Phonology first part por Estefanny Trelles Alarcón
PRELIMINARY NOTIONSLinguistics is the scientific study of a language in general and of languages in particular dealing with their history, nature-approaches, grammar-rules, structure- syntax, sounds-phonology, meaning systems- semantics, semiotics, pragmatics, and so on as a system of human communication and from an internal point of view.
LINGUISTICS BACKGROUND• The word Linguistics was firstly used in the middle of the 19th century to emphasize the difference between a newer approach to the study of a language that was then developing and the more traditional approach of philology.• Philology: also know as Comparative Philology or Historial Linguistics.It is a branch of linguistics that studies language change and language relationship. - Jacob Grimm Had reconstructured what appeared to - Franz Bopp be the Proto-Indo-European - August Schleicher language.
OTHER DISCIPLINES Studies how dialects differ between groups separated by certainSociolinguistics: social variables such as ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age and so on. Is a discipline concerned with relations between messages and Psycholinguistics: the characteristics of individual who select and interpret them. It is also know as natural language procesing, NPL, it is aComputational Linguistics: branch of artificial intelligence. It deals with the relation ship between language andAnthropological Linguistics: culture. It focuses on the functions of language in our societies,Socio-ethnic-Linguistics: especially characterized by the deep differences of class, ethnicity, gender and generation. It provides the theorical and descriptive foundations for the investigaciónApplied Linguistics: And solution of language-related problems, especially those of language Education.
CONTRASTIVE OR COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS It is possible to refer to the study, contrast or comparasion Of two or more language structures, whose subject matter Is more specific. Comparative Linguistics. Contrastive Linguistics.Genetic relateddness implies a common Certainly studies, analyses, and comparesOrigin or photo-language, and comparative Two or more languages descriptively in orderLinguistics aims to construction language To find out similarities and differences amongFamilies, to reconstruction proto-languages Them during the language learning process.And specify the changes that have resultedIn the documented language.
BASIS FOR TEACHING CONTRASTIVE Students of applied linguistics intending to teach a Foreign language such as English, French, Italian, Spanish And so on as it is their concern.Since MT interference Accounts for some 30% of erros to understand language Transfer mechanisms in such a way as to be able to devise Materials and learning activities that control them is important.Contrastive Linguistics Syllabus: The exposition of CL proceeds level by level, and the traditional three levels provide ample scope. - LEXIS, - SOUND, - SYNTAX.Contrstive Pragmatic: the ability to understand another speakers intended meaning is called pragmatic competence.Methodology of Contrastive Linguistics: In principle, every difference or similitary between two or more related languages should be explicable in terms of isolation or context analysis.Contrastive Analysis Method: is especially associated with applied contrastive studies advocated as a means of predicting or explaining difficultes of L2 learners with a partiular mother tongue in learning a particular target language.
New Trends: Although Lado(1957) included a comparison of cultures, early contrastive studies focused on what has been described as microlinguistic contrastive analysis (James 1980: 61): phonology, grammar, lexis.The role of Corpora: is a body of text, utterances, or other specimens considered more or less reprsentative of a language. LANGUAGE An arbitrary structured system of utterances-sounds, gestures, Sings, and movements, written symbols, morphemes, words and Sentences used for human communication. Most Spoken Language Population of the World 1.- Mandarin 2.- Hindi 3.- English 4.- Arabic 5.- Spanish
BRIEF CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES People communicate in endless ways due to the vast places they Live in and accordingly to their lifestyles; consequently, abundant Variations of languages have arisen. These language are classified Into verbal spoken-and non verbal-written and mimic.Verbal Language Non Verbal LanguageLanguages might be classified as follows: Written or symbolic language-Language Family- Individual Language- Living Languages Idiographic Written Syllabic Writter- Extinct languages- Ancient languages Use idiograms symbols Use symbols, but syllable- Constructured languages by syllable- Dialect Ej:- Language Intelligibility- Idiolect Alphabetic Written- Jargon- Colloquialism Sound pronuncition- Slang Use alphabetic symbols Suach as spanish and english letters.
ARTICULATED LANGUAGE Writing systems are based on alphabets whose standard correct spellings have Little to do with how words are pronounced. English Language Spanish LanguageConsidered Spoken a first language second language speakersThird or fourth largest 352 million 417 millionNative language In Latin America and SpainIn the wold SpanishSpoken RomanceFirst language in the: United States,India, Nigeria, United Kinddom, Indo EuropeaPhilippines, Canada, Australia,Ireland, New Zeland.
LANGUAGE INCONSISTENCIES It is the incompatibility, It is the quality or state of being inconsistent, Lack of concordance with a structural pattern. These inconsistencies happen due to: 1,2,3.1.- The same letter or letters combinaton can be refer to different sounds.2.- The same sound can have with different letters or letter combinations.3.- Different dialect pronounce the same word differently.
CLUSTERS Group Symbols Orthographic Phonemic Vowels and ConsinantsVowel Cluster Consonant ClusterThis deals with the pronunciation Is a group or sequence of consonants that appearThat students give to synthetic word Together in a syllable without a vowel betweenContaining orthographic vowel-cluster them.And analyzes the observed pronuncintions It is important to distinguish between consonantIn relation to common English words containing clusters and diagraphs with which they are oftenThe same vowel clusters. confused. In Contrast to a consonant cluster, a diagraph is a group of two or more symbols which really stand for just one sound.
MIDDLE CLUSTERS SPANISH ENGLISH FRENCHVCCVVCCCVVCCCCVVCCCCCV Intrasyllabic Intersyllabic Inside between
FINAL CLUSTERS ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCHVCCVCCCVCCCC ENGLISH: 1.- 3ps 2.- plural nouns 3.- possesive nouns
PHONOLOGY Know as phonemics is the study of the system of phonemes of a language, Although some conceptualize phonology as encompassing far more than Sound segments. Thus, phonology can be used as a mora detailet term Subsuming phonetics. The phonologycal system is based on Phonemics And Phonetics.PHONEMICS PHONETICSIt studies the relevant, It is study and description of the speechdistinctive and significant sounds made by the human voice.elements in a language Articulatory phonetics focuses on the which are used to establish Human vocal apparatus and describesdifference in meaning. the sounds in terms of the vocal Tract.To represent phonemes inWriting, the phonologycal It is often denoted in linguistics by theSymbols are to be written use od dicaritics added to theBetween Slant Lines. Phonetic symbols and then placed in square brackets.
ALPHABET It is system of characters arranged in a fixed conventional order to Symbolize sounds or letter used in a writing system to represent Speech. It´s name comes from alpha beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA)There are as many transcription conventions as dictionaries and readers necessities.This implies having almost the same problems as ordinary orthohraphy. StandardOrthography of many languages does not correspond to the sounds pronounced whenThey are spoken. Phonetitians and linguists use a phonetic alphabet which has beenDesigned to represent all the possible sounds of the world languages in a standard way.
TRANSCRIPTION It is a system of notation that represents utterances or partial utterrances Of a language pronounced by people in general. Broad transcription Narrow TranscriptionIt is the notation that represents utterrances It is a notation that represents variants ofOf language by indicating only the significant and A specific phoneme. It captures as manyUnderlying sounds that make up a word As possible details which are represented By the diacritics provided in the IPA. It is Written between square brackets. It is also Named as Phonetic Transcription.
SYMBOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTIONStrees mark ´Angle bracketsSlant brackets / /Square bracketsVertical lineDivision marker .Diacritics