Global Warming Noise InsecticidesEngineering and Environment Nuclear Power Biodegradabale Materials Electric Cars
Global Warming An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels torise and will change the amount and pattern ofprecipitation, and a probable expansion of subtropicaldeserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arcticand would be associated with continuing retreat ofglaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of thewarming include more frequent occurrence of extreme-weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavyrainfall, species extinctions due to shifting temperatureregimes, and changes in crop yields.
Responses to global warmingMitigationAdaptationGeoengineering
NoiseWhen unwanted sound created by humanbeings hits our ears and disturbs theenvironment, noise pollution is created.Chiefly, noise pollution comes fromvehicles, aircraft and rail transport, air-conditioners, factories, amplified music andconstruction work.
Measures of noise: Noise pollution is measured in decibels. When noise is at45 decibels, no human being can sleep, and at 120 decibels the ear is in painand hearing begins to be damaged at 85 decibels.Effects of noise pollutionHuman health: Noise pollution disturbs our health and behavior in a number ofways including deafness causing lack ofsleep, irritability, indigestion, heartburn, high blood pressure,, and heart disease.Annoyance:Speech interference:Sleep interference:Decreased work performance:
Insecticides An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. DDTEven though someone created DDT back in the 19th century, only around 1939did Dr. Paul Muller discover that it was effective in killing insects, and shortlyafter, he won the nobel prize in medicine for this work.
DDTOne of the bigger drivers in the development of new insecticides has beenthe desire to replace toxic insecticidesOne of the better known impacts of DDT is to reduce the thickness of the eggshells on predatory birds. The shells sometimes become too thin to beviable, causing reductions in bird populationsAs a pesticide, DDT was first used during WWII. It was so effective as aninsect killer that some called it the "atomic bomb" of pesticides.
DDTWhat does this graph tell you? What years did malaria minimize and maximize?Can you guess during which years DDT was used?
Nuclear PowerNuclear power plants provide about 6% of the worlds energy and 13–14% ofthe worlds electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accountingfor about 50% of nuclear generated electricity.Some serious nuclear and radiation accidents have occurred. Nuclearpower plant accidents include the Chernobyldisaster(1986), Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011). Nuclearpower has caused far fewer accidental deaths per unit of energy generatedthan other major forms of power generation. Energy production fromcoal, natural gas, and hydropower have caused far more deaths due toaccidents.However, nuclear power plant accidents rank first in terms of theireconomic cost, accounting for 41% of all property damage attributed toenergy accidents.
Nuclear plants attack•In September 1980, Iran bombed the Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex in Iraq.•In June 1981, an Israeli air strike completely destroyed Iraq’s Osirak nuclearresearch facility.•Between 1984 and 1987, Iraq bombed Iran’s Bushehr nuclear plant six times.•In Iraq in 1991, the U.S. bombed three nuclear reactors and an enrichmentpilot facility.•In 1991, Iraq launched Scud missiles at Israel’s Dimona nuclear power plant.•In September 2007, Israel bombed a Syrian reactor under construction
The myth of absolute safetyIn many places, and particularly in Japan, the nuclear industry has felt aneed to tell the public that nuclear power is safe in some absolute way.Many government agencies and nuclear companies have promoted apublic myth of "absolute safety" that nuclear power proponents hadnurtured over decades. The tsunami that began the Fukushima nucleardisaster could and should have been anticipated
Biodegradable materialsBiodegradable waste will eventually break down andbecome part of the earth and soil, like food scraps and paper.Non-biodegradable waste will NOT break down (or wontfor many many years).Examples are plastics, metal and glass. Some dangerouschemicals and toxins are also non-biodegradable, as areplastic grocery bags, Styrofoam (polystyrene),
Advantages of Biodegradable Plastic1. Biodegradable plastics take less time to break down2. Biodegradable plastics are renewable3. Biodegradable plastics are good for the environment4. Biodegradable plastics require less energy to produce5. Biodegradable plastics are easier to recycle6. Biodegradable plastics are not toxic7. Biodegradable plastics reduce dependence on foreign oil
Advantages of Electric CarsElectric cars have several potential benefits compared to conventionalinternal combustion automobiles, including a significant reduction ofurban air pollution, as they do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutantsfrom the onboard source of power at the point of operation (zero tailpipe emissions); reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the onboardsource of power, depending on the fuel and technology used forelectricity generation to charge the batteries
Disadvantages of Electric CarsTime required to recharge the batteries.WeightDriving rangeInitial Cost