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Ericsson Technology Review: Simplifying the 5G ecosystem by reducing architecture options

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One critical aspect of a successful 5G deployment is the mobile network operator’s ability to support user equipment, radio network, core network and management products that are manufactured by a multitude of device and network equipment vendors. The multiple connectivity options in 3GPP architecture for 5G have created several possible deployment alternatives.

The latest Ericsson Technology Review article argues that there is a significant risk of ecosystem fragmentation if too many different connectivity options are deployed. After considering all the options, the authors conclude that a deployment approach based on options 3 and 2 will reduce network upgrade cost and time, simplify interoperability between networks and devices, and enable a faster scaling of the 5G ecosystem.

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Ericsson Technology Review: Simplifying the 5G ecosystem by reducing architecture options

  1. 1. Standalone NR and 5GC with appropriate features and coverage for addressed use cases. Full 5GC and NR coverage NR+5GC mainstream LTE/EPC for legacy devices EPC eNBeNB eNB gNB eNB gNB eNB gNBeNBeNB eNB gNB NR NRNRNR-low NRNR LTE LTE LTE LTE/NR LTE/NRLTELTE Option 1 Options 1, 3 Current industry focus Target architecture Options 1, 2, 3 Option 2 (1,3) 1 3 2 231 EPC+ 5GCEPC+ EPC+ 5GC     ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 1 0 ∙ 2 0 1 8 5GECOSYSTEM: ARCHITECTURE OPTIONS
  2. 2. ✱ SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM 2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 BY REDUCING ARCHITECTURE OPTIONS Simplifyingthe Previous mobile generations have taught us that industry efforts to reduce fragmentation yield massive benefits. In the case of 5G, an industry effort to focus deployment on a limited set of key connectivity options will be critical to bringing it to market in a timely and cost-efficient way. TORBJÖRN CAGENIUS, ANDERS RYDE, JARI VIKBERG, PER WILLARS The multiple connectivity options in the 3GPP architecture for 5G have created several possible deployment alternatives. Initial deploymentsfocusonoptions3(non-standalone New Radio) and 2 (standalone New Radio). However, the deployment of several additional options would create a level of complexity that impacts the whole 5G ecosystem – across operator network operations, equipment vendors and user equipment (UE) chipset vendors as well as spectrum assets. To avoid ecosystem fragmentation, we believe that the best approach is to limit the number of options that are deployed. ■ Thereismuchmoretointroducing5Gthan simplydeployingNewRadio(NR)technology.Fora successful5Glaunch,theoperatorneedstosecurea networkthatincludesend-to-end(E2E)capabilities alignedacrossdevices,RAN,coreandmanagement systems.5Gisalsoatechnologytransformationfor operatorsstrivingformoreflexibilityandspeedin networkdeployment–andwithanexpectationof beingabletoaddressnewbusinessopportunities withusecasesbeyondmobilebroadband(MBB). Oneofthekeystrategictopicsthatoperatorsneedto decideoniswhichconnectivityoptionstosupportin thenetworktoaddressthetargetedusecases. 5Gconnectivityoptions InRelease15,the3GPP[1]hasdefinedmultiple architecturaloptionsforaUEtoconnecttothe network,usingLTE/eLTEand/orNRaccessto connecttoEvolvedPacketCore(EPC)or5GCore (5GC)networks.Anewuseofdualconnectivityhas alsobeenappliedtouseLTE/eLTEandNRasthe masterorsecondaryradioaccesstechnology(RAT) 5Gecosystem
  3. 3. SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3 Figure 1 UE connectivity options Connectivity option Core network Master RAT Secondary RAT 3GPP term 3GPP release Option 1 EPC LTE - LTE Rel. 8 Option 3 EPC LTE NR EN-DC Rel. 15, Dec 2017 Option 2 5GC NR - NR Rel. 15, June 2018 Option 4 5GC NR eLTE NE-DC Rel. 15, March 2019 Option 5 5GC eLTE - eLTE Rel. 15, June 2018 Option 7 5GC eLTE NR NGEN-DC Rel. 15, March 2019 indifferentcombinations.Thishasresultedinsix connectivityoptionsforaUE,asshowninFigure1. Notethatwhiletheoptionterminologyisnot explicitlyusedinthe3GPPstandardsspecifications, itoriginatesfromthe5Gstudyphaseof3GPP Release15andiswidelyusedintheindustry. ThesixconnectivityoptionsshowninFigure1 definehowanysingleUEisconnectedtothe networkatagiventime.Inmostcases,anetworkwill supportasetofsuchoptionssimultaneously.One basestationmayhavedifferentUEsconnectedvia differentconnectivityoptions,aswellasmovinga UEconnectionbetweentheoptionsdependingon factorssuchasradioconditions.LegacyLTE/EPC (option1)isthebaseline,andtheindustryhasan alignedviewthattheinitial5Gdeploymentsare basedonoptions3and2.Thenextstep,therefore, istoestablishindustryalignmentonthepotential useofoptions4,5and7. Theneedforindustryalignment Mobilenetworkoperatorsthatdeploy5Gmustbe abletosupportUE,radionetwork,corenetworkand managementproductsthataremanufacturedbya multitudeofdeviceandnetworkequipmentvendors. Withmultipleconnectivityoptions,andevenmore possiblecombinationsofoptions,thereisahighrisk thatdifferentoperatorswilldeploydifferentoptions, inadifferentorder.Ifthathappens,chipset,device andnetworkequipmentvendorsarelikelytoget contradictoryrequirementsfromdifferentoperators ormarkets.Thiswouldcausesignificantproductand integrationcomplexity,aswellascreating interoperabilityissuesthatprolongthetimeittakes toestablishacompleteecosystemthatsupportsthe deployedoptions. Thecomplexitycausedbyamultitudeofdeployed connectivityoptionswouldalsohaveanimpacton theE2Etestingofservicesintheoperatornetwork,
  4. 4. ✱ SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM 4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 includingbothexistingserviceslikevoiceaswellas newones.Further,thehigherthenumberofoptions deployed,themorecomplexandtimeconsumingit willbefortheoperatorcommunitytoestablish5G roamingintheindustry. Networkdeploymentsbasedonoptions3and2 Option3isthebestshort-termalternativefor5G deployment,asitreliesonexistingLTE/EPC(option 1).Option3willprovidegoodperformanceinseveral aspects,allowingoptimizedtransmissiononNR whenNRcoverageisgood,extendingNRdownlink (DL)usageonahigherbandbycombiningwitha lower-bandLTEforuplink(UL)data,and,if needed,aggregatingthroughputoverbothNRand LTEspectrum.Italsoprovidesreliableandsmooth mobilitybasedonanchoringinLTE/EPC,evenif theNRcoverageisspotty.Theuseofdual connectivityhas,however,introducedsomechallenges ontheUEsidewithdualtransmitters,which,insome cases,willlimitperformanceandcoverage. Oneofthemaindriversforgoingbeyond option3istoprovide5GC-enabledcapabilities likeenhancednetworkslicing,edgecomputing supportandoperationalbenefits,eventhough EPCcanalsosupporttheseservicestosome extent(slicingbasedonDECOR,forexample). Anothermaindriverforgoingbeyondoption3 istobeabletodeploystandaloneNRandgetthe radioperformancebenefitsofanNR-onlybased radiointerface. Option2(standaloneNR)isthefirst 5GC-basedoptionavailableinUEsandnetworks. EvenifgeneralNRcoverageislimited,option2 caninitiallybedeployedforspecificusecasesin localareas,wheredevicesstaywithingoodNR coverageonamidorhighband.Examplesinclude industrialdeploymentswithultra-reliablelow latencycommunicationrequirements,andfixed wirelessaccess(FWA),evenifthelatterisalso wellservedviaoption3. Key enablers ❭❭ LTE-NR spectrum sharing 3GPP specifications allow efficient sharing of operator spectrum, so that one carrier appears as an NR carrier to NR UEs, and an LTE carrier to LTE UEs. Resources are pooled and distributed dynamically between the two RATs, according to instant needs. There is no impact on legacy LTE UEs, and the impact on LTE capacity is very small. Compared with classic refarming, this provides a smooth migration of spectrum from LTE to NR as NR-capable UE penetration increases, enabling NR to be rolled out on new and legacy bands. ❭❭ Spectrum regulation Spectrum is becoming technology neutral in most of the world except for a few markets and frequency bands where the spectrum license is currently tied to a specific RAT, prohibiting NR to operate in existing frequency bands.ItisimportantthatregulatorsacknowledgetheneedforNRdeploymentinallbands.Thisisakeyenabler formigrationtowideareacoverageofserviceslikeMBB/voiceandcMTCover5G,dependingonthepossibility to deploy NR in lower frequency bands. ❭❭ Dual-mode core network 4G devices will be the major device type and traffic consumer for a long time [2].Inaddition,operatorsare introducingnew5GdevicesdependingonbothEPC(option3)and5GC(option2). A “dual-mode” core network with both EPC and 5GC functionality will support the evolving device fleet in the networkandenableasmooth networktransformation.Toensureservicecoverageduringthemigrationperiod,thedual-modecorenetwork willprovidetightinterworkingbetweenEPCand5GCforseamless4G-5Gmobility.
  5. 5. SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 Figure2illustratestheevolutionofspectrum usageinanetwork,startingwithLTEdeployedon sub-1GHzand1–3GHzbands.First,NRisdeployed on3.5GHzand/ormmWandwithLTEbandsusing option3.Thenextstepistodeployoption2for specificusecasesinlocalareas–suchasforFWA andindustrialdeployments. ExpandingstandaloneNRcoverage andcapacity Whendeployingoption2forwide-areausecases likeMBB,itisimportanttoensurecontinuousNR coveragewithinthetargetedarea(initiallyurbanfor example).SpottyNRcoveragewouldresultinfrequent mobilityeventsbetweenNRandLTEforwide-area usecases,eventhoughintersystemmobilitybetween option2andLTE/EPCwillbewellsupported.For theseusecases,option2requiresasufficientlylow NRbandinrelationtothesitegrid.Inmanycases, thesitegridfora3.5GHzdeploymentwillgivegood DLcoveragebothoutdoorsandindoors,butnot enoughULcoverage.NRon3.5GHzshould thereforetypicallybecombinedwithNRonlow bandtoprovidecontinuouscoverageinboththeUL andDL[3].ThelowNRbandcanbenew,refarmed oranexistingLTEbandthatissharedbetweenNR andLTE.Withrefarmingorsharing,akeyenableris thatthespectrumlicenseallowsNRdeployment (seefactboxonpage4,spectrumregulation). Tosupportoption2forMBBinanarea,itisalso advisabletodeployNRinoneormorelegacyLTE bandsusingLTE-NRspectrumsharing(seefactbox onpage4,LTE-NRspectrumsharing).Together withNRonlowandmid/highbands,thismaximizes thethroughputviaNRcarrieraggregation(CA). ThisisessentialtoprovidegoodMBBperformance, especiallyinareaswithoutDLcoveragefromnew NRbands.WhileNRdeploymentislimited,mobility tooption2shouldonlybetriggeredwhentheUE Figure 2 Spectrum migration steps for the 5G network Add option 2 5GC NR SA for local use cases in mid/high bands Option 2 on wide area NR in new or existing low bands with spectrum sharing/ refarming NR-NR CA Extend wide NR on additional bands Baseline: option 1 LTE-LTE CA LTE NR LTE+NR Add option 3 New NR spectrum on mid or high bands LTE-NR DC (EN-DC) High bands (24GHz–40GHz) Mid bands (3.5GHz–8GHz) Mid bands (1GHz–2.6GHz) Low bands (sub–1GHz) WITHREFARMINGOR SHARING,AKEYENABLERIS THATTHESPECTRUMLICENSE ALLOWSNRDEPLOYMENT
  6. 6. ✱ SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM 6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 hasenoughcoverageofsufficientNRspectrum, whichcanbehandledwiththresholdsandoffsets. ThepossibilityofaggregatingbandsusingCA,with asingleULtransmitterintheUE,isanimportant benefitofoption2,comparedwiththedual connectivityusedinoptions3,4and7.Thethirdstep ofFigure2showstheuseofNRonmultiplelegacy LTEbandsusingLTE-NRspectrumsharing. Options1and3providegoodsupportfor smartphonesandMBB.MovingMBBtrafficto option2requiressupportforvoicetelephony. ThismeansthatNRmustbeabletosupportvoice natively,aswellassupportingseamlessmobilityvia handovertoLTE/EPCwhenleavingtheoption2 coveragearea.AsanintermediatestepbeforeNR supports(andisdimensionedfor)voice,thevoice servicecanrelyonEPSfallbacktoLTE/EPC. Tight5GC-EPCinterworkingisneededforboth voicesolutions,andthiswillalsoprovidegood intersystemmobilityforotherservices(seefactbox onpage4,dual-modecorenetwork). WhenaUEleavesanareawheretheNRcoverage isnotgoodenoughforoption2,thenetworkcan triggerintersystemmobilitytoEPC,eithertooption 3or1.Thesupportofoption2canthusbeextended graduallyinever-largerareasinanoperator’snetwork, startingwithdenseurbanareas.Bydeploying option2inhigh-trafficareasfirst,asignificant amountoftrafficcanbemigratedfromEPCto 5GC,evenifthegeographiccoverageisinitially morelimited. ManyLTEsiteswillbemodernizedwithmore advancedradiosforimprovedperformance(suchas 4T4R)orbyaddingmodernbasebandhardware, andwillthentypicallybepreparedtosupportNR ontheLTEbands.Thedeploymentofoption2 inaRANcapableofoption3isthendonewitha softwareupgrade.ThesamegNBwillservesome UEsinthesameNRcellwithoption3andothers withoption2. Figure3illustratesnetworkdeploymentduring themigrationfromLTEtoNR.Inselectedurban Figure 3 Network deployment during migration, including supported use cases 3.5GHz/mmW Denseurban Urban Suburban Rural 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 1-3GHz <1GHz mIoT 1 2 SpectrumUsecases 3 2 3 1 3 2 LTE NR NR&LTEshared MBB mMTC FWA Local-areacMTC mIoT
  7. 7. SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7 areas,NR(inorange)isdeployedon3.5GHzor mmWtoaddcapacitytothenetwork.NRisalso deployed,onasub-1GHzband(tocomplementUL coverage),andinlegacyLTEbandswithLTE-NR spectrumsharing. ThehorizontalblacklinesinFigure3represent thecoverageofoptions1,2and3.Option1isused inalargepartofthenetworktosupportMBBand actasthemainsolutionforMassiveMachineType Communication(mMTC)–specifically,Narrowband InternetofThings(NB-IoT)andLTE-MTC standard(LTE-M).Option3canbeusedanywhere thereisNRcoverage.Earlyoption2deploymentsin localareasincludeFWAandindustrialdeployments. Option2forgeneralMBBissupportedwhere thereislow-bandNRandsufficientNRbandwidth (mid/highbandand/oron1-3GHz). TheorangearrowsinFigure3indicatethatareas ofgoodNRcoverageareexpandedgeographically, coveringmoreurbanareas,andintimealso extendingintosuburbanareasandbeyond. Withthesupportofoptions1,2and3,keyusecases suchasmMTC,MBBandindustrialcritical-MTC (cMTC)willbesupportedinthenear-and mid-termwithgoodperformance. Targetarchitecture Theindustryhasspecifiedanewradioaccess technology–NR–andanewcorenetwork– 5GC–asthefoundationfortheevolutionof3GPP networks,which,inourview,makesoption2the long-termtargetarchitecturefortheindustry.Inthe long-termtargetnetwork,option2isdeployedwith widecoverage,usedbroadlyinmostdevices,and shouldbethebasisforfutureinvestmentsand featuregrowth. Figure4illustratesthemigrationstepsto the5Gtargetarchitectureforthemobileindustry, recognizingoption2asthelong-termtarget.The firststepistoaddoption3,followedbyoption2in selectedareas.Bygraduallyexpandingtheareas whereoption2isdeployed,theoperatorandthe Figure 4 Migration steps toward target architecture Standalone NR and 5GC with appropriate features and coverage for addressed use cases. Full 5GC and NR coverage NR+5GC mainstream LTE/EPC for legacy devices EPC eNBeNB eNB gNB eNB gNB eNB gNBeNBeNB eNB gNB NR NRNRNR-low NRNR LTE LTE LTE LTE/NR LTE/NRLTELTE Option 1 Options 1, 3 Current industry focus Target architecture Options 1, 2, 3 Option 2 (1,3) 1 3 2 231 EPC+ 5GCEPC+ EPC+ 5GC    
  8. 8. ✱ SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM 8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 industrywillalwaysinvestinstepsleadingtothe long-termtargetarchitecture.Eventually,the option2coveragewillbesufficienttoalsosupport wide-areacMTCusecasesthatwillbenefitfrom bothNRand5GC. Atsomepointinthefuturetherewillalsobe mMTCsolutionsbasedonNR/5GC.However,many mMTCservicesarealreadyadequatelyservedbythe existingmMTCsolutionsNB-IoTandLTE-M.The mMTCservicesinthelow-endLowPowerWide Area(LPWA)segmentarejustoneexample.Toavoid fragmentation,thebestalternativefortheseusecases iscontinueduseofNB-IoTandLTE-Mforalongtime. Thetimingtoreachthislong-termtargetmayvary betweenmarkets.Itshouldbenotedthatevenwhen thetargetisreached,networkswillneedtocontinue tosupportasetoflegacydevices(LTE/EPC-based), inparticularintheareaofmMTC.WhentheUE penetrationforNRsupportishighenough,selected bandscanbefullyrefarmedtoNR-only,asshownin thelaststepofFigure2. Analysisofoptions5,7and4 Theindustryhasdecidedtobasetheinitial deploymentof5Gonoptions3and2.Whileoptions 5,7and4mayinitiallyseembeneficialforspecific operators’deploymentcases,itisimportantto recognizethatnoneofthemaredirectstepsleading towardthelong-termtargetarchitecture.Further, theuseofoptions5,7and4wouldaddunnecessary complexityinthetargetarchitecture,inthe interactionwithothernetworkfunctions,andinthe evolutionofnewfeatures,whichneedstotakethe combinationofallexistingoptionsintoaccount. Afterathoroughanalysisofoptions5,7and4 thatencompassedthemaindrivers,potential benefitsanddrawbacks,wehavecometothe conclusionthatallthreecanandshouldbeavoided. Wehavealsoidentifiedpreferredalternative solutionsforeachoption. Option5 Themaindriverfordeployingoption5istoallow devicesthatmoveoutsidetheareacoveredbyoption 2toremainconnectedto5GC,whichwouldalso increasethe5GCcoveragetoeLTEareas. Akeyquestiontoconsideris:whichusecases requirenationwide5GCcoverage?Traditional MBB/voiceobviouslyrequireswide-areasupport, butthisiswellsupportedwithintersystemmobility duringthebuild-outofNRcoverage,asitwasin previousgenerationshifts.5GCprovidesarange ofnewvaluesbuttheneedforotherwide-area 5GC-basedservicesintheneartermisundefined. Inthelongerterm,weexpectwide-areaoption2 toenablethenewusecasesthatemerge. Option5couldbeusedtoincreasewide-area 5GCcoverage,butreachingfullwide-area5GC coveragewouldtaketimeandinvestment,asitwould requirenewUEs,newRANfunctionalityand retestingthesystem.Option5wouldhaveamajor impactontheUEsintermsofsupportingthe5GC non-accessstratumandthenewpartsoftheeLTE radiointerface,aslegacyLTEdevicesarenot supported.Inaddition,substantialinteroperability retestingbetweennetworksandUEswouldbe requiredtoensuretheoperationoflegacyfeatures andservices,includingVoLTE.Further,option5 requiressubstantialupgradesoftheeNBsoftware and,inmanycases,theeNBbasebandhardware aswell. THEINDUSTRYHAS DECIDEDTOBASETHEINITIAL DEPLOYMENTOF5GON OPTIONS3AND2
  9. 9. SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 9 Insummary,option5isunlikelytoprovideafaster routeto5GCwide-areacoveragethanthewide deploymentofoption2.Widedeploymentofoption2 isthebetteralternative,particularlysinceoption5 wouldmeaninvestingintechnologythatdoesnot capitalizeonthebenefitsofthelatestradio technology(NR). Option 7 Option7buildsonoption5andcannotexistwithout it.Ifoption5weretobeused,itisverylikelythat option7wouldalsobesupportedinareaswithNR. Thedriverforoption7isthesameasforoption3; thatis,tousedualconnectivitytoaggregateNRand LTEbandstoenhancecapacity,butinthiscasefora UEconnectedviaeLTEto5GC.Accordingtothe samelogicexplainedintheOption5sectionabove, werecommendusingoption2instead. Option4 Option4isanadditiontooption2,usingdual connectivitytoaddeLTEtoanNRanchor.Itis primarilyrelevantwhenservingMBBtrafficvia 5GC.Thedriverforoption4istomaximize throughputwhentheamountofNRspectrumis limited.Anexampleofthistypeofsituationwould beifNRisdeployedon700MHz,3.5GHzandmmW, buttheUEisoutsidecoverageofthetwohigherbands. Intermsofdrawbacks,option4wouldrequire newsoftwaresupportineNB,gNBandUE,with relatedinteroperabilitytesting.Further,thefuture evolutionoffeatureswouldneedtoconsideroption4, anditsusewouldrequirecontinuedinvestmentsin eLTEdeploymentsforalongtime. Option4isnotnecessary,andperformsworse thanoption2withNR-NRCAandenoughNR spectrum, inareasservingMBBvia5GC.Using option2insteadofoption4alsofocusesinvestments ontherolloutofthelong-termtargetarchitecture. Conclusion Ouranalysisshowsthatthemobileindustryhasan opportunitytosimplifythe5Gecosystemby focusingnetworkdeploymentsonconnectivity options3and2,whicharecapableofdelivering allthe5Gbenefitswithoutaddingunnecessary complexityandcost(asinoptions5,7and4). Theflexibledesignofradioandcorenetworks supportsasmoothmigrationwithLTE-NR spectrumsharinganddual-modecoretechnologies. Theregulationoffrequencybandsshouldallow NRdeploymentinexistingLTEbandsthatare insyncwiththerequiredspectrummigration. Operatorshavetheopportunitytoavoid connectivityoptions5,7and4byimplementinga proactivespectrummigrationstrategythat considersNRfornewlowbands,andbyrefarming orintroducingLTE-NRspectrumsharingin existinglow/midbands.Thisapproachwill reducenetworkupgradecostandtime,simplify interoperabilitybetweennetworksanddevices, andenableafasterscalingofthe5Gecosystem. A5Gdeploymentapproachbasedexclusivelyon options3and2ensuresthatinvestmentisfocused onthelong-termtargetarchitecture,leveragingfull 5GScapabilities.Earlykeyusecasesforwide-area, likeMBBincludingvoiceservices,arefullysupported duringthemigrationperiod,alongwithservices toexistingdevices. THEMOBILEINDUSTRY HASANOPPORTUNITY TOSIMPLIFYTHE5G ECOSYSTEM
  10. 10. ✱ SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM 10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 Further reading ❭❭ Ericsson, 5G deployment options, 2018, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/assets/local/narratives/ networks/documents/5g-deployment-considerations.pdf ❭❭ Ericsson, Core evolution from EPC to 5G Core, download available from: https://pages.digitalservices. ericsson.com/core-evolution-to-5g References 1. 3GPP Release 15 specifications, e.g. TS 23.501, TS 38.401, available at: http://www.3gpp.org/release-15 2. Ericsson Mobility Report, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report 3. Ericsson Technology Review, November 2018, The advantages of combining 5G NR with LTE, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/ericsson-technology-review/archive/2018/the-advantages-of-combining-5g-nr- with-lte Terms and abbreviations 4T4R – 4-Branch Transmit/Receive Antenna and Radio Arrangement | 5GC – 5G Core | 5GS – 5G System | CA – Carrier Aggregation | cMTC – Critical Machine Type Communication | CN – Core Network | DC – Dual Connectivity | DECOR – Dedicated Core Network | DL – Downlink | E2E – End-to-end | eLTE – Evolved LTE | eNB – Evolved Node B | EN-DC – E-UTRA – NR Dual Connectivity | EPC – Evolved Packet Core | FWA – Fixed Wireless Access | gNB – Next Generation Node B | IoT – Internet of Things | LPWA – Low Power Wide Area | LTE-M – LTE-MTC Standard | MBB – Mobile Broadband | mMTC – Massive Machine Type Communication | mmW – Millimeter Wave | NB-IoT – Narrowband Internet of Things | NR – New Radio | RAT – Radio Access Technology | UE – User Equipment | UL – Uplink
  11. 11. SIMPLIFYING THE 5G ECOSYSTEM ✱ NOVEMBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 11 theauthors Torbjörn Cagenius ◆ is a senior expert in network architecture at Business Area Digital Services. He joined Ericsson in 1990 and has worked in a variety of technology areas such as fiber-to-the- home, main-remote RBS, fixed-mobile convergence, IPTV, network architecture evolution, software-defined networking and Network Functions Virtualization. In his current role, he focuses on 5G and associated network architecture evolution. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Anders Ryde ◆ is a senior expert in network and service architecture at Business Area Digital Services, based in Sweden. He joined Ericsson in 1982 and has worked in a variety of technology areas in network and service architecture developmentformultimedia- enabled telecommunication, targeting both enterprise and residential users. This includes the evolution of mobile telephony to IMS and VoLTE. In his current role, he focuses on bringing voice and other communication services into 5G, general 5G evolution and associated network architecture evolution. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Jari Vikberg ◆ is a senior expert in network architecture and the chief network architect at CTO office. He joined Ericsson in 1993 and has both wide and deep technology competence covering network architectures for all generations of RANs and CNs. He is also skilled in the application layer and other domains, and the impact and relation these have to mobile networks. He holds an M.Sc. in computer science from the University of Helsinki, Finland. Per Willars ◆ is an expert in network architecture and radio network functionality at Business Area Networks. He joined Ericsson in 1991 and has worked intensively with RAN issues ever since. This includes leading the definition of 3G RAN, before and within the 3GPP, and more lately indoor solutions. He has also worked with service layer research and explored new business models. In his current role, he analyzes the requirements for 5G RAN (architecture and functionality) with the aim of simplifying 5G. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
  12. 12. ISSN 0014-0171 284 23-3320 | Uen © Ericsson AB 2018 Ericsson SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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