AFLATOXINNutrition
AFLATOXIN B1http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Aflatoxin_B1.png                                           ...
FIRST AFLATOXIN POISONINGhttp://cals.arizona.edu/research/cottylab/anewpicdflt/tractor%20w%20text.jpg
AFLATOXINS & INSECTS ON FOOD CROPShttp://www.cpes.peachnet.edu/cpmru/lynch01.jpg   https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/...
HOW MYCOTOXINS AFFECT DAIRY COWS     http://en.engormix.com/MA-dairy-cattle/health/articles/mycotoxins-dairy-cows-menace-t...
AFLATOXIN & CORNhttp://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/photos/aspergillus.jpg
LIVER DEFECTS AND AFLATOXIN              CORRELATIONhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Aflatoxin_B1.png
EFFECTS OF AFLATOXINS Chronic exposure to aflatoxins can damage the liver, which  can produce:   Liver inflammation (hep...
LIVER DEFECTShttp://www.hopkins-gi.org/GDL_Disease.aspx?CurrentUDV=31&GDL_Cat_ID=AF793A59-B736-42CB-9E1F-E79D2B9FC358&GDL_...
HOW AFLATOXINS CONTAMINATE FOODS                                                         “An intercalation                ...
AFLATOXIN: CYCLE OF CONTAMINATION       http://www.alternativehealth.co.nz/cancer/fbuskicycle.gif
ASPERGILLUS
ASPERGILLUS-FLAVUS http://www.aspergillusflavus.org/aflavus/
CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF AFLATOXINShttp://www.ehso.com/ehshome/images/aspergillus_flavus.jpg   http://www.envirologix.com...
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  • Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin group, made of two molds: Aspergillusflavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin infects food supplies and causes a toxic response, even when consumed in low doses. Aflatoxins form during a polyketide pathway with a series of catalyzed, enzyme reactions. To animals, aflatoxins can be toxic, mutate, teratogen and carcinogenic. Aflatoxin B1 is the most commonly found aflatoxin in food contaminations and is known to be cancerous, however, it is not the only aflatoxin that can and does affect our food
  • Sometimes, insects can increase aflatoxin growth. To name a few, aflatoxins affect: peanuts, peanut butter, corn, nuts, almonds, figs, spices, feeds, rice and cottonseed. Dairy and meat products are often infected due to animal consumption of infected feed. The most commonly affected foods, however, are: corn, peanuts and cottonseed. Since the mold is commonly found in our natural environment, grains, nuts, spice crops, coffee, cocoa and legumes are often contaminated.
  • Aflatoxins are the most common type of mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are metabolites that can cause disease & death in humans and animals. They are produced by microfunguses. Mycotoxins create health troubles in cattle, especially cows. In cows, they can: lower milk production and feeding efficancy, contaminate the milk and cause embryonic loss. All of these majorly effect the finances and food production of farmers and their farms.
  • Due to its cheap, easy and quick production, corn is used in many processed foods in America today. The most prevalent corn derivative* is high fructose corn syrup. This sweetener is found in nearly every processed food we eat from candies, cereals, sodas, chips, breads and even pickles. Despite cow’s inability to digest corn, livestocks’ feed is produced from corn, as well. Between 1993 and 2005, America spent $37 billion on corn.
  • Aflatoxin outbreaks are most common in areas that do not have organizations to regulate and manage their food safety. Food shortages, high temperatures and high moisture, also, increase the potentiality of an aflatoxinpoisioning. It is most prevalent in undeveloped countries, including, but not limited to Taiwan, Ouganda, Africa and India. This is due to the inability of developing countries to adhere to FDA regulations that are proposed for the means of developed countries.
  • Although most developed countries do not experience outbreaks of aflatoxin poisoning, many people should be cautious of the amount of mass produced foods that they consume. Eating aflatoxins in high doses in various groups can have similar or identical effects of those that are eating the aflatoxin from one food source. Long-time exposure of low amounts of aflatoxin can, also, be detrimental to your health. Aflatoxin is also a carcinogen that infects the liver of many rodents. Presumably, this effect also occurs in humans. Each year, in certain areas of China and Africa (where aflatoxin poisoning is prevalent), 25,000 people die from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a type of liver cancer.
  • Aflatoxins grow by spreading hyphaes (a type of mold). These hyphaes form Mycelium, which releases enzymes to break down food and create further energy for growth. The life of aflatoxins depend on how much food and water it recieves. Other factors include humidity and temperature.
  • During harvest, aflatoxins grow on agricultural crops, however, aflatoxins can also affect foods in the storage and processing part of food production. Preventing aflatoxin outbreaks is difficult because of a requirement to mass produce while avoiding the scenarios for growth, mentioned previously. To control aflatoxins, farmers and food producers have to be aware of moisture, composition and temperature to prevent the fungus from growing. Outbreaks can occurs in soil, hay, decaying vegetation*, and grains. The FDA states that the vacancy of aflatoxin in our foods is unrealistic. Even in developed countries, we are, therefore, susceptible to aflatoxin poisoning.It is important for food producers to shorten the period between food production and consumer consumption. Making sure the foods are stored in a cool freezer during this period can be beneficial. That being said, different geographic locations and farming practices effect the prevalence of aflatoxin.
  • During harvest, aflatoxins grow on agricultural crops, however, aflatoxins can also affect foods in the storage and processing part of food production. Preventing aflatoxin outbreaks is difficult because of a requirement to mass produce while avoiding the scenarios for growth, mentioned previously. To control aflatoxins, farmers and food producers have to be aware of moisture, composition and temperature to prevent the fungus from growing. Outbreaks can occurs in soil, hay, decaying vegetation*, and grains. The FDA states that the vacancy of aflatoxin in our foods is unrealistic. Even in developed countries, we are, therefore, susceptible to aflatoxin poisoning.It is important for food producers to shorten the period between food production and consumer consumption. Making sure the foods are stored in a cool freezer during this period can be beneficial. That being said, different geographic locations and farming practices effect the prevalence of aflatoxin.
  • Nutrition Presentation

    1. 1. AFLATOXINNutrition
    2. 2. AFLATOXIN B1http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Aflatoxin_B1.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Aflatoxin_b1_3d_ structure.png
    3. 3. FIRST AFLATOXIN POISONINGhttp://cals.arizona.edu/research/cottylab/anewpicdflt/tractor%20w%20text.jpg
    4. 4. AFLATOXINS & INSECTS ON FOOD CROPShttp://www.cpes.peachnet.edu/cpmru/lynch01.jpg https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2010/NR-10-01-03.html
    5. 5. HOW MYCOTOXINS AFFECT DAIRY COWS http://en.engormix.com/MA-dairy-cattle/health/articles/mycotoxins-dairy-cows-menace-t1114/p0.htm
    6. 6. AFLATOXIN & CORNhttp://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/photos/aspergillus.jpg
    7. 7. LIVER DEFECTS AND AFLATOXIN CORRELATIONhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/Aflatoxin_B1.png
    8. 8. EFFECTS OF AFLATOXINS Chronic exposure to aflatoxins can damage the liver, which can produce: Liver inflammation (hepatitis) Immune deficiency Increased susceptibility to infections Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer
    9. 9. LIVER DEFECTShttp://www.hopkins-gi.org/GDL_Disease.aspx?CurrentUDV=31&GDL_Cat_ID=AF793A59-B736-42CB-9E1F-E79D2B9FC358&GDL_Disease_ID=A349F0EC-5C87-4A52-9F2E-69AFDB80C3D1
    10. 10. HOW AFLATOXINS CONTAMINATE FOODS “An intercalation inhibitor altering the target selectivity of DNA damaging agents: Synthesis of site- specific aflatoxin B1 adducts in a p53 mutational hotspot”. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/18/9579/F1.large.jpg
    11. 11. AFLATOXIN: CYCLE OF CONTAMINATION http://www.alternativehealth.co.nz/cancer/fbuskicycle.gif
    12. 12. ASPERGILLUS
    13. 13. ASPERGILLUS-FLAVUS http://www.aspergillusflavus.org/aflavus/
    14. 14. CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF AFLATOXINShttp://www.ehso.com/ehshome/images/aspergillus_flavus.jpg http://www.envirologix.com/artman/uploads/aspergillus1we b.jpg

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