Use of Sound in Interactive Media Products


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Use of Sound in Interactive Media Products

  1. 1. Use of Sound in Interactive MediaWhat You Need To KnowBy Erika Louise TolputtSound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation or pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, orgas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to beheard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations. In many cases the wave is being propagated. In these cases, the term waveform refers to the shape of a graph of the varying quantity against time or distance. An instrument called an oscilloscope can be used to pictorially represent a wave as a repeating image on a screen. By extension, the term waveform also describes the shape of the graph of any varying quantity against time.Pitch is a property that allows the ordering of sounds on a frequencyrelated scale.Pitches arecompared as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies, which require soundwhose frequency is clear and stable enough to be heard as not noise. Pitch is amajor auditory attribute of musical tones, along with duration, loudness, and timbre.The decibel (dB)is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity. A ratio in decibels is ten times thelogarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power quantities.A decibel is one tenth of a bell, a seldomused unit.A sound generator is a vibrating object which produces a sound.Signal to noise ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of adesired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noisepower. A ratio higher than 1:1 indicates more signal than noise. A distortion is the alteration of theoriginal shape of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation.Distortion is usually unwanted, and often many methods are employed to minimize it in practice. Insome fields, however, distortion may be desirable; such is the case with electric guitar distortion.Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is single channel. Typicallythere is only one microphone, one loudspeaker, or, in the case of headphones and multipleloudspeakers, channels are fed from a common signal path. In the case of multiple microphones thepaths are mixed into a single signal path at some stage.
  2. 2. The term stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, refers to any method of sound reproductionin which an attempt is made to create an illusion of directionality and audible perspective. This isusually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two ormore loudspeakers in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions,as in natural hearing.An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data ona computer system. This data can be stored uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size. Itcan be a raw bit stream, but it is usually a container format or an audio data format with definedstorage layer. Digital Analogue Advantages 1. No signal losses due to DA and 1. Compatible with standard VGA AD conversion. boards on a broad installed PC basis. 2. Geometry, clock and phase settings unnecessary and 2. Not necessary to purchase a therefore easier to use. new graphics board. 3. Lower costs as less electronic circuitry required. Disadvantages 1. Currently three standards (PD, 1. Clock and phase of the TFT’s DFP and DVI). must be synchronised with the analogue signal to avoid pixel 2. Low availability of models with jitter, which is a complex issue. digital interfaces. 2. Cables sensitive to external 3. Requires graphic board with digital influences. output. 3. High cost of signal conversion inside the display. 4. Upgrade to digital interface not possible.
  3. 3. TelevisionTelevision (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that canbe monochrome (black-and-white) or colored, with or without accompanying sound. "Television" mayalso refer specifically to a television set, television programming, or television transmission.DVDDVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, andPanasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the samedimensions.Pre-recorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto theDVD. Such discs are known as DVD-ROM, because data can only be read and not written norerased. Blank recordable DVD discs (DVD-R and DVD+R) can be recorded once using a DVDrecorder and then function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs (DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD-RAM)can be recorded and erased multiple times.CDThe Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was originallydeveloped to store and playback sound recordings only, but the format was later adapted for storageof data (CD-ROM), write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), VideoCompact Discs (VCD), Super Video Compact Discs (SVCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, CD-i, andEnhanced CD. Audio CDs and audio CD players have been commercially available since October1982.Mobile PhonesA mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that canmake and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. Itdoes so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access tothe public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range ofa single, private base station.Through the use of sound within different interactive media products there are certain aspects that theuse of sound within these media products that can change certain aspects of a person or provide a
  4. 4. particular service to a person. This means that one of the aspects is the person’s mood; an interactivemedia product using sound can enhance their mood or tone just through the use of sound within theirmedia device. The interactive media device with sound can also provide a service in which it can alertthe user of danger and impending action which can help warn the user of an issue, the device doesthis through using warning sounds such as alarms or loud noises. Another use of sound in interactivemedia products is for guiding users through entertainment and streaming music, it helps to alert theuser of what sites are safe and what is advised through the device. Altogether I feel that I understandthe use of sound in interactive media products along with their advantages and disadvantages.