Hatfield Reading Quiz

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Hatfield Reading Quiz

  1. 1. An Overview of Instructional Design By: Erin Hatfield
  2. 2. Table of Contents Slide 3 - History of Instructional Design Slide 5 - Definition of Instructional Design Slide 7 - ‘Systematic’ Instructional Design Slide 9 - Models of Instructional Design Slide 11 - Constructivism Slide 13 - Empiricism Slide 15 - Behaviorism Slide 17 - Information Processing Theory Slide 19 - ID & Educational Technology Slide 21 - APA References
  3. 3. History of Instructional Design Instructional Design has been around for as long as people have been trying to improve things. It was formally named around 1961 when Michigan State University used the term (Gustafson, ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, & United States, 2002). Since then, people have been looking into how humans learn. These ideas have come together to form many theories concerning how to design instruction for optimal learning. Although each model is slightly different, they all share many of the same components. (Reiser, 2001) However, our understanding of instructional design is always growing, moving and changing. http://bit.ly/1f9NDIQ
  4. 4. Definition of Instructional Design Commonly known as ID, instructional design is a process. It combines learning and teaching theory to create a program that produces student knowledge. This process is used in almost every sector of society including the military, graduate programs, and businesses. (Reiser, 2001) All of the pieces have to work together to form a quality product. http://bit.ly/1g2AQID
  5. 5. “Systematic” Instructional Design Organization is key to Instructional Design. Although there is a step by step process, often these steps happen simultaneously. Without organization, the operation will fall apart. However, when all the pieces come together are are easy to find, the whole outfit is successful. http://bit.ly/MxRs0u
  6. 6. Models of ID Instructional Design models share many of the same charistics. They each are a process that is somewhat linear. Reflection and planning are big parts in most. However, they are not simply carbon copies with different names. Each has been designed to meet the needs of the creator and applies in unique situations. Programmers prefer the instant feedback they get from using the ‘Rapid Prototyping’ approach. As people use a model, it grows and changes ever so slightly. The DNA is essentially the same, but like puppies, each is unique in markings, personality, and other more subtle ways. http://bit.ly/1g2SJXW
  7. 7. Constructivism Constructivism is a philosophy that believes that knowledge is created through experiences and personal interpretation (Smith & Regan, 2005). It began with Jean Piaget and continues today. Often it can be found throughout curriculum in classrooms. This philosophy calls for learners to discover the knowledge for themselves instead of telling learners the information directly. Much like a caterpillar creates a cocoon and becomes a butterfly, students take the discoveries they make and create their own understanding, making learning a personal and sometimes social process. http://bit.ly/1iy5BGx
  8. 8. Empiricism Empiricism stipulates that knowledge is gained through physical experiences. Its main founder, John Locke said that very little is ingrained in a person, and most everything they know comes as children grow and learn. (Smith & Regan, 2005) This theory dictates that people have no knowledge of things because they have no experience with these things.(Borghini, n.d.) A good example is chopsticks. These are widely used in Asia as the main utensil. As such, children grow up using these in their daily lives and can pick up anything with them. In other parts of the world, however, chopsticks are unknown. When presented with a pair at an ethnic restaurant, many people have no idea how to use them and opt for the utensil they are most familiar with. http://bit.ly/1lDGIdv
  9. 9. Behaviorism Behaviorism is an educational theory in which teachers only concern themselves with observable behaviors of their students. It stated that everyone is born with a ‘blank slate’ and their environment and behavioral patterns determine their destiny. (McLeod, 2007) Educators cannot concern themselves with why a student does things because that is out of their control. They can only control what a student can do. By observing and taking notes, teachers can condition their students to behave and react certain ways. Educators can condition students much like writing pages in a journal. http://bit.ly/1gb28Nc
  10. 10. Information Processing Theory This theory is actually a collection of theories that follow the idea that the brain interprets the environment and how a person reacts to it. (Smith & Ragan, 2005) These reactions can be changed slowly over time by introducing new information and ways of thinking. The system depends on three types of memory: sensory, working, and long-term. Most learning takes place in the working and longterm sections of the brain. This theory works at transitioning information from the working memory to long-term memory which makes things seem easier to do (i.e. comprehension vs. knowledge) (Schraw & McCrudden, 2013) This process is much like taking strands of yarn and weaving a beautiful cloth. http://bit.ly/1eOyWfe
  11. 11. ID and Educational Technology Although they are two different fields and can function independently, Instructional Design and Educational Technology do naturally go together. As time goes on, instructional designers are going to be required to produce instruction that can be transmitted via technology. Without a good grasp of what this technology is fully capable of, these designers may miss out of fantastic opportunities for learner engagement. Likewise, without ID, Educational Technology can sometimes be more of an afterthought. Educational technologists that can also design instruction can create quality lessons that target students where they need it and improve them frequently. Just like the clownfish and sea anemone, these two fields benefit from shared knowledge and collaboration. http://bit.ly/1bGkmly
  12. 12. APA References Borghini, A. (n.d.). Empiricism. About.com Philosophy. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from http://philosophy.about. com/od/Philosophical-Theories-Ideas/a/Empiricism_In_Defence_of_the_Senses.htm Gustafson, K. L., ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, & United States. (2002). Survey of instructional development models (4th ed.). Syracuse, N.Y: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology. McLeod, S. (2007). Behaviorist Approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved February 9, 2014, from http://www.simplypsychology. org/behaviorism.html Reiser, R. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design. Educational Technology Research & Development, 49(2), 57–67. Schraw, G., & McCrudden, M. (2013, July 12). Information Processing Theory. Education.com. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from http: //www.education.com/reference/article/information-processing-theory/ Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional Design (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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