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Ericsson Technology Review: The advantages of combining 5G NR with LTE

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Capacity exhaustion is a growing challenge for network operators due to the rapidly increasing data consumption by mobile broadband (MBB) subscribers. Rather than addressing this by densifying 4G networks with new sites, 5G New Radio (NR) offers operators the opportunity to meet growing demand and improve performance through the efficient use of new frequency bands at existing sites. The latest Ericsson Technology Review article explains how deploying 5G NR with mid bands (3-6GHz) at existing 4G sites enables maximal reuse of site infrastructure investments as well as delivering a significant performance boost. By adding NR with 100MHz unpaired spectrum, it is possible to achieve eight times higher downlink capacity relative to LTE (2x50MHz paired spectrum). Massive MIMO techniques, such as beamforming and multi-user MIMO, deliver improved downlink data rates both outdoors and indoors.

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Ericsson Technology Review: The advantages of combining 5G NR with LTE

  1. 1. Output power and regulatory requirements 3.5GHz: 0dB (typical) 28GHz: -10 to -15dB (typical) Antenna gain and beamforming 3.5GHz: +9dB (typical) 28GHz: +15dB (typical) Outdoor to indoor propagatio 3.5GHz: -0 to -2dB (-0 to -3d 28GHz: -1 to -10dB (-2 to -20 Outdoor propagation loss 3.5GHz: 0 to -2dB 28GHz: 0 to -7dB Antenna gain and beamforming 3.5GHz: +6dB 28GHz: +9dB Rx effective antenna area 3.5GHz: -6dB 28GHz: -24dB ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 9 ∙ 2 0 1 8 5GNRWITHLTE ATEXISTINGSITES
  2. 2. ✱ COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE 2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 AT EXISTING SITES Combining5GNR 5G at mid and high bands is well suited for deployment at existing site grids, especially when combined with low-band LTE. Adding new frequency bands to existing deployments is a future-proof and cost-efficient way to improve performance, meet the growing needs of mobile broadband subscribers and deliver new 5G-based services. FREDRIC KRONESTEDT, HENRIK ASPLUND, ANDERS FURUSKÄR, DU HO KANG, MAGNUS LUNDEVALL, KENNETH WALLSTEDT The speed expectations and data consumption of mobile broadband (MBB) subscribers continue to grow rapidly. Already today, there are 4G networks in urban areas that are being densified with new sites (macro sites, small cells and indoor solutions, for example) as a result of spectrum exhaustion. Further, in regions such as western Europe and North America, the data demand per smartphone is projected to grow by 30-40 percent yearly [1], resulting in a four- to fivefold increase in five years. Adding new frequency bands at existing sites is a cost-efficient way to meet this demand and improve performance. The ability to achieve indoor coverage is particularly important, because the majority of the traffic is generated indoors [2]. ■ Manypeopleinthetelecomindustrytendto associatethedeploymentofhigh-frequencybands withpoorcoverage,whichresultsintheneedfornew sites,whichleadstohighdeploymentcosts.Thisis, however,notatallthecasefor5GNewRadio(NR) [3].5GNRisdesignedtomakeuseoffrequency bandsabove3GHzandoffersthepossibilityto introducenewfrequencybands–typicallyabove 3GHz–intoexisting4Gnetworks.Takingadvantage ofthispossibilitymakesiteasiertomeetthe increasingdemandsfromMBB-basedservices, whilesimultaneouslyensuringthatsiteandbackhaul infrastructureinvestmentscanbereused.5GNR isalsoavailableforuseinnewbandsbelow1GHzand existing3G/4Gbands.Smoothmigrationfrom4G to5GinexistingspectruminaRANcanbedone bymeansofspectrumsharing,whereNRis introducedinparallelwithLTE. withLTE THE ADVANTAGES OF
  3. 3. COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3 ThemainnewNRfrequencybandswilltypically beallocatedasTDDinthemid(3-6GHz)andhigh (24-40GHz)bands.Thesebandspresentseveral interestingchallengesandopportunities.Bymeans ofmeasurementsandradionetworksimulationsof coverageandcapacity,wehavedemonstrated thatitisfeasibletodeploybothmidandhigh (alsoknownasmillimeterWaveormmWave) bandsonexistingsites. Thankstobeamforming,afundamental techniqueinNR,theneedforsitedensificationis muchsmallerthananticipated–particularlywhen interworkingwithLTEisapplied.Beamforming andmassivemultiple-input,multiple-output (MIMO)techniquesalsoprovidehighercapacity fromexisting4Gsites,whichcreatesroomfornew 5G-basedservicesandusecasesinadditionto MBB. High-frequencychallengesandopportunities Theuseofmidandhighbandsfor5Gmakesit possibletoutilizemuchhigherbandwidths. However,theincreasedcarrierfrequencycanalso makeitmorechallengingtoprovidecoveragethatis similartoexistinglow-banddeployments.Thereare threeprimaryreasonsforthis:(1)physicallimitson thepowerreceptioncapabilitiesofantennas;(2) radiofrequencyoutputpowerlimitations;and(3) increasedpropagationlosses,asshowninFigure1. THANKSTOBEAMFORMING... THENEEDFORSITEDENSIFICATION ISMUCHSMALLERTHAN ANTICIPATED Figure 1 Schematic indication of antenna and propagation factors affecting downlink coverage positively (blue) or negatively (red) compared to coverage at a reference frequency of 1.8GHz. The numbers are indicative and may vary. Output power and regulatory requirements 3.5GHz: 0dB (typical) 28GHz: -10 to -15dB (typical) Antenna gain and beamforming 3.5GHz: +9dB (typical) 28GHz: +15dB (typical) Outdoor to indoor propagation loss 3.5GHz: -0 to -2dB (-0 to -3dB for IRR glass) 28GHz: -1 to -10dB (-2 to -20dB for IRR glass) Outdoor propagation loss 3.5GHz: 0 to -2dB 28GHz: 0 to -7dB Antenna gain and beamforming 3.5GHz: +6dB 28GHz: +9dB Rx effective antenna area 3.5GHz: -6dB 28GHz: -24dB
  4. 4. ✱ COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE 4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 Butthehigherfrequenciesalsoallowhigherantenna gainstobegeneratedwithoutincreasingphysical antennasize.5Gcanutilizetheseincreasedantenna gainsthroughbeamformingbothatthetransmitter andatthereceiver,whichhelpsmitigatetheimpact oncoverageathigherfrequencies. Additionally,increasingthefrequencywillallow theantennastobecomesmallerwhilemaintaining thesameantennagain.Itisimportanttonotethat anyfixed-gainantennainreceivingmodeactually captures20dBlessenergyforeachtenfoldincrease ofthefrequency.Thisisoftenmisunderstoodasa propagationloss,wheninrealityitisaresultofa decreasingeffectiveantennaarea.Ifthephysical antennaareaoftheantennaismaintained,itspower capturecapabilitiesbecomeindependentof frequency,whileitsantennagain,forbothreception andtransmission,growswiththefrequencyatthe sametimeasthebeamwidthbecomessmaller. Thus,athigherfrequencies,thereisatrade-off betweenreducingtheantennasizeandincreasing theantennagain.Coverageandimplementation aspectsdeterminethesweetspot. Theachievableoutputpowerathigherfrequency bandssuchasmmWavefrequenciescanalsobe limitedbypoweramplifiertechnologyandby regulatoryrequirements[4].Theoretically,the antennagainofafixed-sizetransmittingantenna wouldgrowby20dBperdecadeinfrequency (dB/decade),butinpracticetheincreaseinEIRP (effectiveisotropicradiatedpower)maybesmaller duetosuchconstraints. Electromagneticwavepropagationincellular networksinvolvessomeprocessesthatarestrongly frequency-dependent,suchasdiffractionor transmissionthrough,forexample,wallsorfoliage, butalsootherssuchasfreespacepropagationand reflectionorscatteringthatshowlittletono differenceoverfrequency.Effectively,theoutdoor propagationlossissimilarorincreasesslightlywith increasedfrequency,asindicatedinFigure1. Outdoor-to-indoorpropagationlossescanbe challengingtoovercome,especiallyforbuildings equippedwiththermally-efficientwindowglass, whichcanaddupto20-40dBofadditionallossat agivenfrequency.Whenincreasingthefrequency, theoutdoortoindoorlossesalsotendtoincrease, particularlyfordeepindoorlocations.Thisincrease issmalltomoderateforregularbuildingsbutcan bestrongforthermally-efficientbuildings, asshowninFigure1. Thehigherpropagationlossescanbemitigatedby usinghigh-gainantennasonbothtransmittersand receivers.Theseantennasbecomedirective,forming beamswithstronggainincertaindirections,andlow gaininotherdirections.Thebeamsneedtobesetup andmaintainedtopointintherightdirectionsin ordertosupportmobility.InNR,thisissupported bybeammanagement.Besidesthebenefitof amplifyingthesignalinthedesireddirection, beamformingalsoattenuatesthesignalinother directions,leadingtolessinterferenceandbetter channelquality.Thiscanbedonetotheextentthat multipleusers,usingdifferentbeams,can communicatewithabasestationonthesame frequencyandtimeresource.Thisisknownas multi-userMIMO(MU-MIMO),anditenables asignificantcapacityimprovement. Evenwithbeamforming,usingexistingsitegrids, itcanbedifficulttoreachfullcoverageonhigher frequencies.Butsincealowerfrequencybandtends tobeavailable,thisisnotaproblem.Usersoutof coverageonthehigherfrequenciessimplyfallback tothelowerfrequencybands.Thiscanbe accomplishedbyinterworkingtechniquessuchas dualconnectivityorcarrieraggregation.Theresult isa‘forgiving’situation,whereamid-orhigh-band deploymentdoesnotneedtobedimensionedfor 100percentcoverage.Instead,itsimplytakes careofthetrafficthatitcovers. Tosummarize,thenumbersinFigure1illustrate thattheuseoftoday’stechnologies,powerlevelsand beamforminggainsonthemidband(3-6GHz) providesbetterdownlink(DL)coveragethan THEHIGHERPROPAGATION LOSSESCANBEMITIGATEDBY USINGHIGH-GAINANTENNAS
  5. 5. COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 the1.8GHzreference.Evenso,usersintheworst positionsrequirethesupportofalowerfrequency band,especiallyintheuplink(UL)direction. Forhighbands(around30GHz),thesituation differssubstantiallyfromthereference.Verygood outdoorcoverageisachievedonexistinggrids. Outdoor-to-indoorcoveragecanbeachievedby targeteddeploymentswithline-of-sighttothe buildingsintendedtobecovered. Measuredbeamformingperformance andoutdoor-incoverage Earlyproofpointsofthe5Gconceptandits performancecanbeobtainedfrommeasurements inaradionetworkprototype.Ericssonhas developed5Gprototypesforseveral5Gfrequencies, including3.5GHzand28GHz.Initialtrial deploymentsaretypicallysetupwithafewradio sitesandoneorafewmobileterminals,allowingfor acontrolledmeasurementenvironment.Testresults onbeamformingperformancearereportedin references[5],[6]and[7].Theresultsdemonstrate thathighantennagainscanindeedberealized throughbeamforming,andthatthebeamforming isabletotrackfast-movinguserswithsustained communicationquality.Moreover,goodindoor coveragecanbeachievedwith5Gat3.5GHz, provingthefeasibilityofdeploying5Gatexisting 4Gsites.Oneexamplefromourmeasurementsis showninFigure2,whereindoorthroughputina buildingatthecelledgereaches200-400Mbps onan80MHzcarrierusingconservativerank-2 MIMOtransmission. THEMIDBAND(3-6GHZ) PROVIDESBETTERDOWNLINK COVERAGETHAN THE1.8GHZREFERENCE Figure 2 5G outdoor-in throughput measurement results from an NR 3.5GHz radio prototype NR prototype base station         128Tx 3.5GHz, 80MHz bandwidth 5W output power NR prototype UE 8Rx Downlink throughput at 3.5GHz > 400Mbps 200-400Mbps 100-200Mbps 50-100Mbps 10-50Mbps 1-10Mbps Out of coverage
  6. 6. ✱ COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE 6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 Predictedurbanmid-bandcoverage andcapacity Topredict5Gcoverageandcapacityonalarger scale,wehaveperformedradionetworksimulations. WechoseapartofcentralLondonwithaninter-site distanceofapproximately400m,whichis representativeofmanyEuropeanurbanareas. Similarstudiesofmajorcitiesinotherpartsofthe world,includingAsiaandtheUS,indicatethatthe findingsfromthisstudyarealsoapplicableinthose scenarios.Radiobasestationcharacteristicssuch asbeamformingcapabilities,powerandsensitivity reflecttheimplementationsofthefirstproduct generations,andterminalsaremodeledwithexpec- tedtypicalsmartphonecharacteristicsformidand highbands.Fourand32receiveantennasareassumed forterminalsinmidandhighbands,respectively. Formaximalfidelity,adigital3Dmapisused togetherwithanaccurate3Dsite-specificpropagation model,explicitlycapturingrelevantpropagation phenomenaalongthepropagationpaths[8]. WehavemodeledLTEsystemsoperatingat 800MHz,1.8GHzand2.6GHz,aswellasanNR systemoperatingat3.5GHz.Thisconfigurationis representativeofthenon-standaloneversionofNR thatwasdevelopedin3GPPRel-15.TheLTEsystem usesFDD,2x10MHzat800MHzand2x20MHz ateachof1.8GHzand2.6GHzaddingupto100MHz pairedspectrum,andregularsectorantennas. TheNRsystemusesTDD,100MHzofunpaired spectrum,anda64T64Rantennaarrayof8x8cross- polarizedantennas.Weapplieduser-specificdigital beamforming,andMU-MIMOwithmultiplexingof uptofourusersissupportedbothintheDLandUL. WhenLTEandNRsystemsareevaluatedtogether, carrieraggregationbetweenLTEsystemsanddual connectivitybetweenLTEandNRcarriers areappliedfortheinterworking.Althoughnot consideredinthisevaluation,thereareseveral interestingpossibilitiestoevolvetheLTEsystems –withmoreadvancedantennas,forexample. Figure3showsDLandULcoverageinterms ofachievabledataratesinanunloadednetwork withoutinterference.Eightypercentofusersare indoors,andtheyareshownonlyfrommiddlefloors. WhenexistingLTErooftopsitesarereusedwith 3.5GHz,bothindoorandoutdoorusershavevery goodcoverageintheDL.Theblacklineinthe colorbarindicatesthat95percentoftheindoor subscribershavecoveragefor200MbpsintheDL comparedwith50Mbpswhenaggregatingall LTEsystems(notshowninthefigure).Inaddition, 95percentofoutdooruserscanexceed500Mbps intheDLwithNR3.5GHzalone.TheULismuch morelimitedwith3.5GHzalone.NR-LTE interworkingimproves,andmanyoftheblankspots inthe3.5GHzbandarecovered.Theremaining areaswithpoorcoverageareconcentratedtoinside largebuildingswithhigh-lossouterwalls.These buildingsaresuitablecandidatesforindoor deployments.Comparingthegainsfromadding 3.5GHzintheDLandUL,itisclearthatthegains arelargerintheDL.ThisisduetoaDL-heavy TDDasymmetry(75percent)at3.5GHz, andthefactthattheUL,becauseofthelower transmitpower,ismorepower-limitedandthus gainslessfromadditionalbandwidth. Whentrafficloadincreases,moreusersareactive simultaneously,sharingthebasestationcapacity, causingincreasedinterferencelevels,andleadingto areductioninuserthroughputcomparedwiththe unloadedcase.Theseeffectsaremitigatedbythe 〉〉 Better user data speeds – 95 percent of indoor subscribers have more than 200Mbps with today’s typical site grids. 〉〉 Higher capacity – adding NR 100MHz TDD (75 percent DL) on top of LTE with 2x50MHz paired spectrum provides an eight times higher DL capacity than using only LTE. Normalized with the 1.5 times higher spectrum usage, NR is thus five times more efficient. BENEFITSOFOVERLAYING5G NR3.5GHZATEXISTINGSITES
  7. 7. COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7 NRsystem,usingawiderbandwidth,beamforming andMU-MIMO.Theabilitytoserveusersinpoor coverageareasonalowerbandavoidsthe consumptionofextensiveresourcesonthe 3.5GHzband,makingitmoreefficient.Toquantify thebenefitofintroducingNR,wemeasuredthe maximumtrafficloadforwhich(95percentof) theusersstillachieveauserthroughputexceeding 20Mbps.WhenaddingNRintheDLdirection, thismaximumtrafficloador‘capacity’increases byafactorofeightfrom1Gbps/km2 to8Gbps/km2 (correspondingto135GB/subscriber/month, assuming10,000subscribersperkm2 andabusy hourtrafficof8percentofthedailytraffic).IntheUL direction,thecapacitygainissmallerthantheDL duetoTDDasymmetry(25percentfortheUL)and alowertransmitpower.Thecapacitygainsobserved herearetypicalforalow-riseurbanscenariowith decentcoverage.Thegainsarescenario-dependent andtypicallyincreasewithimprovedcoverageand increasedverticalspreadofusers,anddecreasewith worsecoverageandasmallerverticalspread. Figure 3 DL and UL coverage maps. The black line in the color legends represents the fifth percentile of an indoor user data rate, and the purple areas indicate antenna positions. The white circles mark indoor areas with limited coverage, improved by interworking. 200Mbps 50-200Mbps 20-50Mbps 5-10Mbps 2.5-5Mbps 1-2.5Mbps Out of coverage 200Mbps 50-200Mbps 10-50Mbps 5-10Mbps 2.5-5Mbps 1-2.5Mbps Out of coverage 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 Uplink NR 3.5GHz alone Uplink NR LTE interworking -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 400Mbps 200-400Mbps 100-200Mbps 50-100Mbps 10-50Mbps 1-10Mbps Out of coverage 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 Downlink NR 3.5GHz alone
  8. 8. ✱ COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE 8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 Predictedurbanhigh-bandcoverage andcapacity ThewidebandwidthavailableonmmWave spectrumcanprovidefurtherincreaseddatarates andadditionalcapacityontopofthecombined 3.5GHzmid-bandNRandLTEsystem.Higher frequenciesallowahighergainofantennaarrayat thesamephysicalarea–bothinabasestationand atauserterminalside–soastoincreasethe maximumantennagain. SimulationstudiesinthecentralLondonscenario showthatanNR200MHzTDDsystemat26GHz withthe256T256Rantennaarrayof16x16cross- polarizedantennascanprovideverygoodDL coveragetooutdoorusers–forexample,50-60 percentapproaching1Gbps.Withlargerspectrum allocationssuchas400MHz,itispossibletoreach multi-Gbpsspeeds.Whenthereisline-of-sightfrom thebasestationtoabuildingandthebuildingisa low-losstype,thereisalsoagoodchancethat indooruserswillbewellcovered. Ourresultsshowthatdeployingthe3.5GHzand 26GHzbandonexistingmacrositescanprovide acapacityimprovementofapproximately10times comparedwiththeLTEsystemsinlowandmid bands.Thisadditionalgainisbecause26GHz offloadsthelowerfrequencybandsbylettinggood- coverageusersutilizeanadditional200MHz, whichtherebyimprovesoverallperformance. ApplyingmmWavespectrumatstreet-levelsites canalsobeagoodalternative.Byplacingantennas onlampposts,outerwallsandthelike,itispossible toavoidtypicaldiffractionlossesfromrooftopsand achieveshorterdistancestousersonoutdoor hotspotsorintargetedbuildings.Oursimulation studiesintheLondonscenarioindicatethatthe street-levelradiodeploymentofanNRsystemwith 64T64Rantennaarrayprovidesgoodcoverageboth innearbyoutdoorareasandforindoorusersinlow- lossbuildingswithline-of-sighttothebasestation. Suburbanandruraldeploymentconsiderations Despitethetypicallylargercellsinsuburbanand ruralscenarios,itispossibletoachievesimilarresults tothosethatwehaveseeninurbanscenariosdueto differencesintheradiopropagation.Whiletheurban environmentischaracterizedbyrelativelylow antennas,frequentlargeobstaclesandlarge, highly attenuatingbuildings,thesuburbanandrural environmentshavetallerantennas,fewerobstacles andsmallersizedbuildingswithwalltypesthat areeasiertopenetrate.Thiscompensatesforthe differencesincellrange,andasaresultitistypical toachieveverygoodperformanceinsuburban andruralscenariosaswell. Indoordeployments In-buildingdeploymentsplayacentralrolein providinggoodindoorperformanceinmanypartsof theworldtoday.Largebuildingswithhighbuilding entrylossesareanexampleofacoverage-driven in-buildingdeployment,whereasacrowded publicvenuelikeatrainstationorastadium APPLYINGMMWAVE SPECTRUMATSTREET-LEVEL SITESCANALSOBEAGOOD ALTERNATIVE
  9. 9. COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 9 wouldbeagoodexampleofacapacity-drivenone. Passivedistributedantennasystems(DASs)are currentlythemostcommonsolutionusedfor indoordeployments. ThehardwarecomponentsofapassiveDASoften haveanoperatingfrequencyrangethatislimitedto bandsbelow3GHz,whichmeansthataddingthe newNRmidorhighbandsrequiresanew5Gindoor solution.Aradiodot[9]solutionat3.5GHzprovides goodcoverageandmuchhigherspeedsthancurrent LTEbandsatthesameradionodedensity,aswellas consuminglesspowerthanaDAS.Forextreme demandsintermsofuserspeedsorcapacity,an indoorsolutionbasedonmmWavesmallcellsmight bethebestchoice.Inthiscase,itisimportantto deployamid-bandcoveragecomplement. Conclusion Thekeybenefitsofdeploying5GNewRadiowith midbands(3-6GHz)atexisting4Gsitesarethat doingsoresultsinasignificantperformanceboost andallowsformaximalreuseofsiteinfrastructure investments.ByaddingNRwith100MHzunpaired spectrum,itispossibletoachieveeighttimeshigher downlinkcapacityrelativetoLTE(2x50MHzpaired spectrum)alongwithimproveddownlinkdatarates –bothoutdoorsandindoors–bymeansofmassive MIMOtechniquessuchasbeamformingand multi-userMIMO.Uplinkcoveragedeepindoors ismaintainedthroughinterworkingwithLTE and/orNRonlowbandsusingdualconnectivity orcarrieraggregation(new,refarmedorbyusing LTE/NRspectrumsharing).Asaresultofthese possibilitiesin5GNR,growingdatademands canbemetwithlimitedsitedensification. Furtherspeedandcapacityincreasescanbe attainedbydeploying5GNRathighbands (26-40GHz),alsoknownasmmWaves.Thehigh bandsareparticularlyeffectiveoutdoorsandinside buildingswithline-of-sightfromthedeployedradio nodeandwithlowwalllossproperties.Buildings thathaveorneeddedicatedindoorsolutionsdueto highpenetrationlossandinteriorlossescanbe successfullyupgradedwithupcomingNRbands forhigherspeedsandcapacityatsimilarradionode densitytothoseusedforLTEin-building deploymentstoday. Terms and abbreviations DAS – Distributed Antenna System | DL – Downlink | IRR – Infrared Reflective | MBB – Mobile Broadband | MIMO – Multiple-input, Multiple-output | mmWave – Millimeter Wave | MU-MIMO – Multi-User Multiple-input, Multiple-output | NR – New Radio | RAN – Radio Access Network | Rx – Radio Receiver | Tx – Radio Transmitter | UL – Uplink ITISPOSSIBLETOACHIEVE EIGHTTIMESHIGHERDOWNLINK CAPACITYRELATIVETOLTE
  10. 10. ✱ COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE 10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 Further reading ❭❭ 5Gdeploymentconsiderations,availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/en/networks/trending/insights-and- reports/5g-deployment-considerations ❭❭ MassiveMIMOincreasingcapacityandspectralefficiency,availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/en/ networks/trending/hot-topics/5g-radio-access/massive-mimo ❭❭ GoingmassivewithMIMO,availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/en/news/2018/1/massive-mimo-highlights ❭❭ Superiorindoorcoveragewith5GRadioDot,availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/en/networks/ offerings/5g/5g-supreme-indoor-coverage References 1. EricssonMobilityReport,June2018,availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/reports/june-2018 2. EricssonConsumerLabreport,LiberationfromLocation,October2014,availableat: https://www.ericsson. com/res/docs/2014/consumerlab/liberation-from-location-ericsson-consumerlab.pdf 3. 5GNR:TheNextGenerationWirelessAccessTechnology,1stEdition,August2018,Dahlman,E;Parkvall, S;Sköld,J,availableat:https://www.elsevier.com/books/5g-nr-the-next-generation-wireless-access-technology/ dahlman/978-0-12-814323-0 4. GSMA,5G,theInternetofThings(IoT)andWearableDevices:Whatdothenewusesofwirelesstechnologies meanforradiofrequencyexposure?,September2017,availableat:https://www.gsma.com/publicpolicy/wp- content/uploads/2017/10/5g_iot_web_FINAL.pdf 5. IEEE,BeamformingGainMeasuredona5GTest-Bed,June2017,Furuskog,J;Halvarsson,B;Harada,A;Itoh, S;Kishiyama,Y;Kurita,D;Murai,H;Simonsson,A;Tateishi,K;Thurfjell,M;Wallin,S,availableat:https:// ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8108648/ 6. IEEE,High-SpeedBeamTrackingDemonstratedUsinga28GHz5GTrialSystem,September2017,Chana,R; Choi,C;Halvarsson,B;Jo,S;Larsson,K;Manssour,J;Na,M;Singh,D,availableat: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ document/8288043/ 7. IEEE,5GNRTestbed3.5GHzCoverageResults,June2018,Asplund,H;Chana,R;Elgcrona,A;Halvarsson,B; Machado,P;Simonsson,A,availableat:https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8417704/ 8. Proceedingsofthe12thEuropeanConferenceonAntennasandPropagation(EuCAP2018),Asetof propagationmodelsforsite-specificpredictions,April2018,Asplund,H;Johansson,M;Lundevall,M;Jaldén,N, 9. EricssonRadioDotSystem,availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/ourportfolio/radio-system/radio-dot-system
  11. 11. COMBINING 5G NR WITH LTE ✱ OCTOBER 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 11 theauthors Fredric Kronestedt ◆ joined Ericsson in 1993 to work on RAN research. Since then he has taken on manydifferentroles, includingsystem design and system management. He currently serves as Expert, Radio Network Deployment Strategies, at Development Unit Networks, where he focuses on radio network deployment and evolution aspects for 4G and 5G. Kronestedt holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Henrik Asplund ◆ received his M.Sc. in engineering physics from Uppsala University, Sweden, in 1996, and joined Ericsson the same year. His current positionisMasterResearcher, Antennas and Propagation, at Ericsson Research, with responsibility for propagation measurements and modeling within the company and in cooperation with external organizations such as 3GPP and ITU-R. He has been involved in propagation research supporting predevelopment and standardization of all major wireless technologies from 2G to 5G. Kenneth Wallstedt ◆ is Director, Technology Strategy, in Ericsson’s CTO office, where he focuses on the company’s radio and spectrum management strategy. He joined Ericsson in 1990 and since then he has held various leading positions in Ericsson’s research, development and market units in Canada, Sweden and the US. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Du Ho Kang ◆ joined Ericsson Research in 2014 and currently serves as a Senior Researcher. He holds a Ph.D. in radio communication systems from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, and an M.Sc. in electrical and electronics engineering from Seoul National University, South Korea. His expertise is concept developments of 4G/5G radio networks and performance evaluation toward diverse international standardizationandspectrum regulation bodies including 3GPP RAN, CBRS alliance, Multifire alliance (MFA), ETSI BRAN and ITU-R. Kang’s particular interest at present is developingsolution conceptsforinternetworking and massive MIMO for 5G base station products. Magnus Lundevall ◆ is Expert, Radio Network Performance, in Ericsson’s RD organization, where he currently focuses on 5G radio network deployment and evolution strategies. He joined Ericsson in 1998 and has 20 years of experience in radio network modeling, simulation and performance analysis. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Anders Furuskär ◆ joined Ericsson Research in 1997 and is currently a senior expert focusing on radio resource management and performance evaluation of wireless networks. He holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering and a Ph.D. in radio communications systems, both from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Saknar bild på Du Ho Kang
  12. 12. ISSN 0014-0171 284 23-3319 | Uen © Ericsson AB 2018 Ericsson SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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