• Living organisms produce new individuals of their
own kind and maintain their existence generation
• This process is called as Reproduction.
Importance of Reproduction:
• Continuation of life on Earth
• To maintain the size of the population
• Transfer of variation from one generation to another.
3. Reproduction – Basic Steps
• DNA in the cell nucleus is the
information centre for making
• The first step in reproduction
is replication of DNA followed
by cell division.
• Variations happen during
copying of DNA.
• These variations are the basis
• Variations are useful for the
survival of species over time.
4. Importance of DNA copying in Reproduction
• DNA Copying:
o Organisms pass on their
characteristics to their
• Importance of DNA Copying:
o Maintains characteristics
in different generations.
o DNA is the blueprint and it
ensures correct body
o Any change in it causes
change in synthesis of
proteins and in turn body
design. i.e. it will cause
5. Variation is Beneficial for the Species
• Variation – Change in body design of an individual
• It allows organisms to adapt and exist in diverse habitat
• Small variations or variations over time, will help the
species in its survival in different conditions.
• However, drastic variation in a single individual will affect
its chance of survival.
• It is the basis of evolution.
6. Types of Reproduction
• There are two types of reproduction namely (a)
Asexual reproduction and (b) Sexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
New individual is produced
from a Single parent
New individual is produced
from two parents
It does not involve union of
Involves union of gametes.
Younger ones are genetically
identical to the parents
Younger ones are not
genetically identical to the
Variations are absent Variations are present
7. Various Types of Asexual Reproduction
• Types of Asexual Reproduction
o Vegetative Propagation
o Spore Formation
• Fission is a process of division of
single celled organism into two or
a) Binary Fission:
• Fission into two cells.
• Takes place during
b) Multiple Fission:
Fission into many cells.
Takes place during
• E.g. Plasmodium (which
• Budding is a method of reproduction in which a
protuberance develops on the mature organism’s
body, attains full maturity and detaches.
o E.g. Hydra, Yeast
• Fragmentation is a
process in which body
of an individual simply
breaks up into smaller
• These pieces or
fragments grow into
o E.g. Spirogyra
13. Spore Formation
• Spores are special cells
formed within special
• Sporangia disseminate
and can form the entire
• This is exclusive to
E.g. Aspergillus, Fungi-
14. Vegetative Propagation
• Vegetative Propagation is a method of reproduction
where a vegetative plant part produces a new plant.
o Here vegetative part refers to non-reproductive or non-
flowering part of the plant body such as Stem, root,
e.g. Bryophyllum, Rose, Jasmine, Sugarcane,
16. Artificial Vegetative Propagation
• Artificial Vegetative propagation is done through cutting,
Layering and Grafting.
• Cutting - e.g. Grapes, Bougainvillea, cactus, Pineapple
17. Artificial Vegetative Propagation
Mound Layering – made to
grow as an independent plant and
plant can be cut from main plant
Still attached to Parent Plant
Induced to Produce roots
Branch of Plant - Buried in Soil (5 to 6
18. Artificial Vegetative Propagation
Joining a part of one
plant with other
Root Stock Supporting and
Rooted part (disease
Scion Cutting from a
desirable plant (superior
Cambium of Scion is in
direct contact with
cambium of stock
New Plant with Root
System of Stock + Shoot
system of Scion
19. Importance of Vegetative Propagation
To save a
20. Sexual Reproduction
• Sexual Reproduction
involves male and female
individuals to produce
• It involves the formation
and fusion of male and
• New individuals exhibit
variation, it helps in the
processes of adaptation.
• Cell division involves
21. Importance of Sexual Reproduction
• Variations ensure retaining of a species with in the
• As DNA of two individual organisms of same species
are involved, sexual reproduction results in
• Sexual reproduction helps in crossing over and it is
essential for variation.
• Variation allows organisms to live in diverse habitat
with the help of adaptation.
• During this type of reproduction fusion of gametes
take place. This helps to maintain constant number
of chromosomes throughout the species.
22. Plant Reproductive System
• Flower is the reproductive part of the plant.
o Male reproductive part is Stamens.
o Female reproductive part is Carpel.
23. Male reproductive part in Plants
Parts of Stamen
Filament • Stalk like Structure
• Flattened top
• Produces pollen grains
(male gametes or germ
24. Female reproductive part in Plants
Parts of Carpel
Stigma • Terminal part
Style • Elongated structure
• Swollen base
• Produces ovules
(female gametes or
• Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from anther to
stigma by agents like wind, water and insects etc.
• Two types of pollination –
o Self Pollination
o Cross pollination
26. Types of Pollination
• Self Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from
anther to stigma of same flower.
• Cross Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from
anther to stigma of different flower of same plant or
A → A Self
A → B Cross
A → C Cross
B → C Cross
27. Fertilisation in Plants
• Fertilisation It is the process of fusion of male gametes
(male germ cells) and female gametes (female germ cells
or egg cells).
28. Fertilisation in Plants
(Male germ cells)
Grows inside the
and then Ovules
cells - egg cells)
29. Formation of Seed
• Formation of Seed
Ovary → Fruit
Ovule → Seed
Embryo forms within Ovule
Divides Several times
30. Human Reproductive System
• Puberty: Reproductive system of young organisms
become functional at a definite age.
• At puberty,
Starts production of sperms
Male Hormone Testosterone
is produced from Testis
10 – 12 years
Starts production of ovum
Female hormone Estrogen is
produced from Ovary
31. Importance of Hormones
• Regulates the process of gametogenesis (formation
• Maintains structure and function of accessory sex
• Develops secondary sexual characteristics such as
o facial, axial and pubic hair, change
o pitch of voice
o development of mammary glands.
32. Male Reproductive System
Pair of Testis
33. Functions of Male Reproductive System
Requires temperature 1
or 3º less than body
To maintain less
temperature Testis are
present in Scrotum – a
muscular pouch like
Vas Deferens – a
long tube like
Just before sperms
enter urethra, Sperms
are enriched with
Prostrate gland and
To provide nutrition
and motility for Sperms
outside to genital
Urethra is enclosed in
muscular organ - Penis
Urethra and Genital
pore are common for
both Urine and Sperms
35. Functions of Female Reproductive System
Secretes two hormones
Composed of follicles
that produce Ova at
At end of ovary, funnel
like structure leads to
Fallopian tubes from
both ends open into
elastic bag like
structure - Uterus
Cervix & Vagina
Uterus opens into
vagina through the
Vagina has a tubular
Starts producing Ova at
Vagina is the birth
canal through which
the young ones are
Urethra and Vaginal
openings are separate.
36. Sexual Cycle in Females
along with blood
moves out of
vagina in the
form of bleeding.
Mature into Egg or
starts to thicken
Ovum waits for fertilisation to occur.
Further thickening of Uterine wall
Fertilized Ovum Zygote Grows
and becomes Embryo
Embryo attaches to uterine wall
which is called Implantation
In fallopian tube only one sperm
Once fertilisation occurs, menstrual
Movement of Sperms (Sperms are active & motile)
During copulation sperms reach
female genital tract
Millions of sperms Vagina
Uterus (through Cervix).
38. Functions of Placenta
• Special tissues called placenta forms between
Uterine wall and foetus.
• Placenta provides nutrition to the developing
• Helps in the exchange of CO2 and oxygen.
• Helps in the removal of waste substance formed
in the developing foetus.
• Helps in the attachment of foetus to Uterus wall.
• Development of foetus takes about 9 months.
• Birth of foetus occurs through rhythmic
contraction of muscles in the uterus.
39. Population Control
• Physical methods – Condoms, Diaphragm and
• Prevents entry of Sperms / AIDS, STD (Gonorrhea,
• Specific Drug (Oral Pills).
• Affects hormonal preparation.
• Prevents formation of Gametes. But can cause side
• Prevents implantation on the Uterus
• Causes irritation of Uterus
• Vas Deferens Surgical removal or Ligated (called as
• Fallopian tubes are ligated (Tubectomy).
40. Reproductive Health
• Reproductive health includes aspects such as
o Responsible, safe and satisfying reproductive life.
o Awareness regarding fertility regulation methods, the right,
freedom and choice to control birth.
o Ability to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases.
• Sexually Transmitted diseases (STDs):
o Infectious diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria,
protozoans virus and fungi that spread through sexual contact.
o e.g. Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Trichomoniasis, AIDS etc.
o Most STDs causes symptom such as burning sensation in
urination and urethral discharge.
o AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is caused by
HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus). Its cure has not been
found till now and it may cause death if not treated properly.
41. Activity 8.1 – Budding in Yeast
• Aim: To demonstrate asexual reproduction by budding in
• Materials required: Sugar, water, Test tube, Yeast
Granules, cotton, slide, coverslip.
10g of Sugar
in 100 ml of
Take 20 ml of
in Test tube
Add a pinch
Keep a cotton
plug on test tube
and leave it in a
Place drop of yeast
from test tube on a
slide and observe
43. Activity 8.2 – Observation of bread mould
Observe the surface with
Record your observation
for a week
Wet a Slice of bread
Keep it in a cool and dark
• Observation: Bread mould
grows on bread.
• It is initially white in colour,
then it becomes brown to black
44. Activity 8.3 – Binary Fission in Amoeba
Compare the observations
of both the slides
Observe another permanent
slide of Amoeba showing
Observe a permanent slide of
Amoeba under a microscope
• Slide of Amoeba shows single
• One with Binary Fission,
appears big sized Amoeba with
construction in the centre.
45. Activity 8.4 – Observing Spirogyra
Observe the slide under
Put 1 or 2 filaments on a slide,
add a drop of glycerine and
cover it with Coverslip
Collect Water from lake or Pond
that is dark green and contains
• We can observe Spirogyra
filament under the microscope.
46. Activity 8.5 – Vegetative Propagation in Potato
• Potato with notches or buds
show the growth of new
• Other slices of potato do not
next few days
47. Activity 8.6 – Vegetative Propagation in Money Plant
• Stems of Money plant with
leaves showed the growth.
• Other parts between two leaves
did not show any growth.
plant into small
at least one
Keep one end of
all pieces in
48. Activity 8.7 – Observing Spirogyra
Soak a few seeds of Bengal gram
and keep them overnight.
Drain excess water and cover
the seeds with wet cloth.
Leave them for a day.
Cut open the seed carefully
and observe different parts
• The seed consists of two
cotyledons (dicotyledon) when
it starts growing it shows
growth of future shoot called
plumule and root called radicle.