, these circles havesolved more than 14000 problems resulting in significantimprovement in quality, productivity, cost, safety, etc. Manyof the circles have participated in chapter level, national leveland international level competitions and have brought laurelsto the company.This award will be presented on 19th December 2002 atLuck now in the valedictory session the InternationalConvention by H.E. Sri PS Rama Mohan Rao, governor ofTamil Nadu. Mr AN Singh, Dy MD (corporate services) alongwith Mr KNP Singh, honorary secretary, TWU and vicechairman, JWQC will receive this award on behalf of thecompany. 35
  36. 36. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 RECOMONDATION As the quality control has give lots of benefits to this three companies, we aresuggesting that they should continue to keep this system in order for them to keepimproving the quality of their workers skills and also with their products outcome. Thus,quality circle does give benefits to the company rather than disadvantages. 36
  37. 37. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 CONCLUSION As a conclusion, we could say that Quality Circle is implemented to allorganization where there is a scope for group based solution of work related problems.Besides that, the quality control aims are to achieve the objectives basically through thedevelopment of people, and as the most important asset of an organization. QualityCircles also are not limited to manufacturing firms only. This is because, they areapplicable for variety of organizations where there is scoped for group based on thesolutions of work related problems. These, quality circles are relevant for factories,firms, school, hospitals, universities, research institutions, banks, government office andetc. 37
  38. 38. [ADMINISTRTAIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT] September 11, 2012 REFERENCESToyota and Honda endorse Quality Circles on global scale! Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from Human Factor, Quality Circles. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from bin/WebObjects/WWW.woa/5/wo/Home.Vehicles.Quality- Kcze2uf0JCpyh9UCVTJ1Jg/3.9?v300175e.htmlQuality Circle. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from Resources Development and Quality Circle. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from development-and-Quality-circle-by-Hina-Rashmi-Chandni-student-of-IIBM- PatnaQuality Circles, Introduction of the Concept . Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from K. Zen. (2005). Quality Circle, Administrative Office Management (8th ed). United States: New Jersey. 38