Word de ingles automedicacion


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Word de ingles automedicacion

  3. 3. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011 1.-Introduccion ACULTAD MEDICINA HUMANA FACULTAD MEDICINA HUMANASelf-medication is a type of conduct that involves taking medications as thepatients own initiative, on the advice of the pharmacist or health of any person.There are many factors that influence this type of behavior, emphasizing socialfactors like peer pressure or our own families that we offer an alternative to solvingour health problems based on their own experience. It also influences the low levelof education of people especially the parents, which completely ignore the riskinvolved in self-medication.Among the economic factors that influence self-medication includeunemployment, poor working conditions and living standards of most people andespecially the low income family that gives them access to health services whichtranslates lack of prescription by a trained professional.Among the cultural factors influencing the lack of access and limited availability ofinformation allowing pharmaceutical companies to disseminate biasedinformation that encourages people to consume drugs supposedly very safe, thisalso is coupled with poor health education with which have. 2.- DefinitionSelf-medication is the act by which we medicate ourselves with no prescription,which some drugs lead to dependence andtherefore the mass consumption of them.Self-medication with drugs that alter mood,usually respond to adaptive behavior, as anattempt to escape boredom, loneliness,stress, frustration. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  4. 4. MEDICAL ENGLISH 20113.-Self-Medication as an Explanation for AddictionDependence occurs when there is an overuse of the substance that producessignificant negative consequences over an extended period of time.Dependency, called dependency syndrome in the latest edition of theclassification of diseases, ICD-10 (WHO, 1992), is defined as "a set of physiologicalmanifestations, behavioral and cognitive in which drug use or a type of them,takes the highest priority for the individual, even bigger than any other type ofbehavior in the past had the highest value ...".Its causes are searching for people to reduce pain and anxiety but what isgenerated is increased tolerance or need for increasing amounts of drugaddiction to get the desired effect, failure to attempt to stop drug addiction, anda weakening of their social activities.The negative consequences associated with drug addiction affect many differentaspects of a persons life. These consequences are diverse, but we can dividethem into two groups.HealthDrug addiction causes or is involved in the emergence of diseases, damages andorganic and psychological problems. Hepatitis, cirrhosis, depression, psychosis,paranoia are some of the disorders that drug addiction causes and can be fatal.SocialWhen starting the drug addiction, the person is no longer able to maintain stablerelationships and can destroy family relationships and warm atmosphere. Drugaddiction can cause people to stop participating in the world, abandoning goalsand your life revolves around drug addiction destroying your surroundings. Also affected the people around the adictoadiccion to drugs, especially those intheir immediate environment, such as family and friends.Poor performance at work or in the studioIt reaches the level of goals and plans to leave,using drug addiction as the only "solution". UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  5. 5. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011Economic consequencesUse of drug addiction can be very expensive, leading to addiction to devote all itsresources to maintain consumption, even steal the wealth of his family and friends.Currently there are treatments that can overcome the problem of drug addiction.Continue reading the next section to learn how to overcome drug addiction. 4.- Dangers of self Medications Some people mistakenly believe that prescription medications are more powerful because it is necessary to have a prescription to buy. But it is also possible to abuse or become addicted to drugs to be sold freely,without prescription. For example, dextromethorphan (DXM) is present in some over-the-counter cough medicines. When you take the recommended amount of tablespoons or tablets, there is no problem. But the high doses can cause problems in the senses( above all in the eye and ear) confusion, stomach pain, numbness, and even hallucinations. 5.- Whats drugs are abused more?Medicines from prescription that are abused more often are classified into threecategories:1.- OpioidsExamples: oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone(Vicodin) and meperidine (Demerol).Medical uses: opioids used as painkillers (to treat pain) orto relieve cough or diarrhea. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  6. 6. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011How they work: opioids bind to opioid receptors in the central nervous system(brain and spinal cord), which led to the brain does not receive pain messages.2. Central nervous system (CNS) depressantsExamples: sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal), diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam(Xanax).Medical uses: CNS depressants are used to treat anxiety, tension, panic attacksand sleep disorders.How they work: CNS depressants slow down brain activity by increasing the activityof a neurotransmitter called GABA. As a result, achieved a drowsy or calmingeffect.3.- StimulantsExamples: methylphenidate (Ritalin), amphetamine/dextroamphetamine(Adderall).Medical uses: stimulants can be used to treat narcolepsy and ADHD.How they work: stimulants increase brain activity, which leads to a higher State ofalert and higher levels of attention and energy. 5.- Whats are dangers of abusing drugs? Regardless of that consume illegal drugs or medications, abusers of these substances tend to have problems at school, at home, with friends or with the law. The chances that a person commits a crime, is the victim of a crime or have an accident are greater when abused those substances, no matter to be of medications or drugs. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  7. 7. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011As well as the consumption of illegal drugs, the use of prescription drugs onprescription for purposes different from those who have been prescribed isassociated with serious health risks.The abuse of opioids can cause vomiting, mood changes, reduction in thecapacity of thinking (cognitive function) and even decreased respiratory function,coma or death. This risk is greater when prescription drugs such as opioids aremixed with other substances such as alcohol, antihistamines, and CNS depressants.CNS depressants also have their risks. If it reduces or interrupts its use too fast,seizures occur. Take depressants of the central nervous system with other drugssuch as analgesics of prescription, some prescription drugs without a prescriptionfor allergy and cold, or alcohol can slow the heart rate and respiration of a person,being able to get to cause death.The abuse of stimulants (such as some medications for ADHD) can lead to heartfailure or seizures. These risks increase when stimulants are mixed with other drugs,even with those who sold freely, as certain anticatarrales drugs. Take a stimulant inexcessive amounts can lead a person to develop a dangerously high bodytemperature or irregular heart rhythm. Take several high doses of stimulants duringa short period of time can make the person to become aggressive or paranoid.Although the stimulant abuse does not usually cause physical dependence orwithdrawal, sensations that these substances cause in people who consume themcan lead them to use them more and more frequently, becoming a habit difficultto abandon their consumption.The dangers of abusing prescription medicines can be even worse if people takethese drugs in a different way from which it should be used. The Ritalín may seemharmless because it prescribed even young children with ADHD. But if a persontakes it unnecessarily or incorrectly, snorting it, or injecting it, the toxicity of theRitalín can be very severeSome problems of the abuse of drugs UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  8. 8. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011The abuse of pain relievers The pain is only a symptom and abusing painkillers, masking the manifestation of the Agency with respect to any underlying disease. While it is reasonable to look for a paleativo effect, we must not forget that although the symptom has assigned, the problem that generates the pain has not disappeared.Abuse of antibioticsEspecially when they are consumed orally andthrough prolonged administrations, destroy not onlythe germs that you want to remove, but also theintestinal flora which can cause damage theimmune system of the colon. Abuse of laxatives Prolonged use of laxatives leads to addiction and just hampers evacuation in a natural way. The use of laxatives should be limited to an occasional remedy. And since there are many varieties of a same medicine, the dose of the medicinal product and the time that remains in the body may vary. If a person does not have prescription, may not knowwhat specific drug you are taking.Probably, the most common result of the abuse of prescription drugsaddiction. Abusers of drugs may become addicts with as easily as thosewho consume illicit drugs. Why the many medications must be prescribed UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  9. 9. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011 by a doctor is that some of them are addictive. Why most doctors not renew prescriptions, unless they can see the patient: want to look at it to make sure that it is not developing addiction. 6.-Case ReportSelf-Medication of Migraine Headaches with Freebase CocaineIntroductionCocaine is a commonly abused drug with ahigh potential for adverse consequences.Although the etiology of cocainedependence is complex, the self-medicationhypothesis asserts that certain persons initiatecocaine use in order to medicate themselvesfor an underlying psychiatric disorder(Khantzian, 1985). This hypothesis is supportedin part by diagnostic studies which suggest ahigh prevalence of psychopathology incocaine abusers (Gawin & Kleber, 1986;Weiss, Mirin, Michael, & Sollogub, 1986).Additional support is provided by a number of case reports which describepatients who apparently used cocaine to self-medicate either affective disordersor attention deficit disorder. In most of these case reports, specificpharmacotherapy for the psychiatric disorder resulted in dramatic improvement inthe cocaine dependence. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  10. 10. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011History and backgroundThe patient was a 29 year old man whobegan having headaches at age 23. Theheadache was described as a throbbingpain over the right temple that lastedbetween four hours and four days.Headaches were preceded by blurredvision, flashing purple and clear lights, andwere associated with nausea. Theyoccurred between one and four times permonth. During a headache, the patientpreferred to lie still in a dark, quiet room untilit subsided. If he took a combination ofergotamine and caffeine early in the courseof a headache, he sometimes obtained relief.He avoided taking more than two pills during an episode and so used themedication suboptimally. Previous trials with propanolol and amitriptyline wereunsuccessful in treating his migraines.He first tried smoking freebase cocaine at age 27 at the urging of a friend whosuggested that it might help a headache he had at the time. Indeed, he noticedimmediate and complete relief lasting between five and fifteen minutes, afterwhich the euphoric peak subsided and his headache returned. He found that hecould sustain relief with each additional “hit off the pipe” for another five to fifteenminutes, after which the headache returned again.He repeated this pattern for the next three headaches he had. After his fourthepisode of smoking cocaine, he began to use cocaine even when he did nothave a headache. The cocaine never brought on a migraine headache if he didnot already have one at the beginning of use.Gradually, his use of cocaine escalated until he was consuming between 10 to 14grams every two weeks at a cost of $1000.Typically, he experienced little or no craving between paydays; but as soon as hehad his paycheck in hand, he felt an intense desire to obtain and use cocaine. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  11. 11. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011Within the, one month prior to admission, the patient lost his job and marriage dueto cocaine use.TreatmentThe patient was treated on a specialized inpatient ward for substance abuse. Thetreatment consisted of individual and group therapy that was supplemented bydrug education. An ergotamine preparation was prescribed for the headaches,and instructions were given for optimal use. During the 28 days of inpatienttreatment, the patient remained free of cocaine and experienced only oneheadache, which was mild and responded to four hours of bedrest. Following theinpatient program, he was discharged to a half-way house for recoveringsubstance abusers.DiscussionMore importantly, the case illustrates cocaine use which apparently began as aself-treatment for headaches and culminated in a full-blown cocainedependence.When planning the treatment strategy for the patient, it was helpful to consider: The factors that initiated cocaine use The factors that perpetuated addictive use.An examination of the phenomenology of cocaine dependence suggests that thefactors involved in perpetuating addictive use may be quite distinct from thoseinvolved in initiating use. The lives of patients dependent on cocaine becomeincreasingly organized around thinking about, obtaining, using, and recoveringfrom the effects of the drug. Their relationship with the chemical eventuallysupersedes prior relationships with other people and activities. In this patient, forexample, compulsive use continued despite adverse consequences such asmarital, job, and financial losses. Initially, however, when self-medication was hismotive, he was able to terminate his cocaine use when the migraine symptomssubsided. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO
  12. 12. MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011Other patients who are purely self-medicating their psychiatric symptoms shouldmanifest a similar pattern of controlled use. By contrast, his addictive use wasrelated to new symptoms, such as craving, which occurred in the absence ofmigraines.Dependent cocaine users often report profound euphoria with immediate usealternating with equally profound dysphoria, craving, and other withdrawalsymptoms when the acute effects subside. UNIVERSIAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO