anchorage Fondeo


Published on

Anchorage manouver

Published in: Education
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

anchorage Fondeo

  1. 1. NS302 Mooring and Anchoring Procedures
  2. 2. Mooring • Challenging evolution in which it is vital as a conning officer or deck safety officer to know the deck equipment, deck fittings, and proper use of mooring lines
  3. 3. Learning Objectives • Describe the different type of deck equipment • Recite standard linehandling commands used in anchoring evolutions • Describe the safety precautions associated with mooring and anchoring procedures • Outline the steps in preparing to anchor, including the events leading to anchoring, readying the anchor and letting go the anchor
  4. 4. Learning Objectives • Describe procedures for “weighing anchor” • List two methods for mooring to buoy
  5. 5. Deck and Pier Fittings • consist of the following Cleats Bitts Bollards Chocks Towing Pads
  6. 6. Deck and Pier Fittings Cleat - Consists of a double- ended pair of horns, used for securing a line or wire. Bitts - Pair of heavy vertical cylinders implanted on ship’s deck, used for making fast lines led through chocks. Bollard - Strong cylindrical upright on a pier, about which a mooring line is placed.
  7. 7. CLEAT
  8. 8. Deck and Pier Fittings Cleat - Consists of a double- ended pair of horns, used for securing a line or wire. Bitts - Pairs of heavy vertical cylinders inplanted on ship’s deck, used for making fast lines led through chocks. Bollard - Strong cylindrical upright on a pier, about which a mooring line is placed.
  9. 9. BITTS
  10. 10. Deck and Pier Fittings Cleat - Consists of a double- ended pair of horns, used for securing a line or wire. Bitts - Pairs of heavy vertical cylinders inplanted on ship’s deck, used for making fast lines led through chocks. Bollard - Strong cylindrical upright on a pier, about which eye of mooring line is placed.
  11. 11. BOLLARD
  12. 12. 3 Types of Chocks Chock - Heavy fitting with smooth surfaces through which mooring lines are led. Open Closed Roller Rollers help reduce friction.
  13. 13. Deck and Pier Fittings Padeye – metal plate with an “eye” attached to the deck to distribute a load over a large area in which block is attached Towing pad - large pad eye of extra strength used in towing operations
  14. 14. Deck and Pier Fittings • Mooring lines are typically run through bits on deck then through chocks to bollards on pier
  15. 15. Other Mooring Equipment Capstan - Separate vertical machinery units or part of the anchor windlass around which lines are passed, commonly used in mooring and anchoring evolutions. Capstan Wildcat
  16. 16. Anchor Windlass Capstan Wildcat Each works as an independent unit
  17. 17. Other Mooring Equipment Rat guards - Shields secured around mooring lines to prevent rats from coming aboard ships. - Circular metal disk in halves lashed together by lines - Concave side faces pier
  18. 18. Other Mooring Equipment Chafing gear - Canvas or other material placed around mooring lines to prevent wear. Fenders – shock-absorbing device used to cushion the shock of contact between two ships or a ship and a pier
  19. 19. Three types of fenders • pneumatic - most frequently used, inflatable rubber barrel lowered from ship to point just clear of water abeam • cylindrical - available for immediate use on forecastle/fantail • ball - manila ready for placement at any other point of contact between side of ship and pier
  20. 20. Other Mooring Equipment Camel - A large float or raft used to separate ship from pier face in order to prevent contact between pier and ship’s side *allow crew to paint sides of ship.
  21. 21. Other Mooring Equipment Dip the eye - When two mooring lines are placed over the same bollard, the second one is led up through the eye of the first before being put over the bollard. This allows either to be cast off independently.
  22. 22. Other Mooring Equipment • Heaving lines - lightweight lines thrown across ship or pier to act as messenger for mooring line • Bolo lines - nylon line with padded lead weight attached at end thrown from ship to ship or ship to pier – reach two times the distance – not affected by environmental conditions – hazardous to people on pier • Line-throwing gun – seldom used as last resort
  23. 23. Deck Related Equipment Lifelines - Lines erected around the edges of decks, referred to as follows: Top - Lifeline Middle - Housing line Bottom - Foot rope Snaking - Netting rigged between foot rope and deck for safety of personnel
  24. 24. Deck Related Equipment Leadline - Marked line used to determine water depth in fathoms. Boatswain’s chair - Used for sending one person over-the-side *helmets and life preserver required *hand-tended safety line tended from deck above Jacob’s ladder - Rope ladder w/wood rungs rigged over the side for temporary use
  25. 25. Deck Related Equipment Pilot’s ladder - Flexible portable ladder, usually constructed of metal, sturdier than a Jacob’s ladder. Sea ladder - Rigid, portable ladder that may be mounted and secured to the side of the ship. Accommodation ladder - Rigid, inclined ladder rigged to the side of the ship to allow boarding of a moored or anchored ship.
  26. 26. Mooring Lines Mooring lines are the lines used to secure the ship to a wharf, pier or another ship. Definition of lines: Breast lines - Run at right angles from the ship, control distance of ship from pier Aft spring lines - Tend aft from ship, control forward movement. Forward spring lines - Tend forward from the ship, control aft movement
  27. 27. Mooring Lines Numbering of lines: #1 - Bow line #6 - Stern line #2 - Aft bow spring line #3 - Forward bow spring line #4 - Aft quarter spring line #5 - Forward quarter spring line 1 3 4 5 6 2
  28. 28. Mooring Line Terminology • Hawser - heavy line over 5 inches in circumference used for towing/mooring • Small stuff - fiber line less than 1 3/4 inches in circumference • Marline - two-strand, tarred hemp small stuff • Destroyers and smaller ships typically use 5-inch or smaller mooring lines • Larger ships may use 8-inch or 10-inch mooring lines
  29. 29. Mooring Line Terminology • Bight - a loop of line or chain • Bitter end - free end of a length of line, wire, chain, or cable • Eye - closed loop in the end of line
  30. 30. Mooring Line Terminology • Mooring lines vary with size and characteristic of ship • Two requirements; – Light as possible for ease of handling – Strong enough to take considerable strain during a mooring evolution, heavy weather, etc…
  31. 31. Linehandling for Mooring Evolution • Well in advance to linehandling evolution mooring lines faked down fore and aft on deck each near chock through which it will pass • end of eye is passed through chock and loop laid back over lifeline • Fenders are made ready to go • pass heaving lines to pierside linehandlers upon order from conning officer • pierside linehandlers will place eye of each mooring line over bollards
  32. 32. Linehandling for Mooring Evolution • Lines handled with linehandlers or capstans at the direction of the conn. Safety Officers will monitor line strain with tattletale cords – light strain - tattletale is not under tension – moderate strain - tattletale is under moderate tension – heavy strain - tattletale is taught and line is at maximum working load
  33. 33. Linehandling for Mooring Evolution • mooring lines should be secured to bitts with round turns (figure eight commonly used) • when ship’s position is secured, all lines will be doubled up by sending a bight of each line to the pier with heaving lines (dipping the eye) • mooring lines will be birdnested after doubling • all lines will be frapped • rat guards will be placed on all mooring lines
  34. 34. Linehandling for getting underway from pier • Remove rat guards and frapping prior to sea and anchor detail • single up all lines with pierside linehandlers when ordered by conn • take in all lines when ordered and stow for sea
  35. 35. Mooring Lines • DO NOT MIX MOORING LINE Never mix lines of different constructions or material . Each type of rope exhibits different elongation characteristics and mixing will result in an unequal load sharing
  36. 36. Mooring Lines Nylon replaced manila line: Advantages: lasts longer easier to maintain and handle more resistant to weather, grease, oil 2.5 times stronger stretches more Disadvantages: lethal hazard if breaks expensive
  37. 37. Mooring Line Detail • Deck Safety Officer • Line Captains • Phone Talker • Corpsman • Gunnersmate • Anchor windlass detail (EN and EM)
  38. 38. Standard Commands to Line Handlers • Orders relayed from conning officer to forecastle phone talker • orders must be obeyed promptly • Lines referred to as numbers because numbers are shorter and more precise than names
  39. 39. Standard Commands to Line Handlers “Stand by your lines” “Send lines over” “Take a strain” “Slack line” “Take line X to capstan/power” “Heave around” “Avast heaving”
  40. 40. Standard Commands to Line Handlers “Hold X” “Check X” “Surge lines” “Single up all lines” “Double up all lines” “Take in all lines” “Cast off all lines”
  41. 41. Line Handling Safety Precautions • never stand in bight of line • do not try and check line that is running out rapidly by stepping on it • standing part is faked down to prevent fouling in case of rapid movement • do not stand in direct line of pull of nylon line or when applying heavy loads (“snap back” zone) • Be in proper battle dress at all times while handling lines
  42. 42. Anchoring • ship held into position by anchor on sea bottom • understanding for deck machinery and equipment available for evolution
  43. 43. Ground Tackle Collective term applied to all equipment used in anchoring. Includes: Anchor chain Connecting fittings Anchor windlass other gear used to secure/house anchors
  44. 44. Anchoring Terminology • Hawsepipe – heavy casting in bow through which anchor chain runs out and where anchor is secured when not in use • chain pipe – pipe in which chain runs from windlass down to chain locker • chain locker - place where anchor chain stowed • anchor buoy - small float attached to anchor to mark position – port/red, stbd/green – Line adjusted to 2-3 fathoms greater than depth of water
  45. 45. Anchoring Terminology • flukes - dig anchor portion in sea bottom • shank - vertical portion connecting flukes and the top ring • crown - base of anchor • stock - prevents rolling of anchor on bottom
  46. 46. Anchoring Terminology • Anchors – Three types – Usually made of cast steel with forged steel fittings – Weight from 30-60,000 lbs – Edges of flukes are smooth to prevent damage to ship’s hull
  47. 47. Anchors Stockless Navy standard LWT type Lightweight type Mushroom Permanent Anchorages
  48. 48. Stockless – most common – standard bow anchor for most combatant ships – ease of stowage and handling, lightweight – raises directly into hawsepipe – flukes pivot on shank and swing up to 45 degrees on either side to permit anchor to dig into sea bottom – Disadvantage - tendency to disengage flukes by gradually turning over
  49. 49. Mushroom • used to anchor buoys, small boats, and special barges
  50. 50. Lightweight type • two types: – Northhill - small boat anchor – Danforth - small boats, stern anchors for landing craft • high holding power is comparable to stockless anchor of two times its weight • sharpness of flukes enables it to dig in faster and easier • reduced weight requires lighter, less costly gear to handle • Disadvantage - difficulty breaking free from bottom at times
  51. 51. Anchor Chain • made of die-lock or high strength welded steel stud links – studded - solid piece welded in center to eliminate danger of chain kinking and pounding of links on adjacent links • size of link designated by its diameter ranging from 3/4 to 4 3/4 inches • chain comes in 15 fathom (90 feet) lengths called shots connected to each other by special detachable links – constructed so they can be disassembled, allowing for shots to be removed/replaced • Destroyer – minimum length of 105 fathoms • Larger ship – 200+ fathoms in length
  52. 52. Chain Measurement  1 shot = 15 fathoms  1 fathom = 6 feet *chain measured in shots connected with detachable links
  53. 53. Special chain fittings = Detachable link *C-shaped and connects two shots together *different colors allow for quick determination of how muc chain is paying out
  54. 54.  Detachable links and adjacent links are color coded to allow for quick determination of how much chain is payed out  Detachable links: Red, White, Blue, Red . . .  Adjacent links: # white links on either side = # of shot  Last link of adjacent links on each side will have # of wire turns indicating the # of the shot Anchor Chain Markings
  55. 55. Anchor Chain Markings Shot # Color of # of White Turns Detachable Adjacent of Link Links Wire 1 (15 fathoms) 2 (30 fathoms) 3 (45 fathoms) 4 (60 fathoms) 5 (75 fathoms) 6 (90 fathoms) red 1 1 white 2 2 blue 3 3 red 4 4 white 5 5 blue 6 6
  56. 56. Scope of Chain 15 fathoms – 1 shot 30 fathoms – 2 shots 45 fathoms – 3 shots 60 fathoms – 4 shots
  57. 57. Scope of Chain Next to Last Shot – all yellow Last Shot – all red
  58. 58. Scope of Chain  3rd shot: W/W/W/B/W/W/W  Second to last shot: entirely yellow  Last shot: entirely red *Warning of approach of bitter end of chain
  59. 59. Chain Stopper • used to hold anchor taut in the hawsepipe and hold anchor when its chain is disconnected • consists of turnbuckle inserted in short section of chain with pelican hook attached to one end and shackle to other • Two stoppers per chain – housing stopper - stopper nearest hawespipe, bent to anchor chain when anchor is ready for sea – riding stopper - stoppers aft of housing stopper
  60. 60. Shackle Chain Stopper Detachable Link Turnbuckle Pelican Hook
  61. 61. Anchor Windlass
  62. 62. Anchor Windlass • machinery used to hoist the anchors – types • horizontal - all machinery and controls located above deck • vertical - machinery and controls located both above and below decks – Most combatants – components • capstan - line handling drum above a wildcat on a vertical windlass used for handling lines when mooring • wildcat - drum located below capstan containing grooves that engage chain links • locking handwheel - used to engage/disengage wildcat to/from capstan • friction brake - mechanical brake that holds wildcat • Machine controls – allow for 5 positions (fast fwd, slow fwd, stop, slow reverse, fast reverse)
  63. 63. Housing Stopper Riding Stopper Wildcat Brake Dead man switch Capstan Horizontal Capstan
  64. 64. Anchoring: Personnel involved and their Duties 1. Navigator - during pre-anchorage brief will determine: a. Identify anchorage and approach track, landmarks b. letting go circle/head and drop bearings c. Depth of water at anchorage d. Range of tide, current, wind direction and speed e. Type of bottom f. Proposed track
  65. 65. 2. First Lieutenant - conduct inspection of deck equipment – 1st LT or Deck Safety Officer in charge – Assisted by ship’s BOSUN and senior BMs – Brief forecastle evolution • Designated BMs and SN at positions • Engineman (EN) and electrician (EM) present in anchor windlass to take care of mechanical or electronic failures • phone talker on 1JV w/ bridge to relay orders 3. Anchor detail -
  66. 66. 4. OOD - ensure anchor detail, navigation detail, and helm safety officer on station - keep CO informed - control approach to anchorage by assisting Conning officer 5. Piloting Teams will be set on Bridge and in CIC
  67. 67. Anchorage Plot N 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1500 TR004HB004 Stack TR Tank As ship nears anchorage, gradually reduce speed Ex: 1500 yds – 10 kts 1000 yds – 5 kts 500-300 yds – stop Ship moving slowly when anchor dropped
  68. 68. Techniques of Anchoring • “Anchor is ready for letting go” - report from anchor detail to bridge – Engage wildcat and take strain on chain – riding stoppers removed – anchor walked out of hawsepipe using wildcat to ensure no hang-ups – remove all but 2-3 turns of mousing on locking pin of pelican hook of housing stopper – wildcat disconnected and brake set – chain locker checked for loose gear
  69. 69. Techniques of Anchoring • “Standby the anchor” - report from bridge to anchor detail - brake partially released – two seaman, one with sledge hammer, take station at housing stopper • As ship passes through letting go circle, command “Let go the anchor”is ordered from the bridge to anchor detail – one seaman will pull pin from housing stopper’s pelican hook and remove mousing – second seaman will knock bail off pelican hook with sledge hammer and clear – brake released causing chain to run out – Colors are shifted from mast to flagstaff and jackstaff
  70. 70. Techniques of Anchoring – anchor buoy thrown ovbd/colors shifted • Attached to anchor’s fluke • As buoy floats, it’s said to be “watching” – Once anchor hits bottom, noticeable slack in speed of chain
  71. 71. Techniques of Anchoring • “Set the anchor” - from bridge to anchor detail – brake is set – flukes dig into sea bottom – motion of ship is stopped, indicating anchor is holding – once anchor is set, brake is released and chain is veered (run out) to the desired scope (length) • “Pass the stoppers” - from bridge to anchor detail – both riding and housing stoppers connected and strain equalized
  72. 72. Techniques of Anchoring Desired scope of chain - much of the holding power of an anchor derives from the amount of chain on the bottom. - Rule of thumb: 5-7 times the depth of water. - A lesser amount of chain is put out at first to set the anchor. - normally anchor in water < 20 fathoms - > 20 requires walking out anchor
  73. 73. Techniques of Anchoring • Anchor chain reports from anchor detail to bridge – amount of chain veered based on color code read at water’s edge, hawsepipe or on deck – direction chain tends using clockwise reference system relative to ship’s head – amount of strain on chain (light, mod, heavy) – EX: “Sixty fathoms on deck, chain tends one o’clock, moderate strain”
  74. 74. Anchor Watch • Forecastle Watch - BM or SN making anchor reports to bridge watch every 30 minutes to OOD • Bridge Watch - QM or OS taking visual fixes every 15 minutes – may assign OOD depending on conditions • CIC - OS taking radar fixes every 15 minutes to compare with bridge visual fixes
  75. 75. Dragging Anchor • consecutive fixes falling outside drag circle • chain alternately getting taut and going slack • actions: – call CO, CDO, and NAV – veer additional chain – drop another anchor – alert engineroom in case of u/w
  76. 76. Techniques of Weighing Anchor • “Ready to heave in” - report from anchor detail to bridge – anchor detail manned and ready – anchor windlass energized and tested – wildcat engaged and take light strain on chain – brake is set and all stoppers but one disconnected – Grapnel to retrieve buoy and hose to wash sediment off chain and anchor standing by
  77. 77. Techniques of Weighing Anchor • “heave around” - report from bridge to anchor detail – All stoppers cast off and start to retrieve anchor
  78. 78. Reports from Forecastle Detail • “Anchor at short stay” = just short of breaking free of sea bottom – Chain is nearly vertical but flukes are not broken out of ground
  79. 79. Almost = Length of chain Depth of water AT SHORT STAY
  80. 80. Reports from Forecastle Detail • “Anchor up and down” - flukes of anchor have broken free but crown still rests on bottom
  81. 81. UP AND DOWN
  82. 82. Reports from Forecastle Detail • “Anchor aweigh” - anchor is clear of bottom and ship underway
  83. 83. AWEIGH
  84. 84. Reports from Forecastle Detail • “Anchor is in sight, clear/fouled anchor” – – Anchor is first sighted when bringing it in – use hose to clean it off • “Anchor clear of the water” - anchor no longer submerged • “Anchor is housed” - shank of anchor is in hawsepipe and flukes are against ship’s side
  85. 85. Reports from Forecastle Detail “Anchor is secured for sea” - Brake set and stoppers passed. Strain equalized between the stoppers.
  86. 86. Safety Precautions • Ensure anchor detail personnel on forecastle are wearing goggles, hard hats, steel toed shoes, pants tucked into socks • Anchor is ready to let go, no one step over chain • Personnel stand clear of chain pipe when chain is paying out
  87. 87. Mooring to a Buoy • Advantages: – safer in storm because buoy secured to bottom – smaller berths with shorter chain requirements • Disadvantages: – requires putting small boat in water – more prep time and personnel needed
  88. 88. Mooring to a Buoy 1. Dip Rope Method - The buoy party attaches the buoy wire, then passes the messenger through the eye of the buoy and attaches it to the dip rope. The dip rope is connected to the end of the anchor chain and by pulling on the messenger, the anchor chain is pulled to the buoy. 2. Trolley Method - A trolley is attached to the buoy wire and used to ease the anchor down to the buoy.
  89. 89. 61 Buoy Wire Dip Rope Method
  90. 90. 61 Dip Rope Messenger Buoy Wire Dip Rope Method
  91. 91. 61 Dip Rope Method Messenger Buoy wire Anchor chain
  92. 92. 61 Trolley Trolley Method