Ericsson Review: The benefits of self-organizing backhaul networks


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The concept of self-organizing backhaul networks is not yet as widespread as the concept of SON in the context of radio-access networks. There are, however, ways in which backhaul networks can benefit from SON technology to delay investment in new architecture.

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Ericsson Review: The benefits of self-organizing backhaul networks

  1. 1. The communications technology journal since 1924 2013 • 10 The benefits of self-organizing backhaul networks September 27, 2013
  2. 2. The benefits of self-organizing backhaul networks The rise in the number and variety of universally available mobile-broadband (MBB) services is great for users and vital for operator revenue. For backhaul, however, the opportunities presented by MBB are offset by the challenge of an ever-increasing number of nodes and the need to support more and more services – both of which lead to a more complex backhaul and an increased risk of rising operational costs. controlling costs. Computerization helps to reduce the risk of manual error, facilitates optimization of net- work utilization, supports overall per- formance optimization, and lowers operationalcosts. Automation is nothing new when it comes to simplifying network opera- tions; it is, for example, a key part of IPandEthernetnetworktechnologies. However, the rapid expansion of LTE networks on a global scale has placed greater emphasis on automation as an essential tool for all operational areas ofradio-accessnetworks. Studies carried out by Ericsson indi- cate that introducing SON features results in 40 percent faster rollouts, and the daily maintenance of new LTE networks can be reduced by up to 90 percent2 . During the definition of LTE, SON conceptswereidentifiedasessentialfor ensuringoptimaluserexperience,and asaresult,3GPPhasdevelopedrelated standardsforradio-accessequipment3 . Thesestandardsincludeacombination of self-configuration, self-healing and self-optimization functions for use in nodes and network-management- system layers. The importance of SON techniques has also been highlighted bytheNGMNAlliance4 . SON techniques have been includ- ed successfully in 2G/3G radio stan- dards2 and are now mature enough to be applied to other network domains, such as backhaul. Although backhaul and radio access are quite different technologies,theoperationalchalleng- es they present are similar, and many aredirectlyrelated.Bothtechnologies heterogeneous radio networks become more widespread. These mixed architectures include vast numbers of small cells that complement improved and densified macro layers, and require highly scalable and flexible backhaul solutions to ensure a superior user experience1 . Thechallenge The improve-densify-add strategy for building heterogeneous radio net- works facilitates the rapid delivery of extra coverage, capacity and ser- vices. However, this strategy makes it challenging to deploy and operate vastnumbersofbackhaulnodeswhile keeping operational costs to a mini- mum–asillustratedinFigure 1. Introducing a higher degree of inbuilt automation to the network is crucialtospeedingupdeploymentand SHAHRYAR KHAN, JONAS EDSTAM, BALÁZS VARGA, JONAS ROSENBERG, JOHN VOLKERING AND MARTIN STÜMPERT BOX A Terms and abbreviations ANR Automatic Neighbor Relations BR border router BSC base station controller CSR cell site router DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DoD Downstream-on-Demand E2E end-to-end eNB eNodeB IPsec Internet Protocol Security LDP Label Distribution Protocol LLDP Link Level Discovery Protocol MBB mobile broadband MME Mobility Management Entity MPLS multi-protocol label switching NGMN Next Generation Mobile Networks NMS network management system NNI Network-to-Network Interface NOC network operations center PM performance management RAN radio-access network RCA root cause analysis RNC radio network controller SGW service gateway SON self-organizing networks TCO total cost of ownership UNI User to Network Interface VLAN virtual local area network To address the increasing complexity of the backhaul network, innovation is essential. New technologies and methods are needed that automate or simplify the time-consuming and complex tasks carried out in node management and network management systems (NMSs). Self-organizing networks (SON) methods and technologies have proved to be successful in addressing complexity issues and preventing rising operational costs, when applied to radio- access networks. But these techniques have yet to be applied extensively to backhaul. Backhaul is a key factor in the overall performance of MBB networks, and one that is increasing in importance as 2 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 Automation in the backhaul
  3. 3. share the goal of maximizing overall networkperformance. Byapplyingsimilarandcomplemen- tary SON concepts to all parts of the network, synergies between the radio and backhaul networks can be creat- ed, providing benefits to operators in termsofreducedoperationalcosts,and to users in terms of an optimized indi- vidualexperience. Managingmorewithless As illustrated in Figure 2, SON con- cepts could be applied to many of the key operational areas for backhaul: build,assure,optimizeandmaintain. ThereareanumberofSONenablers that play an important role as the trig- gers for SON functions. Performance monitoring,forexample,isanenabler for the self-healing and optimization usecases. Build Backhaul networks are built in three phases:plan,deployandprovision.The planning phase can be simplified by applying SON techniques. For exam- ple, planning data can be used to auto- maticallygenerateconfigurationfiles. During deployment, SON techniques can be used to integrate backhaul nodes in a fully automated way. And duringprovisioning,SONconceptscan be applied to automatically provision network services, such as an E-Line or anL3VPNservice. As the number of backhaul nodes increases, adopting a minimal-touch approachwillbecomeasignificantway to reduce operational costs. Use cases 1 and 2, described later in this arti- cle, illustrate how the minimal-touch ­conceptapplies. Assure The concept of self-healing is not new to the area of IP protocols. However, applying self-healing functions to sev- erallayersofanetworkcancreatesome coordination issues. For example, the detection of a failure, or degradation in performance in the transport layer, could result in traffic being rerouted in the service layer – to maintain the requiredservice-qualitytarget. Usecase3below,describeshowself- healingisimplemented. FIGURE 1 The backhaul challenge Heterogeneous networks Smart Scalable Simple Superior performance Convergence Improve Densify Add TCO MME SGW/ PGW RNC/ BSC FIGURE 2 Key operational areas for SON concepts Provision Deploy Plan Build Optimize Assure Self-healing Maintain Backhaul 3 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013
  4. 4. Usecase1:auto-integration Using a zero-touch approach to install and configure nodes reduces the need for skilled technicians onsite. For any kind of network, the potentially large number of nodes to install and config- uresignificantlyimpactsthetimeand costtakentocompleterollout. Given the scale of today’s networks with several thousands of nodes and the savings potential in terms of opex and deployment time, the use case for auto-integration of not only base stations but also of backhaul nodes is compelling. The benefits of auto-integration diminishsignificantly,however,when it comes to backhaul nodes further up in the network hierarchy – such as in theaggregationandcoredomains.The reason is simple: the number of nodes to be installed and integrated at this level is relatively low, and so the bene- fitsofautomationarefew. Care needs to be taken in how SON techniques are applied, as automating one area may create new problems, such as security issues or additional complexity, elsewhere in the network – and so SON techniques need to be applied in a holistic way. The benefits and applicability of SON need to be balanced carefully, but the gains to be made from applying these techniques couldbeconsiderable. From a node perspective, auto- integration appears to be relatively simple. The concept has existed for some time for residential gateways, and3GPPhasbeenworkinginthisarea to define the auto-integration process foreNBs,forexample. The relationship of an eNB to the existing transport and IP network is that of a client, which primarily uses Ethernet or VLAN to connect with the User to Network Interface (UNI). It is assumed that the management con- nectivity is present in the existing transportandIPnetwork,andjustthe discovery of a management VLAN to the existing network is sufficient to initiatetheauto-integrationprocess. A cell site router (CSR), on the other hand, is likely to become part of the existing backhaul network, and can use any transport technology such as Ethernet, native IP or MPLS. The chal- lengeforthiscaseisthediscoverypro- cess of the management network, as it is also dependent on the existing transporttechnology–whichmayvary fromnetworktonetwork.AsFigure 3 illustrates, the CSR needs to become part of the existing IP/MPLS network. So, in contrast to the eNB case (which uses UNI to connect), after integration the CSR uses a Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) to connect to the exist- ingnetwork. Consequently, a SON solution for auto-integration needs to be technol- ogy agnostic and sufficiently flexible to address any type of network tech- nology.Figure 4showshowauto-inte- gration can be implemented, where the network provides a temporary UNI for the CSR, which is replaced by Optimize Operators can apply SON techniques to, for example, use network band- widthmoreefficientlyandensurethat energy consumption is kept to a min- imum. Optimization parameters can be prioritized and automatically bal- anced against each other – use case 4 describes how SON techniques can be appliedtonetworkoptimization. Maintain Areassuchasinventorymanagement, software and hardware upgrades and network-wide troubleshooting could potentially benefit from SON tech- niques. Use case 5 describes the appli- cation of SON to the maintenance of networks. FIGURE 3 Difference between CSR and eNB auto-integration eNB IP/MPLS Management connectivity CSR CSR NNI UNI ETH FIGURE 4 Temporary UNI as an enabler for SON auto-integration CSR IP/MPLS Management connectivity Temporary UNI (Permanent) NNI 4 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 Automation in the backhaul
  5. 5. a permanent NNI at the completion of theprocess. The entire auto-integration process forabackhaulnode–suchasaCSR–is illustratedinFigure 5. Auto-integrationofacellsiterouter Initial connectivity to the NOC serv- ers can be established using a tempo- rary SON VLAN (UNI). The SON VLAN providestemporarymanagementcon- nectivity in a way that is agnostic in relationtotheexistingtransporttech- nology. Once the installation and ini- tialconfigurationprocesseshavebeen completed, the temporary connection is replaced with the preferred perma- nentone(NNI). Assumingthatsomeformofin-band managementconnectivityintheexist- ing network to the NOC servers exists, the auto-integration process runs as follows: Step 1 The auto-integration script enables andconfiguresthenecessaryportsand interfaces. Step 2 Thediscoveryprocessofthetemporary SON VLAN includes DHCP communi- cation and the CSR authentication to establishtheconnectionfromtheCSR totheNOCservers. The Link Level Discovery Protocol (LLDP) or the native VLAN are possi- ble methods that can be used to dis- cover the SON VLAN. Once it has been discovered,DHCPcommunicationcan begin and authentication of the CSR is possible. ThehandlingoftheDHCPmessages between the CSR and the NOC servers is dependent on transport technology and transport service. For example, in thecaseofanL3VPN-basedconnection to NOC servers, the aggregation node upstreamfromtheCSRactsasaDHCP proxy and relays a unicast message to theDHCPserver. In the case of L2-based connectivity, the DHCP broadcast message can be forwardedasis. Step 3 The configuration file is then down- loadedandappliedtotheCSR. Step 4 PermanentconnectivitytotheNOC servers also requires configuration update on the existing upstream backhaul node(s). Temporary SON VLAN (UNI) needs to be replaced withthepermanentNNI.Thiscould bethefinalauto-integrationstep. The availability of a transport connectiontotheNOCformanage- ment connectivity cannot always beassumed.Consequently,aninno- vative way to establish temporary connectivity is needed. Figure 4 illustrates one possible way to cir- cumvent the initial connectivity issue by using a smartphone with a mobile data connection and estab- lishing a secure out-of-band com- munication channel between the backhaulnodeandtheNOCservers. Theremainingpartoftheprocessis thensimilartotheCSRcase. The return on investment that Ericsson estimates for auto-­ integration of backhaul nodes includes 15 percent faster rollouts, 50 percent competence cost reduc- tion, only one site visit and an over- allimprovementinquality. FIGURE 5 Use case 1: auto-integration in deployment eNB CSR DHCP server Configuration and software servers NOC eNB eNB CSR auto-integration DHCP communication NOC connectivity Configuration download SON VLAN discovery 1 2 3 4 1,2,3,4 Usecase2:auto-provisioningof LTEX2connectivity The X2 interface in LTE is a direct log- ical connection of neighboring base stations that can be used for hando- ver and for advanced interference coordination – with the aim of ensur- ing better user experience at the cell edge. As network architectures prog- ress toward more advanced real-time radio coordination, more stringent delay requirements are placed on the interconnecting backhaul path – creating the need to use the shortest (optimal) path possible. Given that a base station may have several tens of radio neighbors and that the relation- ships between a base station and its neighbors cannot fully be predicted (but must be based on radio network measurements), automating neighbor relations is a good candidate for SON. Indeed the SON function – Automatic Neighbor Relations (ANR) – has been successfullyappliedinLTEtoautomate thisprocess,andshowntoreduceover- all network planning by 90 percent2 . In addition, the setup of fully opti- mized X2 connections in a backhaul network can be a tedious, multi-touch and fairly repetitive task. There 5 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013
  6. 6. SnoopingX2controlmessagesisone waytoimplementamechanismtodis- cover eNB neighbor relations (X2) on theCSR.ForIPsec,however,tunneling requirementsforX2connectivitymay prohibit this method; control messag- esfortunnelendpointsresidingonthe eNBs are encrypted. The implementa- tion of steps 3 and 4 depends on the architectureofthebackhaulnetwork. Consider, for example, the case of a seamless MPLS architecture with LDP Downstream-on-Demand(DoD)inthe access part of the network, where IP VPN services are used for LTE connec- tivity. Such an architecture simplifies the setup of inter-area access trans- port paths, as the inherent behavior of LDP DoD alleviates the need to dis- tribute prefixes between access areas. A default route to the BRs is sufficient for X2 transport, and so maintaining complex filters at the BRs is no longer necessary. Connectivity from the CSRs to the core part of the network is initially provisioned in a hub-and-spoke man- ner, while service provisioning for the shortest (optimal) X2 connectivity is are a number of factors that con- tribute to this. First, each base station may have several tens of X2 interfaces tooptimize.Second,maintainingacor- rect list of neighbors requires consis- tentandregularcoordinationbetween theoperator’sradioandbackhaulorga- nizations. Third, to setup X2 connec- tionsbetweenaccessareas,therelated transport prefixes must be visible to allareas. For scalability reasons, distribution of transport prefixes between access areas is not typically allowed and enforced using filters on the border routers (BRs). So, to automatically set up X2 connections, a new approach is required to reduce the need to contin- ually update BR filters across multiple areas.One possible way to implement such a change is through a backhaul SONsolutionthatautomatesthetrans- port setup for the X2 communication. To establish the shortest (optimum) path for X2 in the transport network, this solution starts with ANR-based discoveryofnewneighboringbasesta- tions,andallofthestepsinthisprocess areshowninFigure 6. carried out on demand, as part of the backhaul SON solution. The service- provisioning process uses the remote eNBIPaddresses,learnedinthediscov- ery phase, to dynamically create VPN membership-relatedparameters.This resultsintheautomaticpopulationofa VPNroutingtablewithonlythedesired eNBprefixes. Triggering the LDP DoD procedure creates the underlying label-switched pathinadynamicfashionandensures that only the relevant labels are learned on demand for the respective CSRs. Ineffect,thebackhaulSONsolution forLTEX2connectivityservicesresults in minimal-touch provisioning. The process can be automated, alleviat- ingtheneedforcoordinationbetween theoperator’sbackhaulandRANorga- nizations, resulting in a much faster servicerollout. AsthebackhaulSONsolutionreduc- es the number of states to be main- tainedintheCSRtoaminimum,fewer IP prefixes and MPLS labels are need- ed.Thisinturnresultsinamuchhigh- er degree of scalability achievable in transport networks – a major benefit foroperators. Thisusecasehighlightsthebenefits ofcomplementingSONestablishment of X2 relations in RAN with an auto- matedsetupofthebackhaul.  Usecase3:self-healing The task of assuring performance in mobilebackhaulnetworkshasbecome more critical owing to the rising num- ber of users, network complexity and bandwidth-hungry services. And so, thisusecaseaddressestheneedtopro- videinteractionbetweenthebackhaul and RAN domains for performance- measurement and management functions. Theresultingnetworkinformation, obtained by mapping and correlating datafromdifferentnetworksegments and domains, is a powerful asset; not only does it serve as an important add- ontothestandardnetworkKPIreport- ing and troubleshooting, but also as a vital indicator and trigger for SON mechanisms. At Mobile World Congress 2013, Ericsson demonstrated how self- healing applies to a mobile backhaul FIGURE 6 Use case 2: auto-provisioning of LTE X2 connectivity eNB CSR CSR BR eNBS+T discover and create logical X2 interface between each other (ANR) MME SGW/ PGW CSR eNB eNB 1 S S T T 11 2 3 14 Access Automated setup of transport path between CSRS+T and BR X2 default longer path X2 direct path S T Source eNB or CSR Terminating eNB or CSR CSRS+T learn remote eNB IP address CSRS+T dynamically imports the VPN-related remote eNB prefix(es) Access Aggregation RBS site Switch site RNC/ BSC 6 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 Automation in the backhaul
  7. 7. FIGURE 7 Use case 3: self-healing Radio/core NMS Switch siteRBS site RAN KPIs report Transport KPIs report Correlation and RCA Transport NMS E2E PM 2 3 1 MME SGW/ PGW RNC/ BSC SON healing triggered 7 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 network; the demo included how pro- active rerouting decisions were made, based on performance-measurement data. By correlating performance data collectedfromthebackhaulandradio domains,itispossibletoassociateper- formanceissuesinthemobilenetwork with a particular segment of the back- haulnetwork.Forexample,adata-rate degradation experienced by a user on anHSPAnetworkcanbetracedtoabot- tleneckinthebackhaulnetwork. Themainstepsintheprocesstocre- ate cross-domain radio and backhaul correlation for performance data are illustratedinFigure 7andmaybeout- linedasfollows: 1. Performancedatafromradioandcore (WCDMAorLTE)networksarecollected fromnetworkelementsviatheelement ordomainmanager,andthenstoredin thecommondatawarehouse,providing thesourceinformationforperformance reports.Intheexampleillustratedin Figure7,cellperformanceintermsof availableHSPAratesandnumbers ofconnectedusersaremeasured andreportedcontinuously,enabling possiblecell-relatedperformance degradationstobequantified. 2. Inthebackhaulpartofthenetwork,the elementordomainmanagercollects performancedatafromthenetwork elements.Availablebandwidthinthe networkismeasuredandreported continuously–perinterfaceandper service.Congestionmayoccurwhen aninterfaceishighlyutilizedandmay resultindelaysanddiscardedorlost transporteddata,whichcandirectly impactuser-perceivedservicequality. 3. Byusingtopologyandservice-mapping data,theperformancedatacollected fromtheradio,core,andbackhaul networkscanbecorrelatedand trackedovertimetoidentifypatterns. Thisallowsoperatorstoidentify thecausesofreducedperformance inbandwidthforspecificbackhaul services,correlatingthem,forexample, toatemporaryreductionintheHSPA rateforaspecificradiocell.Correlated performancedatacanbefedback totheNMSsystemasperformance- managementalarms,whichwillinturn triggeraSONmechanism. The service and topology map- ping and cross-domain correlation of performance data mechanisms, described in use case 3, provide a key input to network optimization and healing triggers, creating the desired SON feedback loop. A feedback loop is created by using the trigger infor- mation to rehome affected subscrib- ers to another RBS; or to dynamically reprovision the transport path or ser- vicefortheRBStoanother,unaffected, transportpath.Thisusecasehighlights the successful application of self-heal- ingconceptstobackhaulnetworks.By introducing cross-domain correlation ofperformancedata,congestionpoints inthenetworkcanbepinpointed,and correctiveactiontaken. Usecase4:optimize Theneedtocarryoutoptimizationpro- cesses is not as pressing as it is in other use cases. Optimization can be quite complex, and the time frame for such improvementscanbeweeksormonths ratherthanafewminutesorhours.As with most cases, SON automation is best suited to optimizing events that occurfrequently. Bandwidthoptimizationisanexam- ple in this use-case category. Over the course of time, changes in traffic pat- terns can give rise to the need for path re-optimization for certain types of traffic.Forexample,inabackhaulnet- work some links can become overuti- lized or underutilized. In such cases, rerouting traffic is a simple solution without having to wait for the next planned capacity upgrade for achiev- ing better optimization of network utilization. But before selection of the best traf- fic optimization can take place, the traffic trends must be identified, and doing this manually can be time-con- suming and may involve the analysis of large amounts of data. SON tech- niques can help to automate the over- all bandwidth optimization process and provide multiple near-real-time traffic rerouting solutions, which operators can choose from in the final design decision. Similarly, SON meth- ods could also be used to implement energy-optimized traffic steering across the network. The corrective action in such a case would be to turn offnodeswithlowutilization,and
  8. 8. 1. Ericsson, 2012, White Paper, It All Comes Back to Backhaul, available at: http:// Backhaul.pdf 2. Ericsson, 2012, White paper, Smarter Self-Organizing Networks, available at: Networks.pdf 3. 3GPP, 2011, Technical Specification, 3GPP TS 32.500 Telecommunication Management; Self-Organizing Networks (SON); Concepts and requirements (Release 11), available at: htm 4. NGMN Alliance, 2007, White paper, NGMN Use Cases related to Self Organising Network, Overall Description, available at: media/NGMN_Use_Cases_related_to_Self_Organising_Network__Overall_ Description.pdf References finerdetailswhenrequired.Additional views should provide the capabilities to ease understanding of resource uti- lization, identify inefficiencies and evenprovidesuggestionsonhowtoget moreoutofnetworkresources. Theinventorycouldbeusedasatrig- gerforautomatedserviceprovisioning work flows, diagnosis and trouble- shootingasasecondstep. Conclusion Operatorsareunderconstantpressure tofindinnovativewaystoreduceopex, yet improve service quality and avail- ability of broadband networks. The introduction of SON in the 3GPP radio network is a good example of where innovationhasbroughtbenefits. TheusecasesforapplyingSONtech- niquesduringthedeploymentphaseof thebackhaulnetworkarecompelling, substantial cost savings can be made – and additional use cases of SON for assurance, optimization and mainte- nancealsohighlightareaswhereoper- atorscancreateabalancebetweencost andefficiency. IntelligentSONsupportinnodesand managementsystemspromisestobea key tool in addressing the challenges posedbyevolvingbroadbandnetworks and helping networks to deliver addi- tional coverage, capacity and services inanagileandcost-effectivemanner. 8 ERICSSON REVIEW • SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 Automation in the backhaul such a decision can be taken on a single-nodeorcentralizedbasis. Usecase5:maintain Manual tasks that are tedious and labor-intensive are prime candidates for SON automation. Defining the devices in an inventory system typi- cally tends to be both. For a large network, automating the inventory process could provide some benefits, as the current solution – which uses a polling mechanism with scheduling capabilities – offers inconsistent sup- port to discover recently-added net- workelements. Inventory management relies heav- ily on automation and simplification to limit costs. At the same time, such systems need to be more capable as operators search for ways to create efficiencies and generate new revenue sources. To ensure that system users remain in control, automation should be applied carefully. Full automation might be appropriate in some sce- narios, but in others, a user-assisted or system-guided approach may be preferable. An inventory management system should provide users with a number of different views of their network resources. High-level views support simplification goals, but administra- tors also need to be able to access the Ericsson Review is a technology journal designed to open and encourage discussion. The aim of the journal is to high ight current research in information and communications technology. Address : Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 8 719 00 00 Fax: +46 8 522 915 99 Web: Ericsson Technology Insights All Ericsson Review articles are available on the Ericsson Technology Insights app available for Android and iOS devices. Download from Google Play Download from the App Store. Publisher: Ulf Ewaldsson Editorial board: Håkan Andersson, Hans Antvik, Ulrika Bergström, Joakim Cerwall, Deirdre P. Doyle, Dan Fahrman, Anita Frisell, Magnus Frodigh, Jonas Högberg, Ulf Jönsson, Magnus Karlson, Cenk Kirbas, Sara Kullman, Kristin Lindqvist, U f Olsson, Patrik Regårdh and Patrik Roséen Editor: Deirdre P. Doyle Chief subeditor: Birgitte van den Muyzenberg Subeditor: Ian Nicholson Art director: Carola Pilarz Illustrations: Claes-Göran Andersson
  9. 9. Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: + 46 10 719 0000 Fax: +46 8 522 915 99 284 23-3214 | Uen ISSN 0014-0171 © Ericsson AB 2013 Shahryar Khan joined Ericsson in 2005 and is responsible for managing technology leadership activities within Development Unit IP Broadband. He is a senior specialist in the area of IP and MPLS network architectures and solutions. His other areas of interest include IP optical integration, cloud transport and SDN. He also has a history of strategic customer engagements and has received an Outstanding Achievement Award. He holds a B.Sc. (Hons) in electrical engineering from the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Balázs Varga joined Ericsson in 2010 and works as chief architect in packet evolution studies to integrate IP, Ethernet and MPLS technologies for converged mobile and fixed network architectures. Prior to joining Ericsson, he worked for Magyar Telekom and Deutsche Telekom on the enhancement of broadband service portfolios and introduction of new broadband technologies. He has many years experience in fixed and mobile telecommunication and also represents Ericsson in the Broadband Forum. He holds a Ph.D. in telecommunication from the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary. Jonas Rosenberg joined Ericsson in 2000 and is currently a systems and solution manager at Development Unit IP Broadband. He is a senior specialist in network architecture and solutions with a focus on strategic technologies for orchestration and assurance solutions in mobile transport networks. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Jonas Edstam joined Ericsson in 1995 and is head of portfolio and strategy at Product Line Microwave Networks. He is also an expert in microwave radio transmission networks. He has many years of experience in this area and has worked in various roles with a wide range of topics, from detailed microwave technology and system design to his current focus on the strategic evolution of packet-based mobile backhaul networks and RANs. He holds a Ph.D. in applied solid-state physics from Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Martin Stümpert joined Ericsson in 1993 and is currently working on the network architecture for transmission networks with a focus on SON, QoS, security and shared networks at Development Unit IB technology. In 2002, he received the Inventor of the Year award from the CEO of Ericsson. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. John Volkering joined Ericsson in 2007, and is currently a principal network architect within Ericsson’s Product Area IP and Broadband. He focuses on providing technical sales consultancy for end-to-end operator network architectures and is a senior advisor on network evolution strategies, such as the introduction of SDN architectures. Prior to Ericsson, he worked for several telecom companies including Redback Networks, and in various technical presales positions. He holds a B.Sc. in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Rijswijk, in the Netherlands.