Motivation by douglas brown

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Research on Motivation, an important issue in EFL.

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Motivation by douglas brown

  1. 1. Chapter 5, Douglas Brown (2001) Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy.Addison Wesley,Longman. Prof. Estela N. Braun- Adjunto Regular Práctica Educativa II, Didáctica del Inglés y Residencia en Primaria (Abril, 2014) MOTIVATION
  2. 2. DEFINING MOTIVATION  1. a Behaviouristic Definition: Skinner (1958) Motivation as “…the anticipation of reward”.  2. Cognitive definition:  Internal drives: Ausubel (1968): exploration-manipulation-stimulation- activity-knowledge-ego enhancement.
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Needs Theory ,Maslow (1970)  Self-actualization  Esteem: Strength  Esteem: Status  Love- Belongingness- Affection  Safety- Security- Protection- Freedom from Fear  Air- Water- Food- Rest- Exercise
  4. 4. Self-control theory (Hunt, 1971) MOTIVATION is highest when one can make one’s own choices , whether they are short-term or long-term contexts.Self- regulation. Autonomy. Make our own choices.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_c9ZhYZtjY  David Nunan, Motivating YLE.
  5. 5. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  Gardner and Lambert, 1972; Gardner & Tremblay, 1994.  MOTIVATION: Intensity of one’s impetus to learn.  Intrinsic motivation is superior in terms of long-term goals.  Extrinsic motivation: too dependant on tangible rewards.
  6. 6. THE PROBLEM OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  CONTENT  PRODUCT  CORRECTNESS  COMPETITIVENESS  ALL OF  THEM LEAVE OUT THE LEARNERS’ NEEDS, AND THUS FAIL TO CREATE A COLLABORATIVE PROCESS OF COMPETENCE BUILDING.  Discuss the chart on page 79.
  7. 7. Tests and exams. Peer- evaluation  Emphasizing the “big” picture-larger perspective  Letting students set long-term goals  Allowing sufficient time for learning  Cooperative learning activities  Group work  Viewing the class as a team  Content-centered teaching  English for specific purposes  Allowing risk-taking behaviour  Rewarding innovation and creativity
  8. 8. Activities for intrinsic motivation  Teaching writing as a thinking process in which learners develop their own ideas freely and openly.  Showing learners different strategies to enhance their learning.  Students créate their own Reading materials (e- books)  Oral fluency activities about their interests.  Listening to an academic lectura for specific information.  CLT enables learners to use language to accomplish functions.  If learners see grammatical explanations as a
  9. 9. Teacher as FACILITATOR (Dôrnyei,1998)  1. Set a personal example with your own behaviour.  2. Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.  3. Present the tasks properly.  4. Develop a good relationship with the learners.  5. Increase the learners’linguistic self-confidence.  6. Make the language classes interesting.  7. Promote learner autonomy.  8. Personalize the learning process.  9. Increase the learners’goal-orientedness.  10. Familiarize learners with the target language culture.
  10. 10. TASKS:  At home solve chapter 9 TKT in pairs.  In pairs, review literature on Motivation. Choose an article, summarize it and present it orally in class. Which practical experiment could you use to learn about your students’level of motivation?  You will receive a list of recommended authros by mail.
  11. 11. Internet Resources for teachers  http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/  http://www.macmillanenglish.com/resources/  http://www.pearsonlongman.com/ae/heythere/tea cher-resources.asp  http://www.cambridge.org/ar/elt/?site_locale=es_ AR

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