*You may know it by the name attention deficit disorder, or ADD. ADD / ADHD makes it difficult for people to inhibit their spontaneous responses—responses that can involve everything from movement to speech and attentiveness. ** Hyperactivity may vary with the individual’s age and developmental level, and the diagnosis should be made cautiously in young children.***If you spot just a few signs, or the symptoms appear only in some situations, it’s probably not ADD / ADHD. On the other hand, if your child shows a number of disruptive ADD / ADHD signs and symptoms that are present across all situations – at home, at school, and at play – it’s time to take a closer look. Attentional and behavioral manifestations usually appear in multiple contexts, including home, school, work, and social situations.
It is difficult to establish the diagnosis in children younger than age 4 or 5 years, because their characteristic behavior is much more variable than that of older children and may include features that are similar to symptoms of ADHD.By late childhood and early adolescence, signs of gross motor activity (e.g., excessive running and climbing, not remaining seated) are less common, and hyperactivity symptoms may be confined to fidgetiness or an inner feeling of jitteriness or restlessness.
* Data on prevalence in adolescence and adulthood are limited. Evidence suggests that the prevalence of ADHD as defined in the DSM-IV may be somewhat greater than the prevalence of the disorder based in DSM-III-R criteria.
*Family, school, and peer influences are also crucial in determining the extent of impairments and comorbidity. Studies also suggest that there is a higher prevalence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Learning Disorders, Substance-Related Disorders, and Antisocial Personality Disorder in family members of individuals with ADHD.
*Although many individuals present symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, there are individuals in whom one or the other pattern is predominant.
What is adhd?<br />The DSM-IV-TR defines ADHD as a “persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development”<br />?? What does this mean??<br />
What is adhd? (cont.)<br />a disorder that appears in early childhood*<br />signs and symptoms of ADHD typically appear before the age of 7**<br />it can be difficult to distinguish between ADHD and normal “kid behavior.” ***<br />
Specific culture, age, gender features<br />ADHD is known to occur in various cultures, with variations in reported prevalence among Western countries probably arising from different diagnostic practices than from differences in clinical presentation<br />
Specific culture, age, gender features (cont.)<br />Symptoms of ADHD are typically at their most prominent during the elementary grades.*<br />
prevalence<br />3% - 7% in school age children*<br />
Familial pattern<br />ADHD has been found to be more common in the first-degree biological relatives of children with ADHD than in the general population.* <br />
Subtypes*<br />Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type<br />This subtype should be used if six (or more) symptoms of inattention and six (or more) symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months. Most children and adolescents with the disorder have the Combined Type. <br />
Subtypes (cont.)<br />Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type<br />This subtype should be used if six (or more) symptoms of inattention (but fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity) have persisted for at least 6 months.<br />
Subtypes (cont.)<br />Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type<br />This subtype should be used if six (or more) symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity (but fewer than six symptoms of inattention) have persisted for at least 6 months. <br />
Diagnostic criteria<br />6 or more of the following symptoms of INATTENTION have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level :<br />
Diagnostic criteria-Inattention<br />Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities<br />Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities<br />Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly<br />Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school-work, chores, or duties in the workplace<br />Difficulty organizing tasks and activities<br />Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort<br />Loses things necessary for tasks or activities<br />Distracted by extraneous stimuli<br />Forgetful in daily activities <br />
Diagnostic criteria<br />6 or more of the following symptoms of HYPERACTIVITY-IMPULSIVITY have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:<br />
Diagnostic criteria-hyperactivity-impulsivity<br />Hyperactivity<br />Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat<br />Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected<br />Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate<br />Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly<br />Is often “on the go” or often acts if “driven by a motor”<br />Talks excessively<br />
Diagnostic criteria-hyperactivity-impulsivity (cont.)<br />Impulsivity<br />Blurts out answers before questions have been completed<br />Has difficulty awaiting turn<br />Interrupts or intrudes on others <br />
Conclusion <br />In early childhood, it may be difficult to distinguish symptoms of ADHD from age-appropriate behaviors in active children (e.g., running around or being noisy)<br />Inattention in the classroom may also occur when children with high intelligence are placed in academically understimulating environments.<br />