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360 view of the IEP Process and the ARD/Identification Process

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  • Read this letter. Think about the meaning of each acronym. Does this make sense to you? The language of special education can be very confusing.Let’s take some time to review the critical acronyms related to special education. Note to Developer: Add graphic: letter, children, school books, school-related, no preference
  • We need to begin establishing a common vocabulary and common knowledge of terms. In the field of education, whether it is special education or general education, we tend to speak in acronyms instead of words. Have you ever had an experience with an acronym—in special education or otherwise—where knowing what that acronym meant made all the difference in the world? To download a list of commonly used acronyms in special education, click on the word Acronyms above. Another great resource is the English-Spanish Glossary of Special Education Terminology. To download this resource, click on the word Glossary above. Note to developer: Create downloadable link to document titled, “Acronyms.” Create downloadable link on Glossary for the English-Spanish Glossary of Special Education Terminology.
  • Of the many acronyms that are part of the “jargon” of special education, there are perhaps 5 that may be considered the cornerstones of special education. You will hear these used frequently when talking about or working with special education issues. Basic understanding of these 5 cornerstones will help ensure that a child is receiving what is guaranteed to him or her by law.These 5 cornerstones are:*IDEA—the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act*FAPE—Free and Appropriate Public Education*LRE—Least Restrictive Environment *ARD—Admission, Review and Dismissal and *IEP—Individualized Education Plan You will be exploring these cornerstones throughout the remainder of the course. Note to developer: as IDEA is read, have it flash on the screen, repeat for the remaining 4 words
  • Let’s begin with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act
  • IDEA has had several names in the past: EHA (Education of the Handicapped Act and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act). At one time, it was part of ESEA (the Elementary and Secondary Education Act). IDEA became IDEA in the amendments of 1990, when the name was changed to reflect people-first language. In its current reauthorization, IDEA is also referred to as IDEA 2004 (the year it was reauthorized). The actual title is: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. IDEA authorizes special education and related services in the United States. More than 6.8 million children with disabilities are served under its provisions. IDEA also authorizes a wide range of supports to improve the results and outcomes that children with disabilities achieve in our schools and communities. Federal Regulations---CFR (Code of Federal Regulations)—begin with the number 300State law or guidelines have TAC (Texas Administrative Code) or TEC (Texas Education Code) and a numberLocal Education Agencies must comply with both federal and state guidelines. For more detailed information on IDEA, there is a parent manual from the ARC Association. You can download this manual by clicking on the word IDEA. Note to developer: Read IDEA as if you are spelling it, not as reading the word ‘idea’ ---follow this guideline for every occurrence for this wordGraphics design on this slide is your choiceCreate downloadable link on IDEA for the IDEA Manual
  • IDEA entitles children with disabilities to a “free appropriate public education”; this is often referred to as FAPE. This means schools must provide to eligible children with a disability specially designed instruction to meet their unique needs. This specially designed instruction is known as special education. FAPE begins with F for free. Free is a vital part of the law’s requirement. The education of each child with a disability must be “provided at public expense….and without charge” to the child or the child’s parents. A…for appropriate. Appropriate is an important term in IDEA. You’ll see it used a lot, used in different contexts but generally meaning the same thing. It means whatever’s suitable, fitting, or right for a specific child, given that child’s specific needs, specific strengths, established goals, and the supports and services that will be provided to help the child in reaching those goals. An“appropriate” education differs for each child with a disability. Yet each child with a disability is entitled to an education that is “appropriate” for his or her needs. The law specifies in some detail how the public agency and parents are to plan the education each child receives so that it is appropriate, meaning responsive to the child’s needs. P…for public. “Public” generally refers to our public school systems and the use of public funds to pay for education in those schools. Children with disabilities have the right to attend public school just as other children do, regardless of the nature or severity of their disabilities. The public school system must serve children with disabilities, respond to their individual needs, and help them plan for their futures. This also includes charter schools since they are considered part of the public school system. E…for education.Education is what IDEA is all about. It guarantees that FAPE is available to eligible children with disabilities. Under IDEA education means “special education and related services…provided in conformity with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) that meets requirements specified within the law and is based upon the child’s individual needs. Note to developer: Read FAPE as if you are spelling it, not as reading the word ‘fape’ Graphics design on this slide is your choice
  • The least restrictive environment (LRE) requirements of Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) have been included in the law since 1975. These requirements continue to generate complex and interesting questions from parents, teachers and administrators. As we discussed earlier, IDEA 2004 gives every child with disabilities the right to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE). States and local education agencies (local school districts) including charter schools, are to provide this education in the LRE, so that students with disabilities are taught with their nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. Note to developer: Read LRE as if you are spelling itGraphics design on this slide is your choice
  • Since the LRE is so critical to a child receiving the most appropriate education guaranteed under the law, further information on LRE is readily available from the Access to the General Curriculum page on the Education Service Center, Region 20 website. The LRE Question and Answer Document in English and Spanish was designed to provide current information about LRE to ensure that the applicable requirements of IDEA 2004 that govern the education of students with disabilities are accurately understood and properly implemented. This document consolidates federal (IDEA 2004 and federal regulations) and state (State Board of Education and Commissioner’s Rules and Texas Education Code) requirements regarding LRE. To download the documents, click on the links above. You will need to check for updates to these documents periodically at www.esc20.net/agcnetwork. Note to developer: add graphic on slide (no preference, school related); create downloadable links to document titles on slide
  • In Texas, state law refers to the team that develops an educational program for a child with a disability as the Admission, Review, and dismissal (ARD) Committee. This team of individuals, referred to in other states as the “IEP Team”, is made up of a student’s parents, school staff, and, when appropriate, the student, who meet at least annually to:Decide whether or not the student has an eligible disability,Determine what special education and related services will be provided, andDevelop an IEPThe annual review of a student’s special education program includes an update of the student’s progress, a review of the current IEP, and development of an IEP for the upcoming year.
  • Step 5The multidisciplinary approach to determining whether a child has a disability that includes information from the parent. In making this determination, school personnel do not rely on one informant or one source of data in making this decision. Together, as a team they assess the student to determine the child’s strengths and weaknesses and areas of educational need. In determining each disability, there are different qualified professionals that participate in the multidisciplinary team depending on the area being considered. For example, if a child is suspected of having a visual impairment, a teacher certified in visual impairments will have conducted an appropriate assessment and shared results with the educational team. The data from that assessment is considered along with other collected data at the ARD committee meeting, and the team decides whether or not the child will be identified as “Visually Impaired”.Note to developer: Add graphic of group of professionals meeting together.
  • When determining a child has a disability, specific eligibility criteria has to be met.The federal definition includes that the child’s disability must adversely affect their educational performance and that the student needs special education and related services. The child does not necessarily have to have failing grades; however, there must be evidence through documented sources that the child is not able to meet age or state approved grade level standards. The child’s difficulties may also be behavioral or social, not just academic. We have to determine if the child’s disability adversely affects his performance in school and, therefore, without special education and related services, the student would not be successful. Information is gathered and compiled into a Full and Individual Evaluation and the parent is provided a copy of the report. Within each evaluation, specific eligibility criteria are outlined, and data is discussed to support whether the child meets that eligibility.
  • IDEA lists 13 different disability categories under which 3-through 21 year olds may be eligible for services. If a child is younger than age 3, they may be eligible if they have a visual impairment or auditory impairment.
  • The Local Education Agency (LEA) shall establish an admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee for Every eligible student with a disability; and Every student for whom a full and individual initial evaluation is conducted.
  • The LEA must provide the parents with Prior Written Notice. Parents must receive this Prior Written Notice at least 5 school days prior to the action proposed. The Prior Written Notice must: be provided in the native language of the parents;Provide the date, time and location of the meeting as well as who will be in attendance at the meeting; and State the purpose of the meeting as well as options considered and other topics to be discussed. Include a copy of the procedural safeguards. These rights apply to parents of students in special education as well as sources (other than the LEA) to contact regarding further explanation.To download a copy of the procedural safeguards, please click on the procedural safeguards link above. Note to developer:Please create a downloadable link
  • There are typically many options available to consider for each individual student in special education. Some examples of those may be using an alternate curriculum or functional skills curriculum supplement for some students. Some students may need instructional support or direct teaching from a special education teacher – in the general education classroom or in a separate setting for part of the day. Some students may require a separate, self-contained classroom for all or part of their school day to meet their annual goals. It is important for the educational team to carefully consider all options available and choose those that meet the student’s individual needs in the least restrictive environment.
  • Related services means transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. Those services can include, but are not limited to:speech-language pathology and audiology servicesinterpreting servicespsychological servicesphysical and occupational therapyrecreation, including therapeutic recreationearly identification and assessment of disabilities in childrencounseling servicesincluding rehabilitation counselingorientation and mobility servicesmedical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposesschool health services and school nurse servicessocial work services in schoolsparent counseling and training
  • There are a multitude of supplementary aids and supports that may be considered. Some examples are environmental supports such as an altered classroom set-up or preferential seating. Some students may require a reduction of distractions in the classroom. Modified equipment or materials may be needed and might include alternate writing utensils, taped lectures, large print or braille. There is truly a wide variety of supplementary options available and they must be highly individualized for each student.
  • Transition – age 14When the ARD committee discusses transition services – building a bridge to adulthood and planning to address the student’s needs as he/she leaves the world of public education. These are long range goals for the student and should be reviewed each year at the ARD – it is a living document that changes as the student grows, matures and develops. Graduation The ARD committee should discuss how the student will graduate from services provided by the LEA. There are 4 distinctly different ways that graduation can occur and you should be familiar with these requirements if you are discussing graduation during ARD meetings. Note to developer: add graphic of students graduating; develop downloadable links for documents above
  • Determine eligibility for Extended School Year (ESY)The ARD committee also needs to consider the student’s eligibility for extended school year services. Extended School Year services are provided based on eligibility and documentation of student needs. Your school district should have a procedure in place for gathering information regarding eligibility determination for ESY. In a very basic manner the LEA is responsible for providing services during periods of extended breaks for the educational environment – such as summer- to students who are at critical points in development of skills or those who have shown regression (loss of skills) without recoupment (regaining the same level of performance) of skills during other scheduled breaks during the school year. Note to developer: Please add graphic of students working in a classroom
  • Reaching closure and consensusThe team is now ready for agreement on the program outlined in the ARD document – consensus = parties in agreement. Everyone hopeseverything will go smoothly during the ARD meeting and communication may be the key. Early and frequent communication keeps everyone in the loop and helps to maintain a friendly, cooperative group for the ARD meeting.Note to developer: Please add pictures of happy students and teachers
  • What you do as an ARD Committee/Team to create goals for a student does make a difference.Lets review our goals for today….. Next slide
  • Writing goals can be one of the most challenging parts of developing the IEP. One reason for this is because the goals may cover so many different areas. Depending upon the student’s needs, some goals may target specific areas of the general education curriculum. A number of helpful questions appear on this slide as tools to help ARD committees break down the task of writing goals.For example, what does the child need to learn or do academically? The answer to this question might indicate what goals might be appropriate for the child. Examples could include learning to identify a range of sight words, write more proficiently, or learn basic number facts or solve more complicated word problems. Another area for goals might be what the child needs to learn or be able to do functionally. These types of goals don’t come under a typical “academic” curriculum. But if a child has functional needs that impact participation in the educational environment, such as learning to eat independently, use public transportation, or communicate with an augmentative communication device, then goals to meet these needs would be important to include in the IEP. The same is true of goals to address social or emotional needs, such as impulse control, anger management, or appropriate behavioral alternatives.Four questions appear on the slide as tools to help ARD committee generate ideas for writing measurable annual goals.Depending upon the child’s needs, some goals may target specific areas of the general education curriculum. For example, what does the child need to learn or do academically? The answer to this question might indicate what goals would be appropriate for that child. Examples could include learning to identify a range of sight words or learn basic number facts. Another area for goals might be what the child needs to learn or be able to do functionally in order to access the general curriculum. These type of goals focus on functional needs that impact participation in the educational environment or curriculum. Some examples of these areas might include communication with an augmentative communication device in order for a student to be able to communicate his/her wants, needs, learning, etc. These goals could also address social or emotional needs, such as impulse control, in order for a student to be able to stay on task and not be removed from the general education setting or miss any of the curriculum. Another example could be learning to read Braille in order for a student with a visual impairment to be able to access the written portions of the general curriculum. Another aspect of writing annual goals is contained in the word “annual” and is captured by the third question. What might the child be expected to achieve in a year? A well-written goal must describe the skill or level of performance that the child is expected to reach by a given time, at least in a year.And there’s something else that’s very important. Can you measure whether or not the child has achieved the goal? The 2004 Amendments to IDEA, like its predecessors, requires that the annual goals be measurable. The ARD committee must be able to tell if the goal has been reached, because the student’s performance can be counted, seen, heard, or somehow measured in a quantitative way.Note to Developer:Possibly a visual of someone writingHover feature:IEP – “individual education program”
  • Measurable goals are defined as statements that contain four critical components: timeframe, conditions, behavior and criterion. These four elements are what make the goal measurable. We will discuss these four elements in more detail later.A measurable goal includes the behavior or skill that can be measured at periodic intervals against a criterion of success. The IEP will define how often the goal needs to be measured and when the student’s progress needs to be reported to parents.
  • The timeframe identifies the amount of time in the goal period and is usually specified in the number of weeks or a certain date for completion. The timeframe tells how long (no longer than one year) the student will work on the goal.Conditions describe the specific resources that must be present for the child to reach the goal. The condition of the goal should relate to the behavior being measured. The behavior clearly identifies the skill or performance that is being monitored. Behavior does not necessarily mean behavior in the context of discipline. Behavior means an action that can be directly observed and measured. For example, “points to the yellow object” could be a behavior.The criterion in the goal identifies how much, how often, or to what standard the behavior must occur in order to demonstrate that the goal has been achieved. The goal criterion specified the amount of growth that is expected. For example, “in 7 out of 10 trials” might be a criterion. It is important to note that when progress toward mastering the goal is reported, it must be done so in the same manner as the criterion is specified in the goal. We will discuss this more later when we talk about reporting progress toward mastery of goals and the associated benchmarks/short-term objectives.
  • Trainer's Notes:Get ready to play Jeopardy by answering the following ‘What Questions”The first table group/group to stand gets to answer the question!The next 4 slides will guide you through the game, the statement will appear, the part of the statement that appears in read is the section the group will answer.The final click for each slide will reveal the answer.
  • Trainer’s Notes:Condition
  • Trainer’s Notes:Timeframe
  • Trainer’s Notes:Criterion
  • Trainer’s Notes:Behavior
  • We will discuss the PLAAFP in more detail later in the training.We do not write goals or objectives for areas in which students are doing well in. So, if you have a student who is doing well in addition, you do not need to write a goal for addition.You do not write goals for participation in the general education curriculum because participation is not measurable. Other examples that are not goals: improve organization skills—what type, how?Increase reading comprehension—how, in what manner, through what type of instruction? While IDEA 2004 does require that all students who receive special education services have measurable annual goals, the ARD committee/IEP team must determine in which areas to develop these goals based on the child’s needs. There are some general guidelines and there are some situations in which ARD committees have leeway to make these decisions. The general guidelines are:An ARD committee needs to develop an annual goal for any specific content area/course in which:The ARD committee has assigned the student modified content (regardless of setting). It does not matter if the student is receiving the services in general or special education settings; if the content is modified, there needs to be an annual goal that corresponds to that modified content.An ARD committee also needs to develop an annual goal for any specific content area/course in which:The ARD committee removes the student from a general education setting. Whether or not the content is modified, if the student is removed from a general education setting, an annual goal is needed for that specific content area/course.The gray area comes in when a student has no modified content and is not removed from a general education setting. In this situation, the ARD committee must choose an area or areas from a student’s PLAAFP that affects the student’s ability to make progress and/or access the general education curriculum and choose to develop an annual goal around that need. We will discuss the PLAAFP in more detail in the next section of this training. It’s useful to keep in mind that the entire IEP document, including the annual goals, needs to clearly define the specially designed instruction that the child is receiving.
  • Discuss what happens if a car is out of alignment.Compare it to standards being out of alignment or goals you are setting for your students being out of alignment.
  • See visual in Q & A document
  • 1.20 What are short-term objectives/benchmarks?Short-term objectives/benchmarks are the steps to be taken between the student’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance and the attainment of the annual goal. Like the annual goal, short-term objectives must include timeframe, condition(s), behavior and criterion.When short-term objectives/benchmarks are included, TEA requires at least two short-term objectives/benchmarks for each goal. When considering frequency and duration, specify the time that will be used for purposes of accountability, for example, 80% of any 15-minute observation.1.21 How are short-term objectives/benchmarks aligned with enrolled grade-level goals?The short-term objectives/benchmarks are the steps a student must take to progress from the PLAAFP to the enrolled grade-level annual goal. These steps may encompass skills that are below the enrolled grade-level.1.22 What does a benchmark/short-term objective with the timeframe, condition(s), behavior and criterion look like?The following chart shows the natural flow of a short-term objective. There is one objective for each of the annual goals in the chart on Question 1.6.1.23 When are ARD committees required to write annual goals that include short-term objectives/benchmarks?For those students who take alternate assessments aligned with alternate achievement standards (which in Texas is the STAAR Alternate test), the IEP must contain a description of at least two benchmarks/short-term objectives as part of the student’s annual goals.IEP Annual Goal Development Question & Answer DocumentFor a student who takes any other state assessment, the ARD committee may choose to include benchmarks or short-term objectives as part of the annual goals in order to assist in monitoring the student’s progress.Note: For students who are enrolled in a Student Success Initiative (SSI) grade and do not pass the statewide assessments in the SSI identified subject areas (grade 5 reading and mathematics and grade 8 reading and mathematics), the IEP must include a statement regarding how the student will participate in an accelerated instruction program. For additional information, refer to the Grade Placement Committee Manual on the TEA website for guidelines for an accelerated instruction program at:http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index3.aspx?id=3230&menu_id=793.
  • Trainer’s Notes:Explain to participants that putting or not putting the TEKS number is a local/district/campus decision.
  • 1.19 For a student who receives special education services in a general education (mainstream) setting and does not have modified content in any subject area, can the ARD committee write a “mainstream” or an “inclusion” goal for the student to master the TEKS for his/her enrolled grade-level? No. A goal that addresses 70% mastery of TEKS simply expresses the standard that is required for all students (not just students who receive special education services), and does not inform the specially designed instruction the student should receive from a special education professional in order to be able to access/progress in the TEKS. 1.24 Can attainment of a grade level standard be a student’s annual goal? No. Even if written in measurable terms, a goal such as “70% mastery of grade-level TEKS” does not meet IDEA requirements detailed in 34 CFR §300.320(a)(2)(ii). IDEA requires that this goal be based on the student’s PLAAFP and inform the specially designed instruction the student needs based on his/her disability in order to progress toward enrolled grade-level standards. The National Association of the State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) at Project Forum states in the document “Standards Based IEP: Implementation Update” (June 2010) states, “It is important to note that the student’s IEP resulting from this process does not contain a restatement of the state standards, but rather includes the goals that designate the necessary learning – the specially designed instruction – that will lead to the student’s attaining the standards that the team has identified as not yet achieved.”
  • 1.17 Can one annual goal cover multiple subject areas/courses? Functional goals may cover multiple subject areas/courses, as determined by the ARD committee. For example, an annual functional goal related to use of an agenda or planner as an organizational tool would likely cross multiple/all subject areas. Similarly, behavior goals often need to be implemented in multiple/all subject areas. For academic goals, the ARD committee would need to analyze whether or not the content standards cross multiple subject areas. If yes, then the annual goal(s) may be written to be implemented in those subject areas. If no, then separate goal(s) will need to be written for each subject area where the PLAAFP indicates a critical need. Keep in mind that all academic goals should be specific to subject area curriculum standards and cannot be generalized. For example, if a reading goal was implemented in a Social Studies course, implementation of this reading goal does not constitute modification of the Social Studies TEKS. If a student’s reading deficits are so severe that the Social Studies content (TEKS) needs to be modified, then the ARD committee must include a goal that is specific to Social Studies that identifies how the Social Studies content is modified. Whether academic or functional, the ARD committee would need to determine in which subject area(s) the goal(s) would be implemented as well as who will be responsible for monitoring and measuring the progress toward meeting the goal. These decisions would need to be documented in the student’s IEP.
  • 1.16 In which subject areas/courses do students need enrolled grade-level measurable annual goals?IDEA 2004 does not mandate goals for a specific content area; instead IDEA leaves this to be determined by the student’s ARD committee and defined in his/her IEP. In order to make this decision, the ARD committee needs to examine a student’s PLAAFP and determine, based on the PLAAFP, in which area(s) the student needs measurable annual goals, and, thus, needs specially designed instruction to address those goals. The two situations in which a student must have a measurable annual goal are: (a) when content is modified for a specific content area/course, the IEP must include annual goal(s) which specifically address how content is modified in this content area; and/or(b) when a student is removed from a general education setting for any period of time, the IEP must include measurable annual goal(s) which specifically address how the student will access or progress in this content. In this case, the student may or may not have modifications to this content, but must have annual goal(s) specific to this content since the setting is not a general education setting.
  • Voice Over:In the past it has often been the practice that a student’s annual goal was the only content the student was held responsible for learning. Teachers often were under the understanding this was the only content they were responsible for teaching the student. They often also were of the understanding this was the only thing on which the student’s grade could based. However, this is not the case. A goal informs the specially designed instruction the student needs in order to access/progress in the general curriculum. In the next section of this training, we will address academic goals. While academic goals are used in many cases to define the modified content a student is responsible for learning, special education services, and, hence, the implementation of annual goals, are the specially designed pieces we are doing for a student because of his/her disability in order for the student to be able to access/progress in the general curriculum. They are not things we are doing in place of the general curriculum. We will discuss this concept more throughout the rest of this training. Note to Developer:Hover feature:IEP – “individual education program”
  • Information for the ARDC to consider. Remember it is based on the student’s needs.
  • 3.3 For what groups of students are functional goals appropriate? For any student whose PLAAFP statement indicates a non-TEKS based critical need that is preventing the student from accessing the general curriculum, the ARD committee may need to consider a functional goal. The decision should not be based on the student’s disability/label, but, rather on how the student’s disability is impacting his/her access to the general curriculum. For example, a PLAAFP for a student with a learning disability might indicate a need for a goal related to organizational skills if the student is having difficulty keeping track of assignments, due dates, etc. A PLAAFP for a student with an orthopedic impairment might indicate a need for a goal related to how to properly hold a writing instrument so that he/she can complete required assignments. Reminder: Because of the developmental nature of young children, many of the standards in the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines and/or in district-adopted prekindergarten curriculum may fall into both the academic and functional categories. See Question 1.12 for more information.
  • 3.4 Must measurable annual functional goals be standards-based? No. Because there are no state adopted standards for functional goals, there is no standard on which to base these goals. For example, if the ARD committee decides the student needs a goal to help him/her transition independently between class periods, there are no TEKS related to this skill. The goal must still be written in measurable terms (including timeframe, condition(s), criterion and behavior), but it should be based on the student’s PLAAFP and the skills that student needs for transitioning between classes independently.
  • 3.5 Can one functional goal cover multiple subject areas/courses? Functional goals may cover multiple subject areas/courses, as determined by the ARD committee. For example, an annual functional goal related to use of an agenda or planner as an organizational tool would likely cross multiple/all subject areas. Similarly, behavior goals often need to be implemented in multiple/all subject areas.
  • All professionals are required to have at least the portions of the student’s IEP that they are responsible for implementing. It is not enough for them to have access to the IEP; they must have a copy of the relevant portions so that they can use them in their lesson planning, grading, etc.
  • We have to get rid of the “old way” of thinking and provide the information through data.
  • Yellow boxes are baselinesFrequency was weekly b/c this was a tier 3 intervention
  • If you use the week or day notation, the actual dates the probes were given should be available somewhere else in your report.Look at phase 1Goal Line – click in order to set clip up, discuss at table the fear we have with setting goals this high.If we set year long goals, then know the increments that are needed in order to reach that goalAim line is an incremental version of the goal lineTrend line – compare the trend and aim at all times, give it time to work, but always be aware of what its telling you so that you can be prepared with a change if necessaryDifference between goal and actual progress…at the end, determine if you keep, add or dropKeep this intervention and infuse it into the core curriculum, ADD another phase of the same intervention, replace this intervention with another.Decide now, if based on this slide, you would keep, add or drop.Actual progress line: look at this for information on growth or lack thereof
  • Notes page in Handouts. As they meet with each group, take notes on ideas to remember. Carousel Activity with Accommodations & Modifications Charts Charts:1. Assistive Technology2. Behavior3. Organization4. Homework5. Assessments6. Assignments7. Instruction8. Environment
  • EXAMPLE: Marzano1. Identifying similarities and differences2. Summarizing and note taking3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition4. Homework and practice5. Nonlinguistic representations6. Cooperative learning7. Setting objectives and providing feedback8. Generating and testing hypotheses9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers
  • Matching game: with cardsGive answer sheet once participates are finished
  • During the entire process of getting appropriate assistance for a child, it is extremely important to remember that confidentiality must be maintained.
  • If you’d like to learn more information about confidentiality and special education, there is a free online course at the Education Service Center, Region 20.Go to www.esc20.net, click on workshops and log into your iLearning account. If you do not have an iLearning account, you will need to create one. The workshop number is PD110818-C13. This online course provides an overview of the two basic confidentiality laws (FERPA and IDEA) that govern confidentiality of special education information.The content explores the basic confidentiality requirements from these laws and discusses appropriate confidentiality practices.
  • 360ofthe iep

    1. 1. + A 360 of the IEP Erin Kelts, MS Project Manager, AGC Network 210.370.5664 erin.kelts@esc20.net
    2. 2. +
    3. 3. + Acronyms
    4. 4. +Dear Teacher, Your presence is needed at an ARD meeting, required by the IDEA. We will make sure to stay in accordance with FERPA and TEA. We will be discussing your student’s IEP and how they are AGCing and receiving their FAPE in the LRE. We will take a look at their FIE to find out if the student is a SLD, or has AU, TBI, ED, VI, DB, SI, OI, AI, ID, MD, or NCEC. Together, we will examine their FBA and develop a BIP, if appropriate. We will make sure to provide ESL services if needed and examine RTI data. Sincerely, LEA ARDC
    5. 5. LD Glossary
    6. 6. +
    7. 7. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act Our nation’s special education law
    8. 8. Free Appropriate Public Education What states must make available to all children with disabilities.
    9. 9. Least Restrictive Environment Children with disabilities are to be educated with children who do not have disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate.
    10. 10. +The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Question and Answer Documents LRE Q&A Document in English LRE Q &A Document in Spanish Preschool LRE/Settings Document These documents can be found at www.esc20.net/agcnetwork
    11. 11. Admission, Review, and Dismissal The IEP Team is made up of student’s parents, school staff, and the student when appropriate, who meet at least annually.
    12. 12. Step 1:  Child is having difficulty in school.  Academic  Behavioral  Physical  Emotional/Social  Other problem
    13. 13. Step 2:  Child is evaluated.  Variety of tools and strategies;  Provides comprehensive information about the child including; examination of existing data;  Helps the team decide whether or not a child may have a disability that may qualify them for special education services.
    14. 14. Step 3: Criteria for a disability is met.  All data on the child is thoroughly examined and considered to assist the educational team in deciding if criteria for a certain disability is met.  Lack of appropriate instruction in the past is not the reason for the child’s educational difficulties.
    15. 15. Step 4 ARD meeting is scheduled.  Once a child has met criteria for a disability, the educational team must meet.  At the ARD meeting, an Individual Education Plan (IEP) will be developed to reflect the services and supports needed to meet the child’s educational needs.
    16. 16. • A group of qualified professionals and the parent determines whether the child is a ―child with a disability.‖ Step 5 • Student data indicates child meets criteria for a disability. • ARD committee makes formal decision regarding the disability.
    17. 17. Full and Individual Evaluation School districts are required to conduct a full and individualized evaluation of the student. Decisions must be based on current and appropriate data.
    18. 18. + Evaluation data may include:  Test of intelligence;  Test of achievement level;  Psychological test;  Test of speech/language abilities;  Medical evaluation;  Grades;  Behavior reports;  Data regarding student response to intervention;  Research-based intervention strategies that have been tried; and  Other information from teachers or parents
    19. 19.  health  vision  hearing  social and emotional status  general intelligence  academic performance  communication status  motor abilities All areas related to the suspected disability, including (if appropriate): Full and Individual Evaluation
    20. 20. Evaluation Data • Does the data indicate that the child has a disability that requires the provision of special education and related services in order for the child to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE)? • What are the child’s specific educational needs? • What special education services and related services, then, would be appropriate for addressing those needs?
    21. 21. + Eligibility
    22. 22. Determining Eligibility • Adversely affects a child’s educational performance; • By reason thereof, the child needs special education and related services Information is gathered from multiple sources and compiled into an FIE. Within each evaluation, specific eligibility criteria are outlined and data to support whether the child meets that eligibility is discussed.
    23. 23. Who decides a student’s eligibility? The ARD-Admission Review and Dismissal team decides if a student is eligible for special education and his/her disability eligibility category.
    24. 24. What does the term ―a child with a disability‖ mean? The term child with a disability means a child evaluated in accordance with a Full and Individual Evaluation who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
    25. 25. + Disability Categories under idea
    26. 26. Disabilities  Auditory Impairment  Autism  Deaf-Blindness  Emotional Disturbance  Intellectual Disabilities  Multiple Disabilities  Noncategorical Early Childhood  Orthopedic Impairment  Other Health Impairment  Specific Learning Disability  Speech or Language Impairment  Traumatic Brain Injury  Visual Impairment Including Blindness
    27. 27. Admission/Review/Dismissal (ARD) Committee
    28. 28. The ARD: Purpose Who must have one? – The Local Education Agency (LEA) shall establish an admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee for • Every eligible student with a disability; and • Every student for whom a full and individual initial evaluation is conducted.
    29. 29. +Who makes up the ARD Committee?  The child’s parent (s)  Not less than 1 of the child’s special education teachers  Not less than 1 of the child’s general education teachers  A representative of the Local Education Agency (LEA) who:  Is qualified to provide or supervise the provision of specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of children with disabilities;  Is knowledgeable about the general education curriculum; and,  Is knowledgeable about the availability of resources of the District;  An individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results AND  Other Individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, at the discretion of the parent or the agency (LEA); including related service providers #64 NOTES
    30. 30. Who is missing from this team?
    31. 31. + The Child!
    32. 32. + We Know That Keeping Parents Involved Is The Key To Success….
    33. 33. How do we ensure parents will participate in the ARD? Prior Written Notice must allow for 5 school days written notice of the LEA’s proposal. Prior Written Notice must: •Be provided in the native language of the parents; •Provide the date, time and location of the meeting as well as who will be in attendance at the meeting; and •State the purpose of the meeting as well as options considered and other topics to be discussed. •Include a copy of the procedural safeguards. Procedural Safeguards—English Procedural Safeguards—Spanish
    34. 34. + Examples - Special Education Services  Alternate Curriculum  Specific Reading Materials  Special Education Teacher for Resource or Withdrawal Support  Self-contained classroom
    35. 35. + Examples - Related Services  Audiology  Occupational Therapy  Physical Therapy  Psychological Services  Recreation  Counseling Services  School Health Services  Transportation  Orientation & Mobility  Etc.
    36. 36. + Examples – Supplementary Aids  Environmental Supports  Reduction of Distractions  Modifying Equipment  Pacing of Instruction  Assignment Modifications  Testing Adaptations  Levels of Staff Support Needed  Modified Presentation of Subject Matter
    37. 37. + Discuss transition and graduation Special Education Graduation Flowcharts Graduation Flowchart for All Students Graduation Flowchart for all STAAR Assessments Modified Graduation Flowchart Alternate Graduation Flowchart
    38. 38. + Determine eligibility for Extended School Year (ESY)
    39. 39. + Reach closure and consensus Consensus = parties in agreement!
    40. 40. + STEP 1: GRADE LEVEL CONTENT STANDARDS  CONSIDER THE GRADE LEVEL CONTENT STANDARDS FOR THE GRADE IN WHICH THE STUDENT IS ENROLLED RO WOULDB BE ENROLLED BASED ON AGE.  WHAT IS THE INTENT OF THE CONTENT STANDRD?  WHAT IS THE CONTENT STANDARD SAYING THAT THE SUTNDENT MUST KNOW AND BE ABLE TO DO?
    41. 41. + STEP 2:WHERE IS THE STUSDENT FUNCTIONING?  EXAMINE CLASSROOM AND STUDENT DATA TO DETERMINE WHERE THE STUDENT IS DUNCTIONING IN RELATION TO THE GRADE LEVEL STANDARDS.  HAS THE STUDENT BEEN TAUGHT CONTENT ALIGNED WITH GRADE-LEVEL STADARDS?  HAS THE STUDENT BEEN PROVIDED APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL SCAFFOLDING TO ATTTAIN GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATIONS?  WERE THE LESSSONS AND REACHING MATERIALS USED TO TEACH THE STUDENT ALIGNED WITH STATE GRADE-LEVEL STANDARDS?  WHAS THE INSTRUCTION EVIDENCE BASED?
    42. 42. + STEP 3: PLLAFP…NO IT’S NOT A SNEEZE  DEVELOP THE PRESENT LAVEL OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMACE (PLAAFP).
    43. 43. +
    44. 44. +
    45. 45. + Present Levels of Academic Achievement & Functional Performance
    46. 46. + PLAAFP Basis The PLAAFP is so critical because it is the:  Cornerstone of the IEP  Description of the student's strengths in relation to standards  Source that drives the other IEP components  Statement that links all IEP components together
    47. 47. + Questions to ask? Has the student been taught content aligned with grade-level standards? Has the student been provided appropriate instructional scaffolding to attain grade level expectations? Were the lessons and teaching materials used to teach the student aligned with state grade level standards? Was the instruction evidence-based?
    48. 48. + PLAAFP Evaluation Classroom Data Accommodations/ModificationsParent Information Additional Supports The Rock Star of the IEP: PLAAFPs
    49. 49. + Common Mistakes  1. Too much= unfocused  2. Too diagnostic= confusing  3. Too general=irrelevant
    50. 50. + PLAAFP Noncompliance Issues  No PLAAFP  PLAAFP is the same for multiple years (lack of educational benefit)  PLAAFP does not clearly demonstrate student is multiple years behind grade level expectations (tied to state assessments)
    51. 51. + Rock Star's have to consider their wardrobe... Things you should consider:  Academic/functional areas  Critical need(s)  Current measurable and observable data  Data sources  Conditions (supports)  Enrolled grade level content standards (For academic achievement portions)
    52. 52. + PLAAFP Data Sources  Work Samples  Photographs  Videotape  Behavioral data  Parent Feedback  Standardized Tests  Anecdotal records  Running Records  Statewide Tests  Benchmark tests  Teacher made tests • Observations • Likert scales • Checklists • Discipline referrals • Reading inventories • Oral Reading • Formative assessments • WPM • FIE data • Dibels • Teacher made tests
    53. 53. + How to choose the Monitoring Method for Data...
    54. 54. + Putting it all together...  PLAAFP: A review of classroom assessments indicates that Anthony needs to improve reading for fluency, which will increase his reading comprehension; which is interfering with his access to grade level materials. Anthony can read 80 wpm of connected text with 100% accuracy, which is within the range of typical peers in the second grade. Reading Fluency Anthony can read 80 wpm of connected text with 100% accuracy, which is within the range of words per minute for typical peer in 2nd grade. Standards Based Annual Goal: Standard: Grade 4 TEK 4.2B: Use the context of a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meanings of words. Goal: Anthony will read 105 words of connected text per minute with 100% accuracy on classroom assessments at the end of the fourth grading period.
    55. 55. +
    56. 56. + The PLAAFP determines: • where the student is functioning in relation to enrolled grade level standards • critical needs • what a student can reasonably achieve within one year • what a student needs in order to access/progress in the general education curriculum, including -specially designed instruction -accommodations -modifications -supplementary aids and services
    57. 57. +
    58. 58. + The Legal Requirement 34 CFR §300.320(a)(2) The IEP must include: ―A statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals…‖ 34 CFR §300.320(a)(2) Annual goals must be designed to: ―Meet the child’s needs that result from the child’s disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum; and Meet each of the child’s other educational needs that result form the child’s disability‖ 34 CFR §300.320(a)(2) For students who take STAAR Alternate, benchmarks/short-term objectives must be included.
    59. 59. +
    60. 60. + ―Can Do‖ & ―Can’t Do‖ Statements  Identify present performance level of student  Includes current baseline data  Are specific and measureable  Are positively stated  Use understandable language vs. strictly technical language.
    61. 61. + ―Needs To‖ Statements  Are aligned with the ―Can Do‖ & ―Can’t Do‖ statements  Linked to TEKS  Identify what student needs ―to do‖ in order to progress in the general curriculum
    62. 62. + Step 4  Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content standards.  Ask:  What are the student’s needs as identified in the present level of performance?
    63. 63. + Step 4  Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content standards.  Ask:  Does the goal have a specific timeframe?
    64. 64. + Step 4  Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content standards.  Ask:  What can the student reasonably be expected to accomplish in one school year?
    65. 65. + Step 4  Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content standards.  Ask:  Are the conditions for meeting the goal addressed?
    66. 66. + Step 4  Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content standards.  Ask:  How will the outcome of the goal be measured?
    67. 67. + Writing goals can be one of the most challenging parts of developing the IEP… • What does the child need to learn or do academically? • What does he or she need to learn or do functionally? • What is reasonable to achieve in a year? • Can you measure whether or not the child has reached the goal? From NICHCY’s Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 Training Curriculum
    68. 68. +What is a measurable annual goal? (1.4) Contains four critical components: • timeframe • conditions • behavior • criterion A measurable goal includes the behavior or skill that can be measured at periodic intervals against a criterion of success. 1 2 43
    69. 69. + Four Elements (1.4) Timeframe Identified the amount of time in the goal period and is usually specified in the number of weeks or a certain date for completion. •For example, “within 36 instructional weeks” might be the timeframe for an annual goal. Conditions Specify the manner in which progress toward the goal occurs. Conditions describe the specific resources that must be present for the child to reach the goal. •The condition of the goal should relate to the behavior being measured. •For example, a graphic organizer could be a condition. Behavior Clearly identifies the skill or performance that is being monitored. •It represents an action that can be directly observed and measured. •For example, “points to the yellow object” could be a behavior. Criterion Identifies how much, how often, or to what standard the behavior must occur in order to demonstrate that the goal has been achieved. •The goal criterion specifies the amount of growth that is expected. •For example, “in 7 out of 10 trials” might be a criterion.
    70. 70. Category: What is the…
    71. 71. + By May 15, 2011, given a 4th grade story prompt and 30 minutes to write, Brittany, a 4th grade student, will write a three paragraph essay using transition words in sentences and between paragraphs with 5 or less errors. What is the condition?
    72. 72. + By May 15, 2011, given a 4th grade story prompt and 30 minutes to write, Brittany, a 4th grade student, will write a three paragraph essay using transition words in sentences and between paragraphs with 5 or less errors. What is the timeframe?
    73. 73. + By May 15, 2011, given a 4th grade story prompt and 30 minutes to write, Brittany, a 4th grade student, will write a three paragraph essay using transition words in sentences and between paragraphs with 5 or less errors. What is the criterion?
    74. 74. + By May 15, 2011, given a 4th grade story prompt and 30 minutes to write, Brittany, a 4th grade student, will write a three paragraph essay using transition words in sentences and between paragraphs with 5 or less errors. What is the behavior?
    75. 75. + When does an ARD committee need to develop annual goals? ALWAYS  If a student has no modified content and is not removed from a general education setting, the ARD committee must still include measurable annual goals.  Annual goals may:  Be developed from an area of need addressed in the student’s PLAAFP that affects the student’s ability to make progress and/or access the general education curriculum; and/or  Be developed to clearly define specially designed instruction that the student will receive
    76. 76. +Let’s take a look at a standard.
    77. 77. + ContentStandardsAcademicStandards (1.4) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to: (A) confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by "reading the part that tells"; (B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts; and (C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud). SE 1.4(A) SE 1.4(C) SE 1.4(B) TEA 2008 Content Strand TEKS 1.4
    78. 78. + The importance of alignment.
    79. 79. +Academic vs. Functional (1.12) The two different types of goals have different purposes. There are two types of measurable annual goals. A student may have measurable academic and/or functional goals. Based on the student's PLAAFP, measurable annual goal(s) must be developed. All students who receive special education services must have a PLAAFP. Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) Measurable Annual Goals Academic Goals (Standards-Based) - based on TEKS Focus on student learning/progressing in the general curriculum Functional Goals (not Standards-Based) - not based on TEKS Focus on student accessing the general curriculum
    80. 80. + Short-Term Objectives (STOs)/Benchmarks? (1.20-1.23)  Required for all goals for students who take STAAR Alternate  Optional for other students (local guidelines may vary)
    81. 81. + The examples includes the TEKS number. Districts/Charters may elect to include this TEKS number in writing standards- based IEP goals.
    82. 82. +OK then… can we write "Mainstream Goals‖ (1.19 and 1.24) ―70% mastery of the TEKS‖ NO!!!
    83. 83. +Can one annual goal cover multiple subject areas/courses? (1.17) It depends…
    84. 84. +In which subject areas/courses are goals needed? (1.16) Based on PLAAFP BUT…..
    85. 85. + A Reminder… annual goal ≠ ―entire‖ course content
    86. 86. + Let’s Talk Functional Goals
    87. 87. + What are some examples of functional goals?  Examples: Social, emotional, communication and executive skills (time management, self-advocacy/determination), and behaviors.  The amount of time a student can remain on task  The number of times a student raises his/her hand  The amount of time it takes for a student to begin work on an assignment after the teacher gives directions  The percentage of time a student is rocking  The number of times a student brings his/her notebook, textbook, and pencil to class  Non-Example:  The number of opportunities the student has to improve his/her self- esteem  The percentage of time the student demonstrates he/she is responsible
    88. 88. +Who should have functional goals? (3.3)  Based on PLAAFP
    89. 89. +Must measurable annual functional goals be standards-based? (3.4)  NO!!!  See Preschool Note for Exception
    90. 90. +Can one functional goal cover multiple subject areas/courses? (3.5)  It depends…  Determined by ARD committee/PLAAFP
    91. 91. + TIP All professionals that work with students who receive special education services need to have a copy of the applicable components of the student’s IEP:  PLAAFP  Annual Goals (Short-term objectives)  Accommodations  Modifications  Behavior Improvement Plan (BIP), if the student has one
    92. 92. + STEP 5: ASSESS & REPORT PROGRESS  ASSESS AND REPORT THE STUDENT’S PROGRESS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.  HOW DOE STHE STUDENT DEMONSTRATE WHAT HE/SHE KNOWS ON CLASSROOM, DISTRICT, AND STATE ASSESSMENTS?  ARE A VARIETY OF ASSESMENTS USED TO MEASURE PROGRESS?  ARE THE CONDISTIONS FOR MEETING THE GOAL ADDRESSED?  HOW WILL THE OUTCOME OF THE GOAL BE MEASURED?
    93. 93. +1.8 What should the Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) committee consider to ensure that IEP goals are measurable? A measurable goal meets the following requirements:  indicates what to do to measure accomplishment of the goal;  yields the same conclusion if measured by several people;  allows a calculation of how much progress it represents; and  can be measured without additional information.
    94. 94. + Why use data for decisions?  Measuring progress is required  Provide the ―now what‖ after instruction  Guide decisions for ARD Committee  Remove guesswork  Ensure equity across plans I think…I feel…believe
    95. 95. + 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 8/26/2011 9/2/2011 9/9/2011 9/16/2011 9/23/2011 9/30/2011 10/7/2011 10/14/2011 10/21/2011 10/28/2011 11/4/2011 11/11/2011 Phase 1 Phase 2 WordsReadCorrectly(%) Stu Dent’s Fluency Intervention % Correct Aim Line Goal Line Trend Line Baseline Measurement COMPARE DIFFERENCE DATES OF INTERVENTION PROGRESS MONITORING
    96. 96. + STEP 6: IDENTIFY SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION  IDENTIFY SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION INCLUDING ACCOMMODATIONS AND/OR MODIFICATIONS NEEDED TO ACCESS AND PROGRESS IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM  WHAT ACCOMMODATIONS ARE NEEDED TO ENABEL THE STUDENT TO ACCESS THE KNOLEDGE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM?  WHAT ACCOMMODATIONS HAVE BEEN USED WITH THE STUDENT AND WERE THEY EFFECTIVE?  HAS THE COMPLEXITY OF THE MATERIAL BEEN CHANGED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CONTENT HAS BEEN MODIFIED?
    97. 97. +
    98. 98. These adaptations are the specially designed instruction for the student based upon the specific needs resulting from the disability. The first step is to determine how the current ability levels affect their access and progress in the enrolled grade level curriculum. The second step is to determine what adaptations are needed for the student to access and progress the enrolled grade level curriculum. Content is the state standards. Consider how the student is accessing the general education curriculum (i. e. accommodations, modificatio ns, or pre-requisite skills) and whether adaptations to the content are needed as a result of the disability. Methodology refers to any educational practice or approach that is evidenced- based/best practices. Delivery of Instruction is the application and implementation of the evidenced-based/best practices that are needed as a result of the disability. Should content be adapted? If yes, how? Should delivery of instruction be adapted? If yes, how? Should methodology be adapted? If yes, how? Determining Specially Designed Instruction
    99. 99. Accommodations
    100. 100. Accommodating TEKS The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. 7.12D—differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole. -Enlarge the Picture -Oral Response -Color Overlay -Transcribing -Create a Mnemonic -Provide a partially completed diagram of the anatomy of a plant and animal cell
    101. 101. Velcro Pencil Grip Audio/Digital Books; i.e., Bookshare, Learning Ally Customized Keyboard Screen Reader Software Adapted Computer Word cards/book/wall Voice Recognition Software; i.e., Dragon Diction Abacus/Math Line/Geoboards Talking Calculator Electronic Organizer Books Adapted for page turning Large Print Materials Math Software Word Processors Scanners—Single Word; Hand-Held; Calculator Manipulatives; i.e., Base Ten Blocks, Geometric Figures, Algebra Tiles, Clocks, Play Money, Faction Pieces, Wikisticks, Counting Beans Magnifying devices Blank place markers Daily Visual Schedule Electronic Dictionary Text-to-Speech Software & Speech-to-Text Software; i.e., Dragon Naturally Speaking Apps for iPad, iTouch, Smart Phones Proloquo 2 Go, Time Timer, Dragon Diction/Search, White Noise Highligher Tape Assistive Technology Options
    102. 102. + Instructional State Assessment • Mnemonics with subject specific words that the mnemonic represents • Graphic organizers or science graphics containing titles, words, labels, pictures, acronyms, mnemonics, numbers, symbols, or variables • Labeled pictorial models • Grammar/Mechanic Rules with specific examples • Formula triangles representing relationships between variables and symbols for mathematic operations • Executive Functioning skills Versus
    103. 103. + Modifying Content The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. 7.12D—differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole. What are the most ―critical‖ components that a student needs to know? Student participates in all class discussions, activities, and assignments, but is only expected to demonstrate mastery of the ―critical‖ components. Student is only assessed on knowledge of ―critical‖ components.
    104. 104. Instructional Strategies: Are methods that are used to deliver a variety of content objectives. Instructional strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives.
    105. 105. Instructional Strategy The7.12D—differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole. Sorting Activity At a station, a student matches a variety of pictures associated with a plant &/or an animal cell to its corresponding vocabulary word Collaboration: Students work in teams to compare and contrast an animal & a plant cell Optional Testing Administration Procedures & Materials Color overlay Magnifier Highlighters/Color Pencils Modifications TAB
    106. 106. + In a language arts class, the teacher provides a student(who has a reading disability) with a book on tape. The student is expected to complete all the reading guides and take the same exams as the other students in the class. Accommodation
    107. 107. + Certain students use a different textbook that is at a lower reading level and has simpler explanations of concepts. These students take a different test over the content though they participate in all class discussions and activities. Modification
    108. 108. +Students work in teams of four to create a presentation on a science topic. Each student in each group is assigned a particular role (recorder, organizer resource collector, and fact checker) with specified tasks to do to accomplish that role. Students are given guidance by the teachers as needed to keep the assignment on track. Instructional Strategy
    109. 109. + A teacher designs a unit that allows students to choose a test, poster, or oral presentation to demonstrate understanding of the five main concepts and their connections. For one student, the teacher has constructed a guide so that the teachers, student and the parents can track progress as the project is completed. Accommodation
    110. 110. + In a Social Studies class, the teacher constructs a study guide that is partially completed. These are given to a few students. Accommodation
    111. 111. + Specific students are graded on test items that cover critical information and are not graded on their performance on the short essay portion even though they are asked to attempt it. Modification
    112. 112. + In Math class, the teacher creates cards with critical symbols or vocabulary and corresponding definitions. The cards are distributed in class and the students move around the class to find the card that matches their cards. Instructional Strategy
    113. 113. + STEP 7: MOST APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT OPTION  DETERMINE THE MOST APPORPRIATE ASSESSEMENT OPTION.
    114. 114. + Confidentiality
    115. 115. +Confidentiality Free online course at ESC-20 www.esc20.net Click on workshops and log into iLearning Workshop #: PD 110818-C13
    116. 116. +

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