Lecture #2 Robot design

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Lecture #2 Robot design

  1. 1. Unit 121: EngineeringIndustrial Robot Technology Lecture (2) Robot Design
  2. 2. Session Outline:•Manipulator coordinate systems•Wrist articulations•Drive mechanisms•Speed reducers/ gearheads
  3. 3. Manipulator coordinate systemsCartesianCylindricalSphericalSelective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA)Articulated Robot
  4. 4. Joint Types1- Prismatic joint where the pair of links makesa translational displacement along a fixed axis. Inother words, one link slides on the other along astraight line. Therefore, it is also called a slidingjoint.2- Revolute joint where a pair of links rotatesabout a fixed axis. This type of joint is oftenreferred to as a hinge, articulated, or rotationaljoint.
  5. 5. Cartesian CoordinatesCartesian coordinate robot has threeprismatic joints, corresponding to threeaxes denoted x, y , and z.
  6. 6. Cylindrical CoordinatesThe cylindrical robot consists of one revolutejoint and two prismatic joints, with r, Θ and zrepresenting the coordinates of the end-effecter.
  7. 7. Spherical Coordinatesthe spherical robot has two revolute jointsdenoted Θ and Φ and one prismatic jointdenoted r.
  8. 8. SCALAR Type RobotSCALAR robot consisting of two revolute joints and one prismatic joint.This robot structure is particularly desirable for assembly automation inmanufacturing systems, having a wide workspace in the horizontaldirection and an independent vertical axis appropriate for insertion ofparts.
  9. 9. Articulated RobotArticulated robot or an elbow robot, consists of all three revolute joints,like a human arm. This type of robot has a great degree of flexibilityand versatility, being the most standard structure of robot manipulators.
  10. 10. Wrist articulationsYawPitchRollDegrees of freedom
  11. 11. Wrist articulationsTranslation:1- Moving up and down2- Moving left and right3- Moving forward and backwardRotation:4- Tilting forward and backward (pitching);5- Turning left and right (yawing);6- Tilting side to side (rolling)
  12. 12. Drive mechanismsMechanical (ball screws, chain/belt, gears)PneumaticHydraulicElectrical
  13. 13. Mechanical (ball screws, chain/belt, gears)A ball screw is a mechanical linear actuator that translates rotationalmotion to linear motion with little friction. A threaded shaft provides ahelical raceway for ball bearings which act as a precision screw.Vid. 1Vid. 2
  14. 14. Pneumatic Systemis a section of technology that deals with the study and application ofpressurized gas to effect mechanical motion.
  15. 15. Advantages of pneumaticsSimplicity of Design And Control Machines are easily designed using standard cylinders & other components.Reliability Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance. Because gas is compressible, the equipment is less likely to be damaged by shock. The gas in pneumatics absorbs excessive force, whereas the fluid of hydraulics directly transfers force.Storage Compressed gas can be stored, allowing the use of machines when electrical power is lost.
  16. 16. Hydraulic SystemA hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system thatuses pressurized hydraulic fluid to drive hydraulic machinery
  17. 17. Speed reducers/ gearheadsHarmonicCycloidalparallel shaft spur gearPlanetary
  18. 18. Cycloidal Drive http://www.darali.com/page17.html

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