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An Ericsson Consumer Insight Summary Report
June 2017
ERICSSON
CONSUMERLAB
MERGED
REALITY
Understanding how virtual
and augmented realities could
transform everyday reality
Definitions used in the study
Early adopters:
Current users of fixedVR headsets who useVR
several times a week. Given that this was an early
adopters sample, they represented 15 percent
of the sample. (Mobile onlyVR users were not
included, since they have more casual usage.)
Laggards:
Currently non-users ofVR, and not
interested in using it in the future.This group
represented 15 percent of the sample.
VR: Virtual Reality AR: Augmented Reality
Ericsson ConsumerLab has more than 20 years’ experience
of studying people’s behaviors and values, including the way
they act and think about ICT products and services. Ericsson
ConsumerLab provides unique insights on market and
consumer trends.
Ericsson ConsumerLab gains its knowledge through a
global consumer research program based on interviews
with 100,000 individuals each year, in more than 40 countries
and 15 megacities – statistically representing the views of
1.1 billion people.
Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used, and
hundreds of hours are spent with consumers from different
cultures. To be close to the market and consumers, Ericsson
ConsumerLab has analysts in all regions where Ericsson is
present, developing a thorough global understanding of the
ICT market and business models.
METHODOLOGY
the voice of
the consumer
Contents
4. Towards a merged reality
5. Change will span six domains
7. Unlimited learning and travel
8. Laden with challenges
10. AR will integrate VR
11. 5G EXPECTATIONS
2  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017
Qualitative study
Group discussions in virtual reality (VR): Ericsson ConsumerLab
innovatively conducted one of the first known qualitative focus
group discussion series completely inVR, using an HTCVive
in an online environment called AltspaceVR. Participants were
from different parts of North America and Europe.
In addition to theVR focus group, we also performed two
traditional focus groups with current users ofVR from Japan
and South Korea.
We also ran a series of qualitativeVR tests with 20 Ericsson
employees to understand how lag inVR can trigger nausea.
We simulated three different levels of testing:VR set-up with no
lag, with medium lag and one with increased lag.The aim was
to understand how theVR experience was impacted when the
lag is altered, and the corresponding threshold of tolerance for
these consumers.
Quantitative study
This report presents insights from the online survey of
9,200 consumers in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South
Korea, Spain, the UK and the US. Respondents were aged
15-69, and were aware of the concept of VR. We believe
that in order to understand the potential impact of VR on
human experiences, it was essential that the respondents
were aware of VR. Currently, VR is something that only a
proportion of the population are familiar with – this sample
represents 51 million smartphone users who are aware of
VR, out of over 800 million living in these 8 markets.
As an innovation in qualitative
research, we conducted focus
group discussions inVR
Consumers who are planning
to use a headset:
Currently non-users ofVR, but interested
in using it in the future.This group
represented 49 percent of the sample.
All reports can be found at:
www.ericsson.com/consumerlab
Media is already being transformed. Consumers
expect virtual screens to start replacing televisions
and theatres in less than a year
> As many as half the early adopters have already
increased their video usage in VR. More than a
third have shifted some of their video viewing on
physical screens to video experiences in VR
2
Transforming everyday
reality with VR and AR
Incorporating technology into our everyday lives is quickly
becoming the norm. The World Economic Forum calls the
idea of merging the real with the digital – the Fourth Industrial
Revolution. Virtual and augmented realities could encourage
a similar technological revolution – one where consumers
transition between virtual and physical worlds effortlessly for
their everyday life activities.
However, in their current form, virtual and augmented
technologies collide rather than merge with our physical
reality. Today the bulky headsets cut off the user from
their surroundings, as well as hinder mobility, and a highly
interactive VR experience can induce nausea for some users.
Consumers expect next-generation networks like 5G to
address these challenges and enrich shared experiences
by providing a fast and high-bandwidth network.
In this Ericsson ConsumerLab report, we explore the impact
of these imminent changes on consumer lifestyles, from the
perspective of early adopters, laggards and consumers who
are planning to use a headset in the future. We also look at the
enabling role that next-generation networks like 5G could play.
ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  3
key findings
7 out of 10 early adopters expect VR/AR to change
everyday life fundamentally in six domains: media,
education, work, social interaction, travel and retail
 Two in five early adopters believe classrooms and offices
will be replaced by virtual spaces. A quarter think
AR will enable travel information and map overlays
onto our physical environments by next year
 Half of early adopters expect AR andVR to
be integrated in one device, as a pair of
AR glasses with in-builtVR capabilities
 Even laggards expectVR/AR to
deliver new ways of training in
industries like air travel, national
security and healthcare
1
Lack of mobility, bulky headsets and network
lag keep merged reality at bay
 One in five early adopters have already
decreased their usage ofVR
 Half the early adopters believe that the current
VR headsets hinder mobility. Almost a fifth also
consider sickness caused byVR to be an issue
 Even mobileVR users restrict usage mostly to
home. Mobility is hindered by battery drain and
the fact that the headset blocks the user’s view
3
For merged reality to become mainstream, 5G
is central to provide mobility, improve social
experiences and address nausea
 More than a third of early adopters expect
5G to make VR mobile by providing a stable,
fast and high-bandwidth network
 30 percent believe that 5G will enable more
social experiences and will also improve
the battery efficiency of devices
 A quarter of early adopters expect
5G to address the nausea and
sickness inVR
4
Virtual and augmented realities
could encourage a technological
revolution where consumers
transition between virtual and
physical worlds effortlessly for
their everyday life activities
4  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017
TOWARDS A
MERGED REALITY
There are a number of examples of consumers being
offered experiences that merge their physical reality with
virtual experiences, challenging traditional notions of
‘real experiences’. The location-based, augmented reality
game Pokémon Go allows players to catch virtual pocket
monsters on streets, parks and subway stations. Global
hotelier Marriott teleports its guests to exotic locations
virtually, allowing them to decide on a vacation spot. The
Guinness World Records book allows readers to have
their picture taken with the world’s shortest man through
an AR-enriched app and send it to friends and family.
When the boundaries between people’s perception of
physical and virtual reality start to blur, this could result in a
drastic impact on lives and society. The way we live, work and
consume information and media may fundamentally change.
Consumers could stop buying TV sets, for example, and
choose a virtual screen instead. Physical spaces like offices
and changing rooms in clothing stores may be replaced by
virtual spaces. Surfing the web may be transformed from
clicking links to walking through virtual portals. The virtual
world may no longer remain the ultimate form of isolation or
escapism, but could become the social network of the future.
From the early adopters surveyed, three in five believe VR will
change everyday activities, such as video viewing and social
networking. Even among current non-users of VR, almost
half of the consumers who are planning to use a headset
believe that VR has the potential to create a significant impact
in the future. Almost half of the early adopters believe VR
could replace physical devices like HD TVs, big screens,
smartphones and laptops, and nearly a third of the consumers
who are planning to use a headset also believe so.
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week or plan to use a VR headset in the future
Those planning to use a headsetEarly adopters of VRFigure 1: Physical spaces and devices that VR could replace
42%
Offices Movie theatres Classrooms Showrooms (in
shopping malls)
Megastores HD TVs Big screens
in general
Smartphones Monitors/
PCs/laptops
55%
44%
39%
40%
52%
49%
51%
49%
26%
50%
35%
32%
30%
35%
42%
30%
42%
Everyone’s going to do
everything that they do on their
personal computers, tablets and
smartphones, in virtual reality.”
David, Canada,
VR focus group discussion
The way we live, work and
consume information and media
may fundamentally change
I remember when there were no
microwave ovens and the first oven
was introduced – I put a potato in it
and it cooked in just five minutes.
VR is revolutionary like that,
extremely revolutionary. It will be
something that changes everything.”
John, US, VR focus group discussion
ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  5
Virtual and augmented reality have the potential to impact
many domains and activities. Recent developments have
already seen VR and AR evolve beyond gaming. The US
presidential elections were streamed live in VR and seen
by VR users from around the globe, gathered as crowds in
shared spaces. President Obama bid goodbye to his fans
through a VR tour of the White House. VR applications today
span music, movie releases and previews, travel, shopping,
journalism and, of course, social networking. For example,
Facebook Spaces is a social VR app that lets you hang out
with others inside your headset.
In the qualitative part of this study, consumers told us they
expect VR/AR to change six domains the most – media,
education, work, social interaction, tourism and retail. In the
quantitative phase, we then found an astounding 7 out of
10 early adopters expect VR/AR to change these 6 domains
fundamentally. Furthermore, as many believe that VR/AR will
become mainstream in all six domains. This impact already
goes beyond current early adopters: even among those
planning to use a VR headset in the future, as many as 6 out
of 10 believe that the education, media and work domains
will be changed fundamentally.
CHANGE WILL SPAN
SIX DOMAINS
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who
currently use tethered VR headsets atleast several times a week
Figure 2: Disruption in media has already begun
7 in 10 believe that VR/AR
will become mainstream in
media, education, work, social
interaction, tourism and retail
Have shifted some video viewing
to video experiences in VR37%
Have shifted some flat screen
gaming to games in VR 30%
Have shifted some social networking
to social experiences in VR22%
Leading digital transformation
When the internet first arrived, media
was among the first domains to be
transformed. Now consumers expect
media consumption to change just
as rapidly with the mainstream
adoption of VR and AR. In fact, we
are already witnessing VR starting
to transform the media domain.
Close to half of early adopters have
already increased their VR video usage
since the time they started using it.
Thirty-seven percent of early adopters
have started shifting their video viewing
to VR. Among the frequent mobile VR
users, as many are watching videos
as are playing games on a daily basis.
Those who are planning to use a
headset in the future believe watching
videos in VR will be one of their top
activities – even more than gaming.
More than a quarter of early adopters
believe that, within a year, they
will be watching movies on virtual
screens without owning anything
other than a VR headset. More than
half of them predict video viewing
will be the most popular activity in
VR. Over a quarter of laggards are
also open to watching content on a
virtual screen without having to go to
a theatre or owning a physical screen.
Socializing in virtual reality
Another unique aspect of video viewing
in VR is the ability to combine it with
social networking. Today, it’s possible
to watch media with friends in VR
application rooms like Bigscreen and
AltspaceVR. A participant in one of
our VR focus group discussions said,
“The money here is going to be in the
concert industry [...] I can watch my
favorite band with integration between
a fully immersive VR experience and
360 degree streaming camera, with
hundreds of others from around the
globe”. Live streaming of concerts
and sporting events could potentially
be a huge application for VR in the
media space. Sixty percent of early
adopters expect that interactive music
concerts and events in VR will be
mainstream in the next three years.
Ironically, there are simultaneous
positives and negatives to VR. On
one hand we meet a lot more people
in the virtual environment, while on
the other we may be isolated from
people in our physical environment
due to the nature of the current
VR headsets. While 51 percent of
early adopters believe video viewing
in VR will be popular since it can
combine social networking with
video, 38 percent also believe video
viewing in VR will be challenging
because it can only be done alone.
6  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently
use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week or plan to use a
VR headset in the future
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently
use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week
Those who are planning to use a headset Between 1-3 years from now
Early adopters Within a year
Figure 3: The use of VR with video Figure 4: Share of early adopters who expect their media
consumption to change in the following ways
54%
51%
53%
38%
33%
VR devices will be the
new screens for video
Video in VR will be popular
since it will combine
social networking
Video will be one of
the most popular
uses of VR
Video in VR will be
restricted since I can
only do it alone
Video in VR will be
restricted due to
poor resolution
32%
28%Watching video content
on a virtual screen without
owning a physical screen 39%
28% 24%Immersive, interactive
experience of movies 41%
33%
23%Watching videos with people
from around the world in
a virtual environment 36%
28%
22%Participating in interactive
music concerts and
other events 37%11%
AR-enabled adventure
The other domains are not too far behind. Travel and
tourism could go through another transformation.
Twenty-five percent of early adopters believe that in a
year from now, we will be exploring destinations through
AR-enabled information and maps overlaid onto our physical
environment. VR will also give rise to a new concept of
tourism and adventure – 23 percent of early adopters
believe that within a year we will go on adventure trips
virtually with others.
Consumers expect VR and AR to have an impact on daily
activities and experiences across other domains as well.
Twenty-six percent of early adopters feel that within a year
we will be shopping virtually for large items like furniture,
and even experiencing them in our homes before purchase.
UNLIMITED LEARNING
AND TRAVEL
Consumers believe that VR and AR could drastically
transform education and learning. Sixty-one percent of
early adopters believe that VR could be used for education
and social purposes. In fact, 49 percent of consumers who
are planning to use a headset, as well as 25 percent of the
laggards also believe so. Replicating physical classrooms,
textbooks, field visits/experiments, and learning through
demonstrations and interactivity are some of the ways that
VR could transform the field of education and learning. A
quarter of early adopters believe that, within a year, students
will be able to gain practical experiences without actually
leaving the classroom.
Laggards are open to using VR for education and learning.
In the context of education, they are particularly open to
specialized and technical trainings being delivered virtually,
especially in the field of medicine and surgery.
ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  7
Virtual classrooms will be the next
evolution. You needn’t be limited
by physical space or even the
distance between home and school,
sitting in traffic and hoping that
you would reach the classroom
in time. VR does away with a lot
of physical limitation that current
educational systems face.”
Steve, US, VR focus group discussion
Figure 5: Percentage of laggards open to using VR/AR in different domains
45%
36%
Education and
learning
Travel and
tourism
38%
16%
Work and
training
Social
interaction
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 		
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who are
rejecters of VR, that is they are not interested in using VR in the future
39%
23%
Music and
media
Retail and
shopping
25 percent of early adopters
believe that we will be
exploring destinations through
AR-enabled information and
maps overlaid onto our physical
environment by next year
8  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017
LADEN WITH
CHALLENGES
Not yet mainstream
Many consumer devices and headsets have been launched
in the last couple of years. Facebook recently announced
that it would be moving towards AR to connect with friends
and family, and Google launched its own VR headset as
well as its VR platform Daydream last year. Yet despite this,
VR is still to hit mainstream. Although consumers express a
strong inclination towards using VR for video consumption,
most content in VR today is still in short videos.
The VR paradox
Many perceived challenges were with the current state of
VR hardware: the headsets are heavy to wear, especially
over a long period of time, and are complicated to set up.
The headsets also cut users off from their physical
surroundings, restrict mobility and are socially awkward to
wear. Hence, paradoxically enough, the user may be able to
travel to any destination in the virtual world, but cannot go
anywhere in the real world as the headset blocks their view.
VR today suffers from several ‘mixed reality’ paradoxes: it
provides realistic, immersive experiences, but it does not
merge realities.
Those who are planning to use a headset LaggardsEarly adoptersFigure 6: Challenges with VR today
70%
50%
60%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017		
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week or plan to use a VR headset in the future;
or who are rejectors of VR – that is they are not interested in using VR in the future
The paradox of isolation – VR
lets you socialize remotely
with people from around the
globe but isolates you from
your physical environment
The paradox of
mobility – VR lets you go
anywhere but you can’t
go anywhere with it
1
2
3
The social paradox of integration –
those who are socially challenged in the
real world are the ones who are
more socially oriented inVR
The current
headset blocks
my view and
restricts mobility
The headset
and equipment
are too
expensive
The smartphone
heats up and
consumes
battery
The headset is
uncomfortable
to wear for a
long time
Content in VR
is limited to
gaming and
entertainment
The resolution
on the visuals
is still grainy
VR consumes
a lot of the
data plan
I cannot involve
my family in the
VR experience
VR causes
sickness and
nausea
The tethered
headset and
equipment are
complicated
to set up
ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  9
Stationary motion sickness
VR can leave users feeling sick
because of latency issues. The delay
between the movement in the virtual
world and actual movement in the
user’s physical body may leave them
feeling nauseous. As per the 10 Hot
Consumer Trends of 2016, published
by Ericsson ConsumerLab, 1 in 3
consumers wanted motion sickness
pills for use with VR and AR for this
reason. Almost a fifth of the early
adopters find sickness to be a problem
in VR. Users also complain of a poor
visual experience due to low resolution.
Hence VR can be physically draining
and restricting for users in its current
state. Non-users also have similar
concerns with VR; though their biggest
turn-off is that it is expensive.
Consumers also expect VR to integrate
haptic feedback (that is the sense
of touch) – more than half of early
adopters believe that haptic feedback
is an important element that is missing
from VR today and must be added
in the future. While 60 percent think
this will enable new possibilities
in video, simulations, gaming and
shopping, another 56 percent believe
that adding haptic feedback will
make VR more valuable for specialist
industries, such as healthcare
and therapy, and for training.
Smartphone-enabled VR headsets
While the smartphone versions of
VR headsets provide mobility and
are easier to set up, they have their
own challenges – more than a third
of mobile VR users complain that the
smartphone heats up and consumes
a lot of battery power. Since you look
awkward when using the headset and
cannot walk freely, due to being cut
off from your surroundings, as many
as 68 percent of mobile VR users
only use their headsets at home. A
quarter of mobile VR users have in
fact reduced their overall usage of
VR since they started using it.
Do we want a virtual society?
These are only the physiological
challenges associated with VR, but
could VR also have a negative impact
on society? Almost a third of early
adopters agree that VR is socially
risky and people may start disliking
their physical reality and social
relationships. VR, by virtue of being
realistic and immersive, could also
be used negatively to manipulate the
human brain. A participant in one of
the VR group discussions claimed,
“VR could have a negative influence
as well because you could control
or manipulate someone’s thoughts
with something immersive like this,
like by showing them some negative
visuals”. For instance, a violent video
game could start feeling like murder
– something that VR developers are
already showing concern over.1
But when the technological challenges
are overcome and headsets are
no longer bulky and restricting,
so that consumers can transition
between the virtual and physical
worlds effortlessly, the social risks
of escapism and individualism may
cease to exist. In such a world, the
users wouldn’t necessarily know if they
are in the virtual or physical world.
A quarter of mobile
VR users have
reduced their overall
usage of VR since
they started using it
People might get really obsessed with VR and just be completely satisfied with
the virtual world. It can be a very powerful escape for many people, especially
for people who don’t like going out, and this might be quite dangerous.”
Anthony, Mexico, VR focus group discussion
Earlier, I used to be in VR for 30 minutes every day
about 4 times per week, but now my eyes hurt too
much, and there is a strange dizziness [… ] so I have
reduced my usage to 10 minutes 1 to 2 times a week.”
Seong Jun Kim, South Korea, traditional focus group discussion
1
uploadvr.com/is-it-okay-to-kill-in-vr/
AR WILL
INTEGRATE VR
10  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017
VR today is fraught with challenges. In its current state, VR
only mixes reality but does not merge with it. Our consumer
research indicates that one way of overcoming this paradox,
and moving towards a merged reality, is to integrate VR
within AR. Consumers perceive AR to avoid a number
of issues that hold VR back from becoming mainstream,
especially when it comes to everyday practicality – they say
they can still interact with the real world, with their friends and
family, rather than locking themselves away in a virtual space.
It is for these reasons that early adopters of VR also believe
that AR has greater potential to go mainstream.
However, these early adopters also believe that as
technology evolves, AR headsets will subsume VR as part
of the experience. An AR experience does not necessarily
require a headset. The AR game Pokémon Go merely uses
the smartphone screen and camera to deliver the experience.
Similarly, Snapchat Lenses uses the camera to overlay
features and expressions on the user’s face. Facebook
recently announced that they will be developing smartphone
cameras as the first mainstream augmented reality platform.
Similarly, when VR becomes part of the AR experience,
our interviews indicate people expect a pair of AR glasses
with in-built VR capabilities rather than a bulky headset that
blocks off the real world. They will then be able to enjoy a
movie on a VR screen and (see and) eat their popcorn as well.
Figure 7: Integration of AR and VR
AR will have more
real-world applications
because it integrates the
physical environment
AR and VR will eventually
be integrated into one
common device
AR has greater
mass market potential
compared to VR
AR will be mainstream
since it allows
mobility, unlike VR
AR is going to be better than
VR since it can be useful even
without a headset strapped on
While VR will be for gaming/
entertainment, AR will have
more real-world applications
AR will remain restricted
to a niche audience or
specialist industries
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 			
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who are aware of VR
Early adopters believe that
as technology evolves, AR
glasses will subsume VR as
part of the experience
Eventually VR and AR hardware will
merge and you will be able to do
both from a single device. At some
point you might be able to put a
shield over the device where it will
project everything out so that you
can go back into the immersive
view that VR gives you right now.”
Miku Shudo, Japan,
traditional focus group discussion
VR will become engulfed by AR
as an addition to the experience.
It is just the early stage where we
are building both technologies
separately before we combine them.”
Min Jun Song, South Korea,
traditional focus group discussion
47%
44%
44%
45%
34%
49%
51%
5G EXPECTATIONS
ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  11
Improving merged reality
The other challenge today is whether our bodies will accept virtual
experiences given the nausea and sickness that it could cause. In
our qualitative tests, a few were almost immune to nausea, and a
few would always feel nauseous. But for the majority, the amount
of lag determines if they feel fine or feel sick. A network that
minimizes lag in responses could address this issue, believe
more than a quarter of the early adopters surveyed.
Almost a third of early adopters also believe that next-generation
networks like 5G could improve the efficiency of connected
devices (such as smartphones) by consuming less battery
power, while a similar ratio believes that 5G could make VR
and AR more accessible through cheaper data plans.
Increased use of AR andVR will move us towards a merged reality
where users no longer separate between what is augmented,
virtual and physical. Merged reality will allow us to transition from
an internet of information to an internet of ‘realities’.
Figure 8: Share of early adopters that expect 5G will play a central role
Expect 5G will address the
nausea and sickness in VR
26%
36%
Expect 5G will provide mobility through a
stable, fast, and high-bandwidth network
Expect 5G will enable more shared
experiences through a less-lag network
31%
Expect 5G will increase the efficiency of
devices by consuming less battery power
31%35%
Expect 5G will improve the viewing
experience in VR with better resolution
Expect 5G will enable haptic
feedback on VR devices
28%30%
Expect 5G will enable tethered VR
headsets to become wireless by providing
a high-bandwidth, less-lag network
30%
Expect 5G will make VR and AR more
accessible through cheaper data plans
Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017
Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets atleast several times a week
When 4G came everybody started streaming. When 5G comes it will support VR, and VR will
become your phone. On a train or plane… you will put your headset on and talk to your social
groups or watch a movie […] 5G will make VR mobile in this sense. I might be on a plane but be
working in my virtual office and be productive even while traveling, and I need 5G for that.”
Daniel, US, VR focus group discussion
Realities will not merge if the user is tethered to a computer
or cut off from physical reality. Early adopters of VR expect
next-generation networks like 5G to play a central role here.
Thirty-six percent have expectations on 5G to provide VR
mobility through a stable, fast and high-bandwidth network.
Thirty percent of early adopters also expect 5G to enable
tethered headsets to become wireless.
Shared experiences, social video viewing, tourism and
live-streaming are all everyday social activities that early
adopters expect to hit mainstream in VR within the next
one to three years. But social VR in this sense could be a
resource hog and may require a network with less lag and
higher bandwidth. Low latency is crucial to making social
VR work, as it is incredibly difficult to maintain a conversation
if there are delays in responses and reactions. Thirty-one
percent of early adopters expect 5G to enable more shared
experiences through a network with less lag.
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Merged Reality: Understanding how virtual and augmented realities could transform everyday reality

  • 1. An Ericsson Consumer Insight Summary Report June 2017 ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY Understanding how virtual and augmented realities could transform everyday reality
  • 2. Definitions used in the study Early adopters: Current users of fixedVR headsets who useVR several times a week. Given that this was an early adopters sample, they represented 15 percent of the sample. (Mobile onlyVR users were not included, since they have more casual usage.) Laggards: Currently non-users ofVR, and not interested in using it in the future.This group represented 15 percent of the sample. VR: Virtual Reality AR: Augmented Reality Ericsson ConsumerLab has more than 20 years’ experience of studying people’s behaviors and values, including the way they act and think about ICT products and services. Ericsson ConsumerLab provides unique insights on market and consumer trends. Ericsson ConsumerLab gains its knowledge through a global consumer research program based on interviews with 100,000 individuals each year, in more than 40 countries and 15 megacities – statistically representing the views of 1.1 billion people. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used, and hundreds of hours are spent with consumers from different cultures. To be close to the market and consumers, Ericsson ConsumerLab has analysts in all regions where Ericsson is present, developing a thorough global understanding of the ICT market and business models. METHODOLOGY the voice of the consumer Contents 4. Towards a merged reality 5. Change will span six domains 7. Unlimited learning and travel 8. Laden with challenges 10. AR will integrate VR 11. 5G EXPECTATIONS 2  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017 Qualitative study Group discussions in virtual reality (VR): Ericsson ConsumerLab innovatively conducted one of the first known qualitative focus group discussion series completely inVR, using an HTCVive in an online environment called AltspaceVR. Participants were from different parts of North America and Europe. In addition to theVR focus group, we also performed two traditional focus groups with current users ofVR from Japan and South Korea. We also ran a series of qualitativeVR tests with 20 Ericsson employees to understand how lag inVR can trigger nausea. We simulated three different levels of testing:VR set-up with no lag, with medium lag and one with increased lag.The aim was to understand how theVR experience was impacted when the lag is altered, and the corresponding threshold of tolerance for these consumers. Quantitative study This report presents insights from the online survey of 9,200 consumers in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, the UK and the US. Respondents were aged 15-69, and were aware of the concept of VR. We believe that in order to understand the potential impact of VR on human experiences, it was essential that the respondents were aware of VR. Currently, VR is something that only a proportion of the population are familiar with – this sample represents 51 million smartphone users who are aware of VR, out of over 800 million living in these 8 markets. As an innovation in qualitative research, we conducted focus group discussions inVR Consumers who are planning to use a headset: Currently non-users ofVR, but interested in using it in the future.This group represented 49 percent of the sample. All reports can be found at: www.ericsson.com/consumerlab
  • 3. Media is already being transformed. Consumers expect virtual screens to start replacing televisions and theatres in less than a year > As many as half the early adopters have already increased their video usage in VR. More than a third have shifted some of their video viewing on physical screens to video experiences in VR 2 Transforming everyday reality with VR and AR Incorporating technology into our everyday lives is quickly becoming the norm. The World Economic Forum calls the idea of merging the real with the digital – the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Virtual and augmented realities could encourage a similar technological revolution – one where consumers transition between virtual and physical worlds effortlessly for their everyday life activities. However, in their current form, virtual and augmented technologies collide rather than merge with our physical reality. Today the bulky headsets cut off the user from their surroundings, as well as hinder mobility, and a highly interactive VR experience can induce nausea for some users. Consumers expect next-generation networks like 5G to address these challenges and enrich shared experiences by providing a fast and high-bandwidth network. In this Ericsson ConsumerLab report, we explore the impact of these imminent changes on consumer lifestyles, from the perspective of early adopters, laggards and consumers who are planning to use a headset in the future. We also look at the enabling role that next-generation networks like 5G could play. ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  3 key findings 7 out of 10 early adopters expect VR/AR to change everyday life fundamentally in six domains: media, education, work, social interaction, travel and retail Two in five early adopters believe classrooms and offices will be replaced by virtual spaces. A quarter think AR will enable travel information and map overlays onto our physical environments by next year Half of early adopters expect AR andVR to be integrated in one device, as a pair of AR glasses with in-builtVR capabilities Even laggards expectVR/AR to deliver new ways of training in industries like air travel, national security and healthcare 1 Lack of mobility, bulky headsets and network lag keep merged reality at bay One in five early adopters have already decreased their usage ofVR Half the early adopters believe that the current VR headsets hinder mobility. Almost a fifth also consider sickness caused byVR to be an issue Even mobileVR users restrict usage mostly to home. Mobility is hindered by battery drain and the fact that the headset blocks the user’s view 3 For merged reality to become mainstream, 5G is central to provide mobility, improve social experiences and address nausea More than a third of early adopters expect 5G to make VR mobile by providing a stable, fast and high-bandwidth network 30 percent believe that 5G will enable more social experiences and will also improve the battery efficiency of devices A quarter of early adopters expect 5G to address the nausea and sickness inVR 4 Virtual and augmented realities could encourage a technological revolution where consumers transition between virtual and physical worlds effortlessly for their everyday life activities
  • 4. 4  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017 TOWARDS A MERGED REALITY There are a number of examples of consumers being offered experiences that merge their physical reality with virtual experiences, challenging traditional notions of ‘real experiences’. The location-based, augmented reality game Pokémon Go allows players to catch virtual pocket monsters on streets, parks and subway stations. Global hotelier Marriott teleports its guests to exotic locations virtually, allowing them to decide on a vacation spot. The Guinness World Records book allows readers to have their picture taken with the world’s shortest man through an AR-enriched app and send it to friends and family. When the boundaries between people’s perception of physical and virtual reality start to blur, this could result in a drastic impact on lives and society. The way we live, work and consume information and media may fundamentally change. Consumers could stop buying TV sets, for example, and choose a virtual screen instead. Physical spaces like offices and changing rooms in clothing stores may be replaced by virtual spaces. Surfing the web may be transformed from clicking links to walking through virtual portals. The virtual world may no longer remain the ultimate form of isolation or escapism, but could become the social network of the future. From the early adopters surveyed, three in five believe VR will change everyday activities, such as video viewing and social networking. Even among current non-users of VR, almost half of the consumers who are planning to use a headset believe that VR has the potential to create a significant impact in the future. Almost half of the early adopters believe VR could replace physical devices like HD TVs, big screens, smartphones and laptops, and nearly a third of the consumers who are planning to use a headset also believe so. Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week or plan to use a VR headset in the future Those planning to use a headsetEarly adopters of VRFigure 1: Physical spaces and devices that VR could replace 42% Offices Movie theatres Classrooms Showrooms (in shopping malls) Megastores HD TVs Big screens in general Smartphones Monitors/ PCs/laptops 55% 44% 39% 40% 52% 49% 51% 49% 26% 50% 35% 32% 30% 35% 42% 30% 42% Everyone’s going to do everything that they do on their personal computers, tablets and smartphones, in virtual reality.” David, Canada, VR focus group discussion The way we live, work and consume information and media may fundamentally change
  • 5. I remember when there were no microwave ovens and the first oven was introduced – I put a potato in it and it cooked in just five minutes. VR is revolutionary like that, extremely revolutionary. It will be something that changes everything.” John, US, VR focus group discussion ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  5 Virtual and augmented reality have the potential to impact many domains and activities. Recent developments have already seen VR and AR evolve beyond gaming. The US presidential elections were streamed live in VR and seen by VR users from around the globe, gathered as crowds in shared spaces. President Obama bid goodbye to his fans through a VR tour of the White House. VR applications today span music, movie releases and previews, travel, shopping, journalism and, of course, social networking. For example, Facebook Spaces is a social VR app that lets you hang out with others inside your headset. In the qualitative part of this study, consumers told us they expect VR/AR to change six domains the most – media, education, work, social interaction, tourism and retail. In the quantitative phase, we then found an astounding 7 out of 10 early adopters expect VR/AR to change these 6 domains fundamentally. Furthermore, as many believe that VR/AR will become mainstream in all six domains. This impact already goes beyond current early adopters: even among those planning to use a VR headset in the future, as many as 6 out of 10 believe that the education, media and work domains will be changed fundamentally. CHANGE WILL SPAN SIX DOMAINS Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets atleast several times a week Figure 2: Disruption in media has already begun 7 in 10 believe that VR/AR will become mainstream in media, education, work, social interaction, tourism and retail Have shifted some video viewing to video experiences in VR37% Have shifted some flat screen gaming to games in VR 30% Have shifted some social networking to social experiences in VR22%
  • 6. Leading digital transformation When the internet first arrived, media was among the first domains to be transformed. Now consumers expect media consumption to change just as rapidly with the mainstream adoption of VR and AR. In fact, we are already witnessing VR starting to transform the media domain. Close to half of early adopters have already increased their VR video usage since the time they started using it. Thirty-seven percent of early adopters have started shifting their video viewing to VR. Among the frequent mobile VR users, as many are watching videos as are playing games on a daily basis. Those who are planning to use a headset in the future believe watching videos in VR will be one of their top activities – even more than gaming. More than a quarter of early adopters believe that, within a year, they will be watching movies on virtual screens without owning anything other than a VR headset. More than half of them predict video viewing will be the most popular activity in VR. Over a quarter of laggards are also open to watching content on a virtual screen without having to go to a theatre or owning a physical screen. Socializing in virtual reality Another unique aspect of video viewing in VR is the ability to combine it with social networking. Today, it’s possible to watch media with friends in VR application rooms like Bigscreen and AltspaceVR. A participant in one of our VR focus group discussions said, “The money here is going to be in the concert industry [...] I can watch my favorite band with integration between a fully immersive VR experience and 360 degree streaming camera, with hundreds of others from around the globe”. Live streaming of concerts and sporting events could potentially be a huge application for VR in the media space. Sixty percent of early adopters expect that interactive music concerts and events in VR will be mainstream in the next three years. Ironically, there are simultaneous positives and negatives to VR. On one hand we meet a lot more people in the virtual environment, while on the other we may be isolated from people in our physical environment due to the nature of the current VR headsets. While 51 percent of early adopters believe video viewing in VR will be popular since it can combine social networking with video, 38 percent also believe video viewing in VR will be challenging because it can only be done alone. 6  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017 Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week or plan to use a VR headset in the future Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week Those who are planning to use a headset Between 1-3 years from now Early adopters Within a year Figure 3: The use of VR with video Figure 4: Share of early adopters who expect their media consumption to change in the following ways 54% 51% 53% 38% 33% VR devices will be the new screens for video Video in VR will be popular since it will combine social networking Video will be one of the most popular uses of VR Video in VR will be restricted since I can only do it alone Video in VR will be restricted due to poor resolution 32% 28%Watching video content on a virtual screen without owning a physical screen 39% 28% 24%Immersive, interactive experience of movies 41% 33% 23%Watching videos with people from around the world in a virtual environment 36% 28% 22%Participating in interactive music concerts and other events 37%11%
  • 7. AR-enabled adventure The other domains are not too far behind. Travel and tourism could go through another transformation. Twenty-five percent of early adopters believe that in a year from now, we will be exploring destinations through AR-enabled information and maps overlaid onto our physical environment. VR will also give rise to a new concept of tourism and adventure – 23 percent of early adopters believe that within a year we will go on adventure trips virtually with others. Consumers expect VR and AR to have an impact on daily activities and experiences across other domains as well. Twenty-six percent of early adopters feel that within a year we will be shopping virtually for large items like furniture, and even experiencing them in our homes before purchase. UNLIMITED LEARNING AND TRAVEL Consumers believe that VR and AR could drastically transform education and learning. Sixty-one percent of early adopters believe that VR could be used for education and social purposes. In fact, 49 percent of consumers who are planning to use a headset, as well as 25 percent of the laggards also believe so. Replicating physical classrooms, textbooks, field visits/experiments, and learning through demonstrations and interactivity are some of the ways that VR could transform the field of education and learning. A quarter of early adopters believe that, within a year, students will be able to gain practical experiences without actually leaving the classroom. Laggards are open to using VR for education and learning. In the context of education, they are particularly open to specialized and technical trainings being delivered virtually, especially in the field of medicine and surgery. ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  7 Virtual classrooms will be the next evolution. You needn’t be limited by physical space or even the distance between home and school, sitting in traffic and hoping that you would reach the classroom in time. VR does away with a lot of physical limitation that current educational systems face.” Steve, US, VR focus group discussion Figure 5: Percentage of laggards open to using VR/AR in different domains 45% 36% Education and learning Travel and tourism 38% 16% Work and training Social interaction Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who are rejecters of VR, that is they are not interested in using VR in the future 39% 23% Music and media Retail and shopping 25 percent of early adopters believe that we will be exploring destinations through AR-enabled information and maps overlaid onto our physical environment by next year
  • 8. 8  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017 LADEN WITH CHALLENGES Not yet mainstream Many consumer devices and headsets have been launched in the last couple of years. Facebook recently announced that it would be moving towards AR to connect with friends and family, and Google launched its own VR headset as well as its VR platform Daydream last year. Yet despite this, VR is still to hit mainstream. Although consumers express a strong inclination towards using VR for video consumption, most content in VR today is still in short videos. The VR paradox Many perceived challenges were with the current state of VR hardware: the headsets are heavy to wear, especially over a long period of time, and are complicated to set up. The headsets also cut users off from their physical surroundings, restrict mobility and are socially awkward to wear. Hence, paradoxically enough, the user may be able to travel to any destination in the virtual world, but cannot go anywhere in the real world as the headset blocks their view. VR today suffers from several ‘mixed reality’ paradoxes: it provides realistic, immersive experiences, but it does not merge realities. Those who are planning to use a headset LaggardsEarly adoptersFigure 6: Challenges with VR today 70% 50% 60% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets at least several times a week or plan to use a VR headset in the future; or who are rejectors of VR – that is they are not interested in using VR in the future The paradox of isolation – VR lets you socialize remotely with people from around the globe but isolates you from your physical environment The paradox of mobility – VR lets you go anywhere but you can’t go anywhere with it 1 2 3 The social paradox of integration – those who are socially challenged in the real world are the ones who are more socially oriented inVR The current headset blocks my view and restricts mobility The headset and equipment are too expensive The smartphone heats up and consumes battery The headset is uncomfortable to wear for a long time Content in VR is limited to gaming and entertainment The resolution on the visuals is still grainy VR consumes a lot of the data plan I cannot involve my family in the VR experience VR causes sickness and nausea The tethered headset and equipment are complicated to set up
  • 9. ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  9 Stationary motion sickness VR can leave users feeling sick because of latency issues. The delay between the movement in the virtual world and actual movement in the user’s physical body may leave them feeling nauseous. As per the 10 Hot Consumer Trends of 2016, published by Ericsson ConsumerLab, 1 in 3 consumers wanted motion sickness pills for use with VR and AR for this reason. Almost a fifth of the early adopters find sickness to be a problem in VR. Users also complain of a poor visual experience due to low resolution. Hence VR can be physically draining and restricting for users in its current state. Non-users also have similar concerns with VR; though their biggest turn-off is that it is expensive. Consumers also expect VR to integrate haptic feedback (that is the sense of touch) – more than half of early adopters believe that haptic feedback is an important element that is missing from VR today and must be added in the future. While 60 percent think this will enable new possibilities in video, simulations, gaming and shopping, another 56 percent believe that adding haptic feedback will make VR more valuable for specialist industries, such as healthcare and therapy, and for training. Smartphone-enabled VR headsets While the smartphone versions of VR headsets provide mobility and are easier to set up, they have their own challenges – more than a third of mobile VR users complain that the smartphone heats up and consumes a lot of battery power. Since you look awkward when using the headset and cannot walk freely, due to being cut off from your surroundings, as many as 68 percent of mobile VR users only use their headsets at home. A quarter of mobile VR users have in fact reduced their overall usage of VR since they started using it. Do we want a virtual society? These are only the physiological challenges associated with VR, but could VR also have a negative impact on society? Almost a third of early adopters agree that VR is socially risky and people may start disliking their physical reality and social relationships. VR, by virtue of being realistic and immersive, could also be used negatively to manipulate the human brain. A participant in one of the VR group discussions claimed, “VR could have a negative influence as well because you could control or manipulate someone’s thoughts with something immersive like this, like by showing them some negative visuals”. For instance, a violent video game could start feeling like murder – something that VR developers are already showing concern over.1 But when the technological challenges are overcome and headsets are no longer bulky and restricting, so that consumers can transition between the virtual and physical worlds effortlessly, the social risks of escapism and individualism may cease to exist. In such a world, the users wouldn’t necessarily know if they are in the virtual or physical world. A quarter of mobile VR users have reduced their overall usage of VR since they started using it People might get really obsessed with VR and just be completely satisfied with the virtual world. It can be a very powerful escape for many people, especially for people who don’t like going out, and this might be quite dangerous.” Anthony, Mexico, VR focus group discussion Earlier, I used to be in VR for 30 minutes every day about 4 times per week, but now my eyes hurt too much, and there is a strange dizziness [… ] so I have reduced my usage to 10 minutes 1 to 2 times a week.” Seong Jun Kim, South Korea, traditional focus group discussion 1 uploadvr.com/is-it-okay-to-kill-in-vr/
  • 10. AR WILL INTEGRATE VR 10  ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017 VR today is fraught with challenges. In its current state, VR only mixes reality but does not merge with it. Our consumer research indicates that one way of overcoming this paradox, and moving towards a merged reality, is to integrate VR within AR. Consumers perceive AR to avoid a number of issues that hold VR back from becoming mainstream, especially when it comes to everyday practicality – they say they can still interact with the real world, with their friends and family, rather than locking themselves away in a virtual space. It is for these reasons that early adopters of VR also believe that AR has greater potential to go mainstream. However, these early adopters also believe that as technology evolves, AR headsets will subsume VR as part of the experience. An AR experience does not necessarily require a headset. The AR game Pokémon Go merely uses the smartphone screen and camera to deliver the experience. Similarly, Snapchat Lenses uses the camera to overlay features and expressions on the user’s face. Facebook recently announced that they will be developing smartphone cameras as the first mainstream augmented reality platform. Similarly, when VR becomes part of the AR experience, our interviews indicate people expect a pair of AR glasses with in-built VR capabilities rather than a bulky headset that blocks off the real world. They will then be able to enjoy a movie on a VR screen and (see and) eat their popcorn as well. Figure 7: Integration of AR and VR AR will have more real-world applications because it integrates the physical environment AR and VR will eventually be integrated into one common device AR has greater mass market potential compared to VR AR will be mainstream since it allows mobility, unlike VR AR is going to be better than VR since it can be useful even without a headset strapped on While VR will be for gaming/ entertainment, AR will have more real-world applications AR will remain restricted to a niche audience or specialist industries Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who are aware of VR Early adopters believe that as technology evolves, AR glasses will subsume VR as part of the experience Eventually VR and AR hardware will merge and you will be able to do both from a single device. At some point you might be able to put a shield over the device where it will project everything out so that you can go back into the immersive view that VR gives you right now.” Miku Shudo, Japan, traditional focus group discussion VR will become engulfed by AR as an addition to the experience. It is just the early stage where we are building both technologies separately before we combine them.” Min Jun Song, South Korea, traditional focus group discussion 47% 44% 44% 45% 34% 49% 51%
  • 11. 5G EXPECTATIONS ERICSSON CONSUMERLAB MERGED REALITY 2017  11 Improving merged reality The other challenge today is whether our bodies will accept virtual experiences given the nausea and sickness that it could cause. In our qualitative tests, a few were almost immune to nausea, and a few would always feel nauseous. But for the majority, the amount of lag determines if they feel fine or feel sick. A network that minimizes lag in responses could address this issue, believe more than a quarter of the early adopters surveyed. Almost a third of early adopters also believe that next-generation networks like 5G could improve the efficiency of connected devices (such as smartphones) by consuming less battery power, while a similar ratio believes that 5G could make VR and AR more accessible through cheaper data plans. Increased use of AR andVR will move us towards a merged reality where users no longer separate between what is augmented, virtual and physical. Merged reality will allow us to transition from an internet of information to an internet of ‘realities’. Figure 8: Share of early adopters that expect 5G will play a central role Expect 5G will address the nausea and sickness in VR 26% 36% Expect 5G will provide mobility through a stable, fast, and high-bandwidth network Expect 5G will enable more shared experiences through a less-lag network 31% Expect 5G will increase the efficiency of devices by consuming less battery power 31%35% Expect 5G will improve the viewing experience in VR with better resolution Expect 5G will enable haptic feedback on VR devices 28%30% Expect 5G will enable tethered VR headsets to become wireless by providing a high-bandwidth, less-lag network 30% Expect 5G will make VR and AR more accessible through cheaper data plans Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab, Merged Reality, 2017 Base: Smartphone users aged 15-69 across 8 markets who currently use tethered VR headsets atleast several times a week When 4G came everybody started streaming. When 5G comes it will support VR, and VR will become your phone. On a train or plane… you will put your headset on and talk to your social groups or watch a movie […] 5G will make VR mobile in this sense. I might be on a plane but be working in my virtual office and be productive even while traveling, and I need 5G for that.” Daniel, US, VR focus group discussion Realities will not merge if the user is tethered to a computer or cut off from physical reality. Early adopters of VR expect next-generation networks like 5G to play a central role here. Thirty-six percent have expectations on 5G to provide VR mobility through a stable, fast and high-bandwidth network. Thirty percent of early adopters also expect 5G to enable tethered headsets to become wireless. Shared experiences, social video viewing, tourism and live-streaming are all everyday social activities that early adopters expect to hit mainstream in VR within the next one to three years. But social VR in this sense could be a resource hog and may require a network with less lag and higher bandwidth. Low latency is crucial to making social VR work, as it is incredibly difficult to maintain a conversation if there are delays in responses and reactions. Thirty-one percent of early adopters expect 5G to enable more shared experiences through a network with less lag.
  • 12. We are a global leader in delivering ICT solutions. In fact, 40 percent of the world’s mobile traffic is carried over Ericsson networks. We have customers in over 180 countries and comprehensive industry solutions ranging from Cloud services and Mobile Broadband to Network Design and Optimization. Our services, software and infrastructure – especially in mobility, broadband and the cloud –are enabling the communications industry and other sectors to do better business, increase efficiency, improve user experience and capture new opportunities. Ericsson has one of the industry’s strongest patent portfolios with a total count of over 42,000. RD is at the heart of our business and approximately 23,700 employees are dedicated to our RD activities. This commitment to RD allows us to drive forward our vision for a Networked Society - one where everyone and everything is connected in real time – enabling new ways to collaborate, share and get informed. Ericsson is a world leader in communications technology and services with headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden. Our organization consists of more than 111,000 experts who have provided customers in 180 countries with innovative solutions and services. Together we are building a more connected future where anyone and any industry is empowered to reach their full potential. Net sales in 2016 were SEK 222.6 billion (USD 24.5 billion). Ericsson is listed on NASDAQ OMX stock exchange in Stockholm and the NASDAQ in New York. Read more on www.ericsson.com BNES-17:021079 Uen © Ericsson AB 2017 Ericsson SE-Stockholm, Sweden Telephone +46 10 719 0000 www.ericsson.com