• Fluid connective Tissue that circulates in a closed
system of blood vessels.
• Components of Blood:
o Blood Corpuscles (RBC & WBC)
o Straw coloured liquid with 92% water
o It transports food, CO2 and nitrogenous waste
• Red blood corpuscles:
o Iron containing respiratory pigment – Haemoglobin
o It transports Oxygen.
• White blood corpuscles:
o Ingest and destroy bacteria
o Prevents the spread of infection.
o Help in clotting of the blood
5. Functions of Blood
• Transport of Respiratory gases
o Oxygen from Lungs to Cells (Haemoglobin)
o Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs (Plasma)
• Transport of nutrients
o Absorption in small intestine (Digested food)
• Transport of Waste Products
o Urea, Uric acid to Kidney
• Defence against infection
o WBC digests and engulfs bacteria and produces antibodies.
6. Human Heart Structure
• Muscular Organ – made
of cardiac muscles
• Located in the middle of
the chest and tilts
towards the left.
• It has 4 chambers.
o 2 Upper Chambers (Atria)
– Thin walled
o 2 Lower chambers
(Ventricles) – Thick
7. Human Heart Structure
• Right and left side are
separated by Septum.
• Aperture between Atria
and Ventricles is
controlled by valves.
o Valves prevent the
back flow of blood.
8. Working of Heart
• Cardiac cycle consists of one heart beat. i.e. One
cycle of contraction and relaxation of cardiac
9. Heart in other animals
• In birds and mammals,
o oxygenated blood is separated from deoxygenated blood.
o Efficient supply of Oxygen for high energy and to maintain
their body Temperature
• In Amphibians,
o 3 chambered heart which is not separated completely.
o Body Temperature varies with environment.
• In Fish,
o Only 2 chambered heart.
o Oxygenated in the gills and pumps in the heart only once.
10. Working of Heart
• Double Circulation
o Blood passes through the heart twice in one complete cycle
of the body. Hence it is called as Double circulation
o Small mass of muscle cells in right atrium walls near the
opening of Venacava.
o Sino Atrial Node (SA Node)
o Initiates and Maintains heart beat.
o In case of its failure, electronic device “Pacemaker” is
• ECG (Electrocardiograph)
o Graphical representation of the electrical changes during heart beat.
o Records rate and rhythm of heart with the help of electrodes
11. Types of Blood Vessels:
Arteries vs. Veins
Thick walled Thin walled
Deep seated Superficial
Carry blood away from heart Carry blood to the heart
Carry Oxygenated blood
except Pulmonary Artery
Carry deoxygenated blood
except Pulmonary Vein
No valves are present Valves are preent
• Arteries divide repeatedly to form very thin walled
vessels called capillaries (one cell thick).
• Exchange of materials between blood and cells takes
place across the wall.
• Capillaries then join to form veins.
13. Quiz Time
• What is transportation of materials?
It is the process of movement of oxygen, CO2, waste substances
and secretion of glands from regions of availability to the regions of
storage or excretory organs.
• Give reasons for:
(i) Oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods are separate in the
heart of mammals.
This allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen, and meet their high
energy needs (as they are warm–blooded animals) which helps to
maintain body temperature.
(ii) Ventricles are thick walled.
Because they have to pump blood throughout the body or into various
• Why Ventricles are having thick wall?
To pump blood into various organs, Ventricles have thicker muscular
walls than the atrias
14. Quiz Time
• Important components of blood and their functions:
It helps in the transport of nutrients, salt waste materials,
Hormones and antibodies.
(ii) Red Blood Corpuscles
It helps in the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
(iii) White Blood Corpuscles
It helps in protection by destroying disease causing micro
(iv) Blood Platelets
It helps in the synthesis of thromboplastin for clotting of blood.
15. Quiz Time
• Arteries wall is thicker than vein. Why?
To withstand high pressure blood comes from ventricles, the
arteries have thick elastic walls.
• What is the use of 4 chambered heart in Mammals
4 chambered heart prevents mixing of oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood. Such separation allows a highly efficient
supply of oxygen to the body. This is useful in animals that have
high energy needs, such as birds and mammals, which constantly
use energy to maintain their body temperature.
• Importance of platelets during injury?
To avoid leakage on the place of injury, blood has platelet cells
which circulate around the body and plug these leaks by helping
to clot the blood at these points of injury.
16. Quiz Time
• Functions of Lymph?
Lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from intestine and
drains excess fluid from extra cellular space back into the blood.
• Difference between Blood and Lymph?
Blood – red in color and contains more protein
Lymph – colourless and contains less protein
• List three differences between arteries and veins.
Carry Oxygen rich blood
away from heart except
Carry deoxygenated blood
towards the heart except
Mostly deeply situated in
Superficial and deep in
Have thick, elastic walls Thin walled
17. Quiz Time
• Match the following
• What is Blood Pressure?
The force that blood exerts against the wall of elastic blood
vessels is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured with
an instrument called sphygmomanometer.
Pulmonary Artery Transport deoxygenated blood from other
parts of the body to right auricle
Pulmonary Vein Transport oxygenated blood from left
ventricle to different parts of the body
Aorta Transport blood to lungs to get oxygen
from right ventricle
Veins Transport oxygenated blood from lungs to
19. Transport of Material in Plants
• Plants have specialized conducting tissues
• Xylem: to transport water and dissolved minerals
upwards from the roots to different parts of the
o Xylem is made up of four kind of cells namely
Tracheids, Vessels, Xylem fibres and Xylem
• Phloem: to distribute food prepared by leaves to
different parts of the plants.
20. Specialized Conducting Tissues
Transport Water and mineral salts
from roots to different parts of the
Translocate food in aqueous form
from leaves to different parts
Transport is passive Transport is active
Vessels and Tracheids are dead cells Sieve tube and companion cells are
Xylem Tissue has four type of cells
namely Vessels, Tracheids, Xylem
Fibres, Xylem Parenchyma
21. Tracheids Vs Vessels
Elongated, thin cells with tapering
Elongated tube like structures placed
end to end
Thick liquified walls with pits along
the thick walls
Liquified walls with pits
Water travels through pits from one
tracheid to another
Open end walls . So water moves from
one vessel to another.
23. Transport of water and dissolved minerals
• Evaporation of water
from the surface of the
leaves through stomata
• Roots take up water
again due to
24. Transport of Food and Other substances
o Leaves produce food with the help of light in a process
o Food produced in leaves is transported to various parts of
the plant in a process called Translocation.
25. Quiz Time
• What is Translocation?
The process of transportation of food from leaves to other parts of plant
body is called translocation. It occurs in the part of vascular tissue known
• What is Transpiration?
The process of loss of water from plant body in the form of water vapour
especially through stomata is called transpiration.
• Differentiate between Xylem and Phloem.
Conducts water Conducts food
Unidirectional transport –
Multidirectional transport –
both upward and downward
Transpiration doesn’t require
Translocation in the phloem is
achieved by utilizing energy
Contains 3 types of dead cells Contains only one dead cell
• Process of removal of
harmful metabolic waste
from the body of an
• Organs involved:
o A pair of kidneys
o A pair of Ureter
o Urinary bladder
• Metabolic Waste
o Urea, Uric acid, CO2 and
• There are millions of
long coiled tubules
called Nephrons in
• They are the functional
unit of Kidney.
• There are millions of long
coiled tubules called
Nephrons in Kidney.
• They are the functional unit
Bowman’s Capsule (One
end) (Hollow shaped)
Have bundle of blood
One end attached to
31. Excretory Process
o Reabsorption is the process by which filtrate moves to the
tubules where water, glucose, amino acids are absorbed by
the surrounding capillaries. These will be later returned to
• Urine Formation
Water Urinary Bladder Urethra
32. Kidney Functions and Failure
• Osmoregulation is the control of water content and
mineral salts of the body.
o Kidney is responsible for Osmoregulation in our body.
• Kidney Failure:
o Can happen through infection, injury and restricted blood
o Can be treated through transplant or Dialysis. Dialysis is
done through artificial Kidneys.
33. Principle of Dialysis
Coiled in a tank
Artery blood flows into
Cellulose tubes filters
and absorbs the waste
Solution contains water,
glucose, salts with
concentration similar to
that of blood
Pumped into vein of arm
34. Quiz Time
• Which is the structural and functional unit of Human
• What is excretion?
The process of removal of nitrogenous waste substances
produced during metabolic activities of the body is called
• What are excretory substances excreted from
• Which process helps in the removal of waste
substances from blood while kidney failure?
35. Quiz Time
• What is osmoregulation?
Osmoregulation is the maintenance of optimum
concentration of water and salts in the body fluids.
• What causes the liquid part of blood to filter out from
glomerulus into the renal tubule?
High pressure causes the liquid part of blood to filter out
from glomerulus into the renal tubule.
37. Excretion in Plants
• Plant wastes are stored in Cellular Vacuoles.
• Gaseous wastes such as CO2 (from respiration), O2
(from photosynthesis) are removed through stomata
• Liquid wastes such as water are removed through
transpiration in stomata.
• Other wastes
o Some wastes are stored in dead cells of the leaves which are
discarded through shedding of leaves.
o Resins, gums, oils are stored in old xylem.
o Few other waste materials are removed from nodes into the soil.
38. Quiz Time
• What are methods used by Plants to get rid of
o Get rid of excess water by transpiration.
o Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off.
o Other waste products are stored as resins and gums.
o Excrete some waste substances into soil around them.
40. Activity 6.1
o To prove that chlorophyll is essential for
• Materials Required:
o Potted Plant with Variegated Leaves
o Sheet of Paper
o Water Bath
o Bunsen Burner
o Diluted Solution of Iodine
41. Activity 6.1
Keep it in
Dark room for
Potted Plant with
42. Activity 6.1
o The colour of the iodine on leaf at dark spots changes to
blue-black and not anywhere else.
o Chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis to prepare
43. Activity 6.2
o To prove that carbon dioxide is essential for
• Materials Required:
o Two potted plants
o Two bell shaped glass jars
o Watch Glass
o Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)
o Glass plates.
45. Activity 6.2
• Starch Test:
o Refer to Activity 6.1
o Leaf of the plant with KOH will not turn blue-black as
KOH absorbs carbon dioxide required for
o Leaf of the plant without KOH will have carbon dioxide
for photosynthesis and hence the leaf will have starch
resulting in blue-black colour.
o Carbon dioxide is essential for starch formation.
46. Activity 6.3
• Action of Saliva on Starch
o Take two test tubes having starch solution.
o Add Saliva to one of the test tubes.
o Add iodine solution to both of them.
47. Activity 6.3
o Test tube without Saliva turns blue-black.
o Test Tube with saliva doesn’t turn blue black. But
changes into reddish brown colour.
o Saliva digests starch into simple sugar and hence
Iodine doesn’t change it into blue-black.
48. Activity 6.4
• Presence of CO2 in exhaled air
o Test Tube A: Use a syringe to pass air through fresh
o Test tube B: Take freshly prepared lime water and blow air
through this lime water.
49. Activity 6.4
o Limewater turns milky after some time in Test Tube A.
o Limewater turns milky in Test Tube B.
CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 ↓ + H2O
o As air contains less percentage of CO2, it takes some
time for the lime water to turn milky.
o Exhaled air contains more CO2 than in air and turns
lime water milky sooner
50. Activity 6.5
• Product of Fermentation is Carbon dioxide
Fruit Juice or
in Test Tube
Fit the test tube
with one holed
Fit the cork with
Bent Glass tube
Test tube with
52. Activity 6.6
• Rate of Breathing
o Fish in Aquarium opens and close their mouth and the gill-
slits behind their eyes also open and close.
o Count the number of times fish opens and closes its mouth
in a minute.
o Compare with your breathing rate
o Rate of Breathing in a fish is much faster than human
53. Activity 6.7
• Range of Haemoglobin
o Visit a health centre in your locality.
o Find out the normal range of haemoglobin count in
children, men and women.
o Haemoglobin in men > in women > in children
54. Activity 6.8
• Process of Transpiration Experiment
Place a stick
the pots in
55. Activity 6.8
o Pot with plant – Small drops of water on the plastic bag
covering the leaf.
o Pot with Stick – no water droplets are seen on plastic bag.
o Living plants absorb water from the soil and water gets
transported to the leaves.
o Loss of water takes place through leaves by the process of