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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. You May Ask Yourself Core Third Edition Dalton Conley You May Ask Yourself Third Edition Dalton Conley Chapter 1 Sociological Imagination: An Introduction
  2. 2. 2Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Paradox
  3. 3. 3Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. What Is Socialization? • Sociology is the study of human society.
  4. 4. 4Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. The Sociological Imagination • Coined by C. Wright Mills, this tool helps us to: – connect our personal experiences to society at large and greater historical forces. – “make the familiar strange,” or to question habits or customs that seem “natural” to us.
  5. 5. 5Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. What Is a Social Institution? • Social institutions are networks of structures in society that work to socialize the groups of people within them. Examples include: – the legal system – the labor market – the educational system – the military – the family
  6. 6. 6Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. What Is Social Identity? • The way individuals define themselves in relationship to groups they are a part of (or in relationship to groups they choose not to be a part of).
  7. 7. 7Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. The History of Sociology • Auguste Comte — society is better understood by determining the logic or scientific laws governing human behavior, called social physics or positivism. • Harriet Martineau — first to translate Comte’s written works to English; one of the earliest feminist social scientists • Karl Marx — theory of historical materialism, which identifies class conflict as the primary cause of social change
  8. 8. 8Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. The History of Sociology • Max Weber — emphasis on subjectivity became a foundation of interpretive sociology • Émile Durkheim — founder of positivist sociology; developed the theory that division of labor helps to determine how social cohesion is maintained, or not maintained, in that society • Georg Simmel — formal sociology, or a sociology of pure numbers (for instance, how a group of two is different than a group of three)
  9. 9. 9Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. The History of Sociology • Functionalism, conflict theory, feminist theory, symbolic interactionism, postmodernism, and midrange theory are all modern sociological theories.
  10. 10. 10Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. American Sociology • Early American sociology became prominent at the University of Chicago, so the perspective that emerged became known as the “Chicago School.” Chicago thinkers include: – Charles Horton Cooley – George Herbert Mead – W. I. Thomas – W.E.B. DuBois – Jane Addams • The Chicago School focused on empirical research, with the belief that people’s behaviors and personalities are shaped by their social and physical environments.
  11. 11. 11Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Sociology and Its Cousins • Sociology focuses on making comparisons across cases to find patterns and create hypotheses about how societies work now or how they worked in the past. • Sociology looks at how individuals interact with one another as well as at how groups, small and large, interact with one another.
  12. 12. 12Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Sociology and Its Cousins • Distinctions are important, but a lot of overlap exists between the work done in different academic disciplines. History and anthropology – cultural anthropology in particular – tend to focus more on particular circumstances. Political science focuses on one aspect of social relations – power. Psychology and biology examine things on a more micro level than sociology does, and economics is an entirely quantitative discipline.
  13. 13. 13Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Divisions within Sociology • Microsociology understands local interactional contexts, focusing on face-to-face encounters and gathering data through participant observations and in-depth interviews. • Macrosociology looks at social dynamics across whole societies or large parts of them and often relies on statistical analysis to do so.
  14. 14. 14Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Concept Quiz 1. Which of the following is an example of using one’s sociological imagination? a) being in unfamiliar surroundings and imagining being in a more comfortable place b) creating different hypotheses to explain an individual’s behavior c) creating a story to explain unfamiliar social customs d) being puzzled by how people in another country greet one another and then thinking about how people in your own country greet one another and why they do it the way they do
  15. 15. 15Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Concept Quiz 2. Social identity is _______. a) a construct that no longer has meaning in the postmodern era b) a collection of social roles that a person might fill c) a way that individuals define themselves in relation to groups they are a part of or groups they choose not to be a part of d) determined by the social group into which a person is born
  16. 16. 16Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Concept Quiz 3. The Chicago School of American Sociology emphasized the importance of ____________. a) the social and moral consequences of the division of labor b) the environment in shaping people’s behavior and personalities c) heavy statistical research d) none of the above
  17. 17. 17Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Concept Quiz 4. Sociology is distinct from other academic disciplines in its attempt to _____. a) embrace quantitative and qualitative research b) ask probing questions about how societies function c) detect patterns in how different societies handle or respond to similar phenomena d) examine human interaction on the micro level
  18. 18. 18Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Concept Quiz 5. Which of the following is an example of a study that might be undertaken by a macrosociologist? a) assessing how people choose where to sit on a public bus b) observing customers’ responses to being greeted upon entering a store c) conducting a statistical analysis of when professional men and women choose to start families d) examining how men and women react to riding in an elevator with an infant
  19. 19. 19Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Discussion Questions 1. Had you ever heard of sociology before? a) Yes b) No
  20. 20. 20Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. Discussion Questions 2. Have you ever taken a sociology class before? a) Yes b) No
  21. 21. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 21 Part opener I
  22. 22. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 22 Chapter opener
  23. 23. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 23 Sociologist C. Wright Mills commuting to Columbia University on his motorcycle. How does Mills’s concept of the sociological imagination help us make the familiar strange?
  24. 24. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 24 Vincent Vega (John Travolta) describes his visit to a McDonald’s in Amsterdam to Jules Winnfield (Samuel L. Jackson).
  25. 25. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 25 Figure 1.1 Returns to Schooling
  26. 26. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 26 Two famous college dropouts. Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg (left) attended Harvard but dropped out before graduating. John Mackey (right) quit university before founding Whole Foods.
  27. 27. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 27 College-campus bulletin boards are covered with advertisements like this promoting Web sites that generate diplomas. Why are these fake diplomas not worth it?
  28. 28. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 28 Tobacco company Philip Morris changed its name to Altria at a stockholders’ meeting in January 2003.
  29. 29. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 29
  30. 30. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 30
  31. 31. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 31
  32. 32. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 32
  33. 33. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 33
  34. 34. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 34
  35. 35. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 35
  36. 36. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 36
  37. 37. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 37 W. E. B. DuBois (second from right) at the office of the NAACP’s Crisis magazine.
  38. 38. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 38 Female textile workers struggle with a national guardsman during a 1929 strike in Gastonia, North Carolina. How might a conflict theorist interpret labor unrest?
  39. 39. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 39 Las Vegas, the ultimate postmodern city, borrows from various regions, times, and cultures to shape its constantly changing landscape.
  40. 40. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 40 Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (on the left) and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler at a 1937 rally in Munich. How do different disciplines provide various tools to analyze the rise of fascism under these leaders?
  41. 41. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 41 How does anthropologist Natasha Schull’s research on slot-machine gamblers challenge the traditional boundaries between anthropology and sociology?
  42. 42. This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for: You May Ask Yourself Core Third Edition Dalton Conley You May Ask Yourself Third Edition Dalton Conley Visit the StudySpace at: wwnorton.com/studyspace For more learning resources, please visit the StudySpace site for You May Ask Yourself Chapter 1 Sociological Imagination: An Introduction 42

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