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Ericsson Technology Review: issue 2, 2020

Ericsson
Ericsson

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL REALITIES The key role that connectivity plays in our personal and professional lives has never been more obvious than it is today. Thankfully, despite the sudden, dramatic changes in our behavior earlier this year, networks all around the world have proven to be highly resilient. At Ericsson, we’re committed to ensuring that the network platform continues to improve its ability to meet the full range of societal needs as well as supporting enterprises to stay competitive in the long term. We know that greater agility and speed will be essential. This issue of our magazine includes several articles that explain Ericsson’s approach to future network development, including my annual technology trends article. The seven trends on this year’s list serve as a critical cornerstone in the development of a common Ericsson vision of what future networks will provide, and what sort of technology evolution will be required to get there. ERIK EKUDDEN Senior Vice President, Chief Technology Officer and Head of Group Function Technology

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ERICSSON
TECHNOLOGY
C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | V O L U M E 1 0 2 I 2 0 2 0 – 0 2
CTOTECHTRENDS
CREATINGINTELLIGENT
DIGITALINFRASTRUCTURE
INTEGRATEDACCESS
ANDBACKHAUL
IN5GNRNETWORKS
CRITICALIOT
CONNECTIVITY
FORINDUSTRY
 Ericsson Technology Review: issue 2, 2020
#02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5
CONTENTS ✱
08	 5G BSS: EVOLVING BSS TO FIT THE 5G ECONOMY
Managing complex IOT value chains and supporting new business
models requires more sophisticated business support systems (BSS)
than those that communication service providers have used in the past.
5G-evolved BSS enable smooth collaboration between connectivity
providers, service creators, partners, suppliers and others.
20	 OPTIMIZING UICC MODULES FOR IOT APPLICATIONS
The ability to deliver low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) devices on a mass scale
is at risk of being hampered by the high cost of the universal integrated circuit cards (UICC)
currently required to provide connectivity. Until a less costly alternative becomes available,
the IoT requires workarounds that either lower device cost or justify the price of UICCs
by leveraging more of their capabilities.
40	 THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING: HIGHLY DISTRIBUTED
WITH HETEROGENEOUS HARDWARE
Cloud computing is being shaped by the combination of the growing popularity
of distributed solutions and increased reliance on heterogeneous hardware capabilities.
As the role of distributed computing in cloud computing continues to expand, network
operators, who have large, distributed systems already in place, have a golden opportunity
to become major cloud players.
52	 CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY – IDEAL FOR
TIME-CRITICAL INDUSTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS
Critical IoT connectivity is ideal for a wide range of Internet of Things
use cases across most industry verticals. Mobile network operators
are uniquely positioned to address the time-critical communication
needs of individual users, enterprises and public institutions by
leveraging their existing assets and new technologies in a
systematic fashion.
64	 INTEGRATED ACCESS AND BACKHAUL
– A NEW TYPE OF WIRELESS BACKHAUL IN 5G
Integrated access and backhaul (IAB) is an advanced concept in 5G that shows significant
promise in addressing the challenge of wireless backhaul of street sites. IAB has several
advantages compared with other backhaul technologies, and if used properly, it could
become an essential backhaul solution for 5G NR networks.
	FEATURE ARTICLE
Future network trends: Creating intelligent
digital infrastructure
Thevisionofafullydigitalized,automatedandprogrammableworldofconnected
humans, machines, things and places is well on its way to becoming a reality.
Inhisannualtechnologytrendsarticle,ourCTOErikEkuddenexplainstheseven
technology trends that are most relevant to the network platform’s evolution
to become the platform for innovation to meet any societal or industrial need.
30
30
20
Customer and partner interaction
BSS exposure layer
Order capture and fulfillmentCatalog
Charging Mediation BillingBilling
Party
management
Intelligence
management
= Decoupling and integration
08
Gaming
AR/VRB
E-MBB
Automotive
Network slices
Internet of
Things
Fixed access
Manufacturing
APP
SmartNICs
PMEM
HW capability
exposures
Access sites (edge cloud)
Central sites
Public clouds
Distributed sites
(edge/regional cloud) xNF: telco Virtual Network Function or
Cloud-native Network Function
APP: Third-party application
HW capability
control
Business
intent
Zero-touch orchestration
APP
APP
APP APP APP
APP
xNF
xNF
APP
xNF xNF
APP
xNF
xNF
xNF
xNF
xNF
40
52	
64
#02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020
EDITORIAL ✱
Ericsson Technology Review brings you
insights into some of the key emerging
innovations that are shaping the
future of ICT. Our aim is to encourage
an open discussion about the potential,
practicalities, and benefits of a wide range
of technical developments, and provide
insight into what the future has to offer.
a d d r e s s
Ericsson
SE -164 83 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 8 719 00 00
p u b l i s h i n g
All material and articles are published on the
Ericsson Technology Review website:
www.ericsson.com/ericsson-technology-review
p u b l i s h e r
Erik Ekudden
e d i t o r
Tanis Bestland (Nordic Morning)
e d i t o r i a l b o a r d
Håkan Andersson, Magnus Buhrgard,
Dan Fahrman, John Fornehed, Kjell Gustafsson,
Jonas Högberg, Johan Lundsjö,
Mats Norin, Håkan Olofsson, Patrik Roseen,
Anders Rosengren, Robert Skog,
Gunnar Thrysin and Sara Kullman
f e at u r e a r t i c l e
Future network trends:
Creating intelligent digital infrastructure
by Erik Ekudden
a r t d i r e c t o r
Liselotte Stjernberg (Nordic Morning)
p r o j e c t m a n a g e r
Susanna O’Grady (Nordic Morning)
l ay o u t
Liselotte Stjernberg (Nordic Morning)
i l l u s t r at i o n s
Jenny Andersén (Nordic Morning)
s u b e d i t o r s
Ian Nicholson (Nordic Morning)
Paul Eade (Nordic Morning)
i s s n : 0 0 1 4 - 0 17 1
Volume: 102, 2020
■ the key role that connectivity plays in our daily
lives has never been more obvious – not only for
each of us as individuals but also for countless
enterprises around the globe. Thankfully, despite
the sudden, dramatic changes in our behavior in
early 2020, networks all around the world have
proven to be highly resilient.
At Ericsson, we’re committed to ensuring that the
network platform continues to improve its ability
to meet the full range of societal needs as well as
supporting enterprises to stay competitive in the
long term. The ability to bridge distances and make
it easier to efficiently meet needs in terms of resource
utilization, collaboration, competence transfer, status
verification, privacy protection, security and safety
is of utmost importance. Greater agility and speed
will be essential.
My 2020 technology trends article, on page 30
of this issue of the magazine, explains my view
of the ongoing evolution of the network platform
in terms of the key needs that are driving its
evolution and the emerging capabilities that
will meet both those and other needs.
The first three trends all relate to bridging the gap
between physical reality and the digital realm – that is,
delivering sensory experiences and utilizing digital
representations to make the physical world fully
programmable. The emerging capabilities that I have
highlighted this year are non-limiting connectivity,
pervasive network compute fabric, trustworthy
infrastructure and cognitive networks.
BRIDGING THE GAP
BETWEEN PHYSICAL
AND DIGITAL REALITIES
All seven of these trends serve as a cornerstone in
the development of a common Ericsson vision of
what future networks will provide, and what sort of
technology evolution will be required to get there.
This issue of the magazine also includes five
additional articles highlighting some of our
latest research in the areas of cloud computing,
the Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G advancements.
The cloud computing article is particularly
noteworthy, as it explains how we think network
operators can best manage the complexity of
future cloud deployments and overcome
technical challenges.
The first IoT article in this issue explains how critical
IoT connectivity can be used to address time-critical
needs in areas such as industrial control, mobility
automation, remote control and real-time media,
while the second one tackles the challenge that
today’s universal integrated circuit cards (UICC)
present to IoT growth.
With regard to 5G advancements, our BSS
article explores how 5G-evolved BSS can help
communication service providers transform
themselves from traditional network developers
to service enablers and ultimately service creators.
Another exciting 5G advancement that we present
in this issue is integrated access and backhaul (IAB),
an innovative concept that shows significant promise
in addressing the challenge of wireless backhaul of
street sites.
We hope you enjoy this issue of our magazine
and we’d be delighted if you share it with your
colleagues and business partners. You can find
both PDF and HTML versions of all the articles at:
www.ericsson.com/ericsson-technology-review
GREATERAGILITY
ANDSPEEDWILLBE
ESSENTIAL
✱ EDITORIAL
ERIK EKUDDEN
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT,
CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AND
HEAD OF GROUP FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY
8 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 9
5G offers communication service providers an unprecedented opportunity
to enhance their position in the value chain and tap into new revenue
streams in a variety of industry verticals. A successful transition will require
business support systems (BSS) that are evolved to fit the 5G economy.
JAN FRIMAN,
MICHAEL NILSSON,
ELISABETH MUELLER
The rapidly expanding Internet of Things
(IoT) and all the new capabilities available
in 5G have opened up a wealth of opportunities
for communication service providers (CSPs)
beyond their traditional markets, particularly
in verticals such as automotive, health care,
agriculture, energy and manufacturing.
To monetize them, CSPs will need to meet
the expectations of a broader range
of stakeholders and be able to handle
complex ecosystems.
■ One of the primary roles of business support
systems (BSS) is to manage a CSP’s relationships
with its stakeholders by keeping track of
agreements, handling orders, generating reports,
sending invoices and so on. In the past, these
stakeholders were generally limited to consumers,
resellers, partners and suppliers. In the 5G/IoT
business context, though, more complex
ecosystems are arising that BSS must evolve to
support. To do so, the requirements of a larger,
more diverse group of stakeholders must be taken
into account, and mechanisms must be established
to manage the relationships between them.
Examplesofnewstakeholdergroupsthatneed
tobeconsideredinthe5G/IoTbusinesscontext
include:
❭ Enterprises and industry verticals that require
solutions beyond telecoms
❭ New types of suppliers such as IoT device
providers and suppliers of eSIM (embedded
SIM) and related technologies
❭ Platform providers that specialize in specific IoT
or edge clusters or groups of use cases such as
massive and broadband IoT platforms, industrial
IoT platforms and content data networks
❭ Integrators that specialize in specific verticals
such as asset management, mission-critical
services or automotive that combine
capabilities from multiple stakeholders to
address consumer needs.
Networkdeveloper,serviceenabler
orservicecreator?
Lookingahead,thecapabilitiesthataCSPneeds
initsBSSsolutionwilldependontheroleitplays
–oraimstoplay–intheIoTecosystem.Figure1
illustratesthethreeroletypes:networkdeveloper,
serviceenablerandservicecreator.
Inthetraditionalnetworkdeveloperrole,aCSP
actssolelyasacellularconnectivityproviderby
offeringsolutionssuchasradio,corenetworkand
communicationservices.Inthisrole,theCSP’s
businessmodelsareconsumerfocused.Itsrolein
theIoTecosystemislimited.
Intheserviceenablerrole,theCSPextendsits
servicesbyincorporatingadditionalcapabilities
suchascloud/edgeandIoTenablementandshifts
focustobusinesscustomersandindustryverticals.
TheCSPbecomesaserviceenablerfor5Gandthe
IoT,actingasasupplierofconnectivityandplatform
services.Asaserviceenabler,theCSP’sbusiness
5G BSS:
EvolvingBSS
tofitthe
5Geconomy
Figure 1 The evolving role of the CSP in the IoT ecosystem
A) Network developer
Customer Customer Customer
CSP
IoT
provider
IoT
providerCSP
SIM
manufacturer
SIM
manufacturer
Device
manufacturer
Device
manufacturer
Device
manufacturerCSP CSP
B) Service enabler C) Service creator
✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱
2 3MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 2020
10 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 1110 11
modelsareextendedtobusiness-customerfocused
withrespectto5GIoT.
Intheservicecreatorrole,theCSPtransitions
frombeingaconnectivityandplatformproviderto
creatingnewdigitalservicesandcollaborating
beyondtelecomstoestablishdigitalvaluesystems.
Asaservicecreator,theCSPpartnerswithsuppliers
todelivernewservicesallthewayuptofullIoT
solutions,takingontherolesofintegrator,
distributororco-seller.
BSSforallthreeCSProles
TraditionalBSSsupporttheCSPinthenetwork
developerrole,inwhichtheCSPchargesforvoice,
textanddataservicesbasedonconsumptionor
subscriptionlevel.Themainrequirementsfor
theseBSSare:
❭ Customer management, traditional partner
business (roaming partners), charging and
billing, and finance modules
❭ Order capture and order execution for new
telco subscriptions and/or add-on offerings
❭ Charging and balance/quota management
in BSS, as well as mediation
❭ Interaction with operations support systems
(OSS) for network provisioning.
EvolvingBSStosupportaCSPinaserviceenabler
rolerequiresashiftinfocustotheneedsof
enterprisecustomersandIoTusecases.TheBSS
mustbetransformedintoasystemthatisableto
monetizeIoT/5Gplatformsandedgedeployments,
whichrequiressignificantchangesinboththe
functionalandnon-functionalspace.Inthenon-
functionalspace,thismainlyinvolvesscalability
telecoms,sothatpartnerscandeveloptailored
applicationsanddeploythemontheoperator’s
infrastructure.
Finally,thenewbusinessmodelsavailableto
CSPsasservicecreatorsrequirenewmonetization
modelsforchargingandbilling.Forexample,
multipartycharging,revenuesharingandprofit
sharingallrequireextendedbillingand
reconciliationfunctionality.
BSSsolutionlevelsandkeycapabilities
Table1organizesandsequenceskeyBSS
capabilitiesbasedontechnicaldependenciesand/or
levelofcomplexity.Onebyone,thesecapabilities
–thatis,enablingtheBSStohandletrafficand
alargenumberofdevicesatIoTscale.
Intermsoffunctionality,theBSSenhancements
requiredbyserviceenablersinclude:
❭ Automation of full life-cycle management for
devices/IoT resources supported by flexible
orchestration, including exposure of services
for managing relationships with business
customers
❭ Support for batch orchestration, flexible supply
agreements and contracts for non-telco
services with associated charging models
❭ Service exposure of network capabilities, so
that IoT providers can bundle their offerings
with connectivity and sell them on to their
customers
❭ Service exposure of BSS and OSS capabilities
to enable efficient ordering processes,
especially with regard to the management of
mass subscriptions.
SupportingaCSPintheservicecreatorrole,where
thefulllifecycleofpartnersmustbetakeninto
account,requiresBSSwithfurtherfunctional
extensions.Thestakeholderecosystemofservice
creatorsissignificantlymorecomplex,asthe
customerbasebroadenstoincludeverticalsandthe
CSPstartsofferingfullsolutionsbeyondtelecoms.
Asaresult,BSSforservicecreatorsmustinclude
extensiveandflexiblepartnerrelationship
management.Supplychainmanagementis
especiallyimportant.
Thecapacitytoexposenetworkcapabilityaswell
asBSSandOSScapabilitiesiscriticallyimportantto
aCSP’sabilitytodeliveronservicecreationbeyond
Terms and abbreviations
API – Application Programming Interface | BSS – Business Support Systems | CSP – Communication
Service Provider | IoT – Internet of Things | ODA – Open Digital Architecture | OSS – Operations Support
Systems | SBI – Service-Based Interface | SDK – Software Development Kit | SLA – Service Level Agreement
BSS solution level Capabilities
5G enabled • 5Gservice-basedinterface(SBI)support(chargingfunction)
• NetworkslicingsupportinBSSandOSS
• Classicroamingpartners
• Containerizationandmicroservices
• Commontechnologystack
IOT and edge
monetization
• IDmanagementandcorrelation
• Life-cyclemanagementforIoTdevices
• Businesscustomerand5G/IoTenterprisemanagement
• Charginginmultilevelhierarchies
• Supplyagreements
• Flexibleorchestrationoforderingprocesses
• Serviceexposurefordevicemanagement
• OpenAPIexposure
• Continuousintegration/continuousdelivery(CI/CD)forserviceexposure
• Enterpriseself-care
• Multipartychargingandbest-effortcharging
• Privatenetworks
• Platformpartnerships
• Contractfornon-telcoservices(IoT/edgeenabled)
• Chargingmodelsfornon-telcoservices
• Multi-tenancy
• Chargingandbillingonbehalfof
• Location-awareservices
• Blockchainforsmartcontracting
• ServiceLevelAgreement(SLA)management
Full 5G ecosystem • Partnerrelationshipmanagement
• Partnercatalog
• Partnerrevenuesharing
• Reconciliationandsettlement
• Flexiblebilling
• Platformasaserviceanddistributedcloud
• Edgeplatformservices
• Multi-accessedgecomputing(MEC)
• BSSasaservice
• Continuousmonitoring
• Artificialintelligenceandmachine-learningautomation
• CI/CD
Table 1 Key capabilities of the three BSS solution levels
✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱
4 5MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 2020

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Ericsson Technology Review: issue 2, 2020

  • 1. ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | V O L U M E 1 0 2 I 2 0 2 0 – 0 2 CTOTECHTRENDS CREATINGINTELLIGENT DIGITALINFRASTRUCTURE INTEGRATEDACCESS ANDBACKHAUL IN5GNRNETWORKS CRITICALIOT CONNECTIVITY FORINDUSTRY
  • 3. #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 CONTENTS ✱ 08 5G BSS: EVOLVING BSS TO FIT THE 5G ECONOMY Managing complex IOT value chains and supporting new business models requires more sophisticated business support systems (BSS) than those that communication service providers have used in the past. 5G-evolved BSS enable smooth collaboration between connectivity providers, service creators, partners, suppliers and others. 20 OPTIMIZING UICC MODULES FOR IOT APPLICATIONS The ability to deliver low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) devices on a mass scale is at risk of being hampered by the high cost of the universal integrated circuit cards (UICC) currently required to provide connectivity. Until a less costly alternative becomes available, the IoT requires workarounds that either lower device cost or justify the price of UICCs by leveraging more of their capabilities. 40 THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING: HIGHLY DISTRIBUTED WITH HETEROGENEOUS HARDWARE Cloud computing is being shaped by the combination of the growing popularity of distributed solutions and increased reliance on heterogeneous hardware capabilities. As the role of distributed computing in cloud computing continues to expand, network operators, who have large, distributed systems already in place, have a golden opportunity to become major cloud players. 52 CRITICAL IOT CONNECTIVITY – IDEAL FOR TIME-CRITICAL INDUSTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS Critical IoT connectivity is ideal for a wide range of Internet of Things use cases across most industry verticals. Mobile network operators are uniquely positioned to address the time-critical communication needs of individual users, enterprises and public institutions by leveraging their existing assets and new technologies in a systematic fashion. 64 INTEGRATED ACCESS AND BACKHAUL – A NEW TYPE OF WIRELESS BACKHAUL IN 5G Integrated access and backhaul (IAB) is an advanced concept in 5G that shows significant promise in addressing the challenge of wireless backhaul of street sites. IAB has several advantages compared with other backhaul technologies, and if used properly, it could become an essential backhaul solution for 5G NR networks. FEATURE ARTICLE Future network trends: Creating intelligent digital infrastructure Thevisionofafullydigitalized,automatedandprogrammableworldofconnected humans, machines, things and places is well on its way to becoming a reality. Inhisannualtechnologytrendsarticle,ourCTOErikEkuddenexplainstheseven technology trends that are most relevant to the network platform’s evolution to become the platform for innovation to meet any societal or industrial need. 30 30 20 Customer and partner interaction BSS exposure layer Order capture and fulfillmentCatalog Charging Mediation BillingBilling Party management Intelligence management = Decoupling and integration 08 Gaming AR/VRB E-MBB Automotive Network slices Internet of Things Fixed access Manufacturing APP SmartNICs PMEM HW capability exposures Access sites (edge cloud) Central sites Public clouds Distributed sites (edge/regional cloud) xNF: telco Virtual Network Function or Cloud-native Network Function APP: Third-party application HW capability control Business intent Zero-touch orchestration APP APP APP APP APP APP xNF xNF APP xNF xNF APP xNF xNF xNF xNF xNF 40 52 64
  • 4. #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 EDITORIAL ✱ Ericsson Technology Review brings you insights into some of the key emerging innovations that are shaping the future of ICT. Our aim is to encourage an open discussion about the potential, practicalities, and benefits of a wide range of technical developments, and provide insight into what the future has to offer. a d d r e s s Ericsson SE -164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 8 719 00 00 p u b l i s h i n g All material and articles are published on the Ericsson Technology Review website: www.ericsson.com/ericsson-technology-review p u b l i s h e r Erik Ekudden e d i t o r Tanis Bestland (Nordic Morning) e d i t o r i a l b o a r d Håkan Andersson, Magnus Buhrgard, Dan Fahrman, John Fornehed, Kjell Gustafsson, Jonas Högberg, Johan Lundsjö, Mats Norin, Håkan Olofsson, Patrik Roseen, Anders Rosengren, Robert Skog, Gunnar Thrysin and Sara Kullman f e at u r e a r t i c l e Future network trends: Creating intelligent digital infrastructure by Erik Ekudden a r t d i r e c t o r Liselotte Stjernberg (Nordic Morning) p r o j e c t m a n a g e r Susanna O’Grady (Nordic Morning) l ay o u t Liselotte Stjernberg (Nordic Morning) i l l u s t r at i o n s Jenny Andersén (Nordic Morning) s u b e d i t o r s Ian Nicholson (Nordic Morning) Paul Eade (Nordic Morning) i s s n : 0 0 1 4 - 0 17 1 Volume: 102, 2020 ■ the key role that connectivity plays in our daily lives has never been more obvious – not only for each of us as individuals but also for countless enterprises around the globe. Thankfully, despite the sudden, dramatic changes in our behavior in early 2020, networks all around the world have proven to be highly resilient. At Ericsson, we’re committed to ensuring that the network platform continues to improve its ability to meet the full range of societal needs as well as supporting enterprises to stay competitive in the long term. The ability to bridge distances and make it easier to efficiently meet needs in terms of resource utilization, collaboration, competence transfer, status verification, privacy protection, security and safety is of utmost importance. Greater agility and speed will be essential. My 2020 technology trends article, on page 30 of this issue of the magazine, explains my view of the ongoing evolution of the network platform in terms of the key needs that are driving its evolution and the emerging capabilities that will meet both those and other needs. The first three trends all relate to bridging the gap between physical reality and the digital realm – that is, delivering sensory experiences and utilizing digital representations to make the physical world fully programmable. The emerging capabilities that I have highlighted this year are non-limiting connectivity, pervasive network compute fabric, trustworthy infrastructure and cognitive networks. BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL REALITIES All seven of these trends serve as a cornerstone in the development of a common Ericsson vision of what future networks will provide, and what sort of technology evolution will be required to get there. This issue of the magazine also includes five additional articles highlighting some of our latest research in the areas of cloud computing, the Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G advancements. The cloud computing article is particularly noteworthy, as it explains how we think network operators can best manage the complexity of future cloud deployments and overcome technical challenges. The first IoT article in this issue explains how critical IoT connectivity can be used to address time-critical needs in areas such as industrial control, mobility automation, remote control and real-time media, while the second one tackles the challenge that today’s universal integrated circuit cards (UICC) present to IoT growth. With regard to 5G advancements, our BSS article explores how 5G-evolved BSS can help communication service providers transform themselves from traditional network developers to service enablers and ultimately service creators. Another exciting 5G advancement that we present in this issue is integrated access and backhaul (IAB), an innovative concept that shows significant promise in addressing the challenge of wireless backhaul of street sites. We hope you enjoy this issue of our magazine and we’d be delighted if you share it with your colleagues and business partners. You can find both PDF and HTML versions of all the articles at: www.ericsson.com/ericsson-technology-review GREATERAGILITY ANDSPEEDWILLBE ESSENTIAL ✱ EDITORIAL ERIK EKUDDEN SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AND HEAD OF GROUP FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY
  • 5. 8 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 9 5G offers communication service providers an unprecedented opportunity to enhance their position in the value chain and tap into new revenue streams in a variety of industry verticals. A successful transition will require business support systems (BSS) that are evolved to fit the 5G economy. JAN FRIMAN, MICHAEL NILSSON, ELISABETH MUELLER The rapidly expanding Internet of Things (IoT) and all the new capabilities available in 5G have opened up a wealth of opportunities for communication service providers (CSPs) beyond their traditional markets, particularly in verticals such as automotive, health care, agriculture, energy and manufacturing. To monetize them, CSPs will need to meet the expectations of a broader range of stakeholders and be able to handle complex ecosystems. ■ One of the primary roles of business support systems (BSS) is to manage a CSP’s relationships with its stakeholders by keeping track of agreements, handling orders, generating reports, sending invoices and so on. In the past, these stakeholders were generally limited to consumers, resellers, partners and suppliers. In the 5G/IoT business context, though, more complex ecosystems are arising that BSS must evolve to support. To do so, the requirements of a larger, more diverse group of stakeholders must be taken into account, and mechanisms must be established to manage the relationships between them. Examplesofnewstakeholdergroupsthatneed tobeconsideredinthe5G/IoTbusinesscontext include: ❭ Enterprises and industry verticals that require solutions beyond telecoms ❭ New types of suppliers such as IoT device providers and suppliers of eSIM (embedded SIM) and related technologies ❭ Platform providers that specialize in specific IoT or edge clusters or groups of use cases such as massive and broadband IoT platforms, industrial IoT platforms and content data networks ❭ Integrators that specialize in specific verticals such as asset management, mission-critical services or automotive that combine capabilities from multiple stakeholders to address consumer needs. Networkdeveloper,serviceenabler orservicecreator? Lookingahead,thecapabilitiesthataCSPneeds initsBSSsolutionwilldependontheroleitplays –oraimstoplay–intheIoTecosystem.Figure1 illustratesthethreeroletypes:networkdeveloper, serviceenablerandservicecreator. Inthetraditionalnetworkdeveloperrole,aCSP actssolelyasacellularconnectivityproviderby offeringsolutionssuchasradio,corenetworkand communicationservices.Inthisrole,theCSP’s businessmodelsareconsumerfocused.Itsrolein theIoTecosystemislimited. Intheserviceenablerrole,theCSPextendsits servicesbyincorporatingadditionalcapabilities suchascloud/edgeandIoTenablementandshifts focustobusinesscustomersandindustryverticals. TheCSPbecomesaserviceenablerfor5Gandthe IoT,actingasasupplierofconnectivityandplatform services.Asaserviceenabler,theCSP’sbusiness 5G BSS: EvolvingBSS tofitthe 5Geconomy Figure 1 The evolving role of the CSP in the IoT ecosystem A) Network developer Customer Customer Customer CSP IoT provider IoT providerCSP SIM manufacturer SIM manufacturer Device manufacturer Device manufacturer Device manufacturerCSP CSP B) Service enabler C) Service creator ✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱ 2 3MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 2020
  • 6. 10 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 1110 11 modelsareextendedtobusiness-customerfocused withrespectto5GIoT. Intheservicecreatorrole,theCSPtransitions frombeingaconnectivityandplatformproviderto creatingnewdigitalservicesandcollaborating beyondtelecomstoestablishdigitalvaluesystems. Asaservicecreator,theCSPpartnerswithsuppliers todelivernewservicesallthewayuptofullIoT solutions,takingontherolesofintegrator, distributororco-seller. BSSforallthreeCSProles TraditionalBSSsupporttheCSPinthenetwork developerrole,inwhichtheCSPchargesforvoice, textanddataservicesbasedonconsumptionor subscriptionlevel.Themainrequirementsfor theseBSSare: ❭ Customer management, traditional partner business (roaming partners), charging and billing, and finance modules ❭ Order capture and order execution for new telco subscriptions and/or add-on offerings ❭ Charging and balance/quota management in BSS, as well as mediation ❭ Interaction with operations support systems (OSS) for network provisioning. EvolvingBSStosupportaCSPinaserviceenabler rolerequiresashiftinfocustotheneedsof enterprisecustomersandIoTusecases.TheBSS mustbetransformedintoasystemthatisableto monetizeIoT/5Gplatformsandedgedeployments, whichrequiressignificantchangesinboththe functionalandnon-functionalspace.Inthenon- functionalspace,thismainlyinvolvesscalability telecoms,sothatpartnerscandeveloptailored applicationsanddeploythemontheoperator’s infrastructure. Finally,thenewbusinessmodelsavailableto CSPsasservicecreatorsrequirenewmonetization modelsforchargingandbilling.Forexample, multipartycharging,revenuesharingandprofit sharingallrequireextendedbillingand reconciliationfunctionality. BSSsolutionlevelsandkeycapabilities Table1organizesandsequenceskeyBSS capabilitiesbasedontechnicaldependenciesand/or levelofcomplexity.Onebyone,thesecapabilities –thatis,enablingtheBSStohandletrafficand alargenumberofdevicesatIoTscale. Intermsoffunctionality,theBSSenhancements requiredbyserviceenablersinclude: ❭ Automation of full life-cycle management for devices/IoT resources supported by flexible orchestration, including exposure of services for managing relationships with business customers ❭ Support for batch orchestration, flexible supply agreements and contracts for non-telco services with associated charging models ❭ Service exposure of network capabilities, so that IoT providers can bundle their offerings with connectivity and sell them on to their customers ❭ Service exposure of BSS and OSS capabilities to enable efficient ordering processes, especially with regard to the management of mass subscriptions. SupportingaCSPintheservicecreatorrole,where thefulllifecycleofpartnersmustbetakeninto account,requiresBSSwithfurtherfunctional extensions.Thestakeholderecosystemofservice creatorsissignificantlymorecomplex,asthe customerbasebroadenstoincludeverticalsandthe CSPstartsofferingfullsolutionsbeyondtelecoms. Asaresult,BSSforservicecreatorsmustinclude extensiveandflexiblepartnerrelationship management.Supplychainmanagementis especiallyimportant. Thecapacitytoexposenetworkcapabilityaswell asBSSandOSScapabilitiesiscriticallyimportantto aCSP’sabilitytodeliveronservicecreationbeyond Terms and abbreviations API – Application Programming Interface | BSS – Business Support Systems | CSP – Communication Service Provider | IoT – Internet of Things | ODA – Open Digital Architecture | OSS – Operations Support Systems | SBI – Service-Based Interface | SDK – Software Development Kit | SLA – Service Level Agreement BSS solution level Capabilities 5G enabled • 5Gservice-basedinterface(SBI)support(chargingfunction) • NetworkslicingsupportinBSSandOSS • Classicroamingpartners • Containerizationandmicroservices • Commontechnologystack IOT and edge monetization • IDmanagementandcorrelation • Life-cyclemanagementforIoTdevices • Businesscustomerand5G/IoTenterprisemanagement • Charginginmultilevelhierarchies • Supplyagreements • Flexibleorchestrationoforderingprocesses • Serviceexposurefordevicemanagement • OpenAPIexposure • Continuousintegration/continuousdelivery(CI/CD)forserviceexposure • Enterpriseself-care • Multipartychargingandbest-effortcharging • Privatenetworks • Platformpartnerships • Contractfornon-telcoservices(IoT/edgeenabled) • Chargingmodelsfornon-telcoservices • Multi-tenancy • Chargingandbillingonbehalfof • Location-awareservices • Blockchainforsmartcontracting • ServiceLevelAgreement(SLA)management Full 5G ecosystem • Partnerrelationshipmanagement • Partnercatalog • Partnerrevenuesharing • Reconciliationandsettlement • Flexiblebilling • Platformasaserviceanddistributedcloud • Edgeplatformservices • Multi-accessedgecomputing(MEC) • BSSasaservice • Continuousmonitoring • Artificialintelligenceandmachine-learningautomation • CI/CD Table 1 Key capabilities of the three BSS solution levels ✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱ 4 5MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 2020
  • 7. 12 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 13 addontoeachother,continuouslyincreasingBSS maturityandtransformingtheBSSintoasystem capableofsupportingallthenewusecasesand businessmodelsthatcharacterizethe5G/IoT ecosystem. Thefirstevolutionstep–‘5Genabled’inTable1 –providessupportfornew5Gstandardsand concepts,whichenablesadrasticincreaseindata transmissionthroughputwhilemaintainingfocuson traditionalconsumers.Applyingcontainerization andacommontechnologystackwillassurethe scalabilityoftheBSSsolutiontomeettheincreased throughputdemandsofthenetwork. Atthenextsolutionlevel,IoTandedgemonetization, thefocusshiftstobusinesscustomers.Thesenew capabilitiesenabletheCSPtoprovideextended supportforenterpriseswhenitcomesto5GandIoT usecasesbycoveringIoTdevicemanagement, supportfornon-telcoservicechargingandmulti- partychargingaswellasIoTand/oredge-platform monetization.Inaddition,serviceexposureenables self-serviceforenterprisesalongwithapplication developmentfortheoptimizationofIoTdevices. Thenumberof5G/IoTusecasesthattheCSPisable tosupportincreasesdrasticallyatthisstage. Theadditionofpartnercapabilitiesatthefull 5GecosystemlevelallowstheCSPtoaddresstotally newcustomersegmentsbeyondtelecomsand provideindustry-specificsolutionstoverticals. ACSPcancreatenewservices(evendeliverBSS asaservice),andoffertheseservicesonamarketplace toreachnewsegmentsofbusinesscustomers. Themultitudeofpartnershipsrequiresupportfor newbusinessmodelsthatallowflexiblecharging, revenuesharingandbilling. 5GreferencearchitectureforBSS Fromahigh-levelarchitecturalviewpoint,BSSin the5G/IoTecosystemcloselyresembletraditional monitorthestateofthedevicethroughoutits lifecycleisnotsufficient.Forexample,contracts thatcoverlargeherdsofdevicesarelikelytobe basedonrecurringchargesperactivedevice. Inthesescenarios,theaggregatednumbersof devicesperstatebecomekeyparametersinthe calculationofcharges. ThecalculationofchargesrelatedtoIoTdevices isalsocomplicatedbythefactthatthestateofthe devicecaninfluencethechargedparty.Oneexample ofthischallengeisIoTdevicesthataremountedin vehiclesatafactory.Thefactorypersonnelwilllikely wanttotestthatthedeviceisworkingbefore shippingthevehicletothereseller.Theresellermay BSS,withsimilarinterfacestosurroundingsystems. TheBSSarchitectureinFigure2ispresentedinthe OpenDigitalArchitectureformat[1].Itisdivided intopartymanagement,corecommerce management,intelligencemanagement,production andengagementmanagement.Productionincludes thesouthboundapplicationprogramminginterface (API)layertothenetworkinfrastructure,IoT platforms,cloud/edgeandOSS,whileengagement managementincludesthenorthboundAPIlayerto customersandpartners. 5GandtheIoTplaceseveralchallenging requirementsonnewcapabilitiesintheBSS architecturethatarenotdirectlyvisibleatahigh level.Allfunctionalareasareaffectedbythe5G evolutionandareextendedtosupportthenew requirementsandpossibilities,mostnotablyinthe areasofmass-devicemanagement,deviceand resourcelife-cyclemanagement,subscription management,chargingmodelsfornon-telco servicesandmultipartycharging. IoT-scalemass-devicemanagement Thesheernumberofconnecteddevicesinthe5G/ IoTworldisamajorchallengeforBSStomanage. WhilecurrentBSSarchitecturesarescalable,they willbetoocostlyforIoTusecasesduetothelarge datafootprintandprocessingneedofeachdevice. Scalabilityaloneisnotenoughtohandlemassive amountsofdevices.Toaddressthis,5G-evolved BSSmusthaveapersistenceandmanagement modelthatislightweightenoughtoallowalarge numberofdevicestousethesamefootprintasone traditionaldevice.Thiscanbeaddressedusing conceptssuchasherding,whereeachindividual deviceonlyrequiresaminimaldatafootprint. Thebehaviorofeachindividualdeviceis determinedbytheherdconfiguration,whichis asinglespecificationperherd. Life-cyclemanagementof IoTdevicesandresources ManagingthelifecyclesofIoTdevicesand resourcesisanothersignificantchallengeforBSS.In manyemergingIoTapplications,theabilityto Figure 2 5G reference architecture for BSS Intelligence management Party management Production Southbound API Core commerce management Social media Mediation = Decoupling and integration Policies IoT Cloud/ edge OSS Comm. services EPC/ 5G Core Customers Business customers Developers Apps Engagement management Northbound API SCALABILITYALONEISNOT ENOUGHTOHANDLEMASSIVE AMOUNTSOFDEVICES ✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱ 6 7MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 202012 13
  • 8. 14 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 15 thenwanttodemonstratetheservicethedevice providestoprospectivebuyers,beforeaconsumer ultimatelybuysthevehicleandstartsusingthe service.Ateachofthesestages,thechargedparty andchargingmodelmaybedifferentdependingon thestateofthedevice.Overcomingsuchchallenges requiresaBSSarchitecturethatcanprovideup-to- datestateinformationperindividualdeviceor resourceaswellasaggregatedinformationtothe rating,chargingandbillingfunctions. SubscriptionmanagementforIoTdevices Subscriptionmanagementisanotherareathatmust evolvetofitthenew5G/IoTbusinesscontext. TraditionalBSSarebuilttomanageconsumer subscriptions.Theyarenotcapableofhandlingthe massivenumberofdevicesinIoTusecasesinacost- efficientmanner.Subscriptionmanagementin 5G-evolvedBSSrequiresahighlevelofautomation andsolutionsthatreducetheprocessingfootprintto onboardandmanagedevices,servicesandproducts. OneeffectiveapproachistoexposeAPIsandtools thatallowpartnersorevenconsumerstoonboard andmanagedevices. Togainefficiencyandminimizemanagement, poolsofservicesandproductscanbelinkedtoherds ofdevices,insteadofapplyingindividualservicesto devicerelationships,whichisthecommonpractice inBSStoday.Theserviceinstanceslinkedtoherds arekepttoaminimalfootprintandthemajorityof theparametersneededforprocessingcanbekepton specificationlevel.Thischangewillenablemore efficientprocessinginBSSandreducethenumber ofscenariosthatrequiremassprovisioning. UnliketraditionalBSS,5G-evolvedBSSmustbe abletocaptureandcreatethenetworkchargingdata records(chargingfunction).Thistaskprovidesthe Multipartycharging WhiletraditionalBSSareabletohandleroaming partnersandwholesaleagreements,theyarenot equippedtohandlethedramaticincreasein differenttypesofpartneragreementsinthe5G/IoT ecosystem.Theabilitytohandleawidevarietyof partneragreementsandsupporttheonboardingof partnersandrelatedchargingmodelswillbecrucial toCSPs’abilitytomonetizeonexpectedIoTgrowth andavoidbecomingbit-pipewholesalers. Inthe5G/IoTecosystem,asingleeventthatBSS receivefromthe5Gcorenetworkcantriggera complexvaluechainthatrequiresmultiplepartiesto bechargedorsharerevenue.ACSPcannotrelyon traditionaltechniquestohandlethiscomplexity– doingsowouldmeanpostponingchargingor revenuesharedistributionuntilthebillrun. Todeliverup-to-dateinformationtotherelevant partners,theCSPneedsBSSthatcanprocessthe entirevaluechainassoonasanyactivityoccursthat impactsthem.Thisdoesnotmeanthateverything mustbeprocessedinrealtime,butratherthatevents mustbehandledinanonlineasynchronousprocess. Forexample,whenBSSgrantconsumerstherightto accessspecificservices,theeventisfollowedupbya post-sessionprocesstocalculateanddistributethe charges/revenuesharefortheinvolvedpartners. Asaresult,therelevantpartnershaveaccessto up-to-dateinformationwithinseconds,ratherthan attheendofthedayoratthebillrunastheywould intraditionalBSS. In5G-evolvedBSS,differenteventsforthesame servicecanhavedifferentchargeorrevenueshare distribution.One-timefees,recurringchargesor usagefeescanallhavedifferentdistributionrules andincludeoneormorepartners.Forexample,itis possibleforanoperatortochargeaone-timefee toaconsumerandkeepalloftherevenue,whilealso chargingarecurringfeetothesameconsumerand splittingthatrevenuewithapartnerthatprovides theconsumerdeviceonarentalbasis. DigitalBSSarchitecturefor5GandtheIoT Figure3showsthekeycomponentsofEricsson’s digitalBSSarchitecture.Thecolorschemeindicates therelationshipbetweenthecomponentsinthis architectureandthefunctionalODAarchitecture showninFigure2. BSSwithauniqueopportunitytodeterminewhich charging,balancemanagementandaggregation functionsmustbeperformed,andusethis knowledgetomonetizetheusageofthe5Gnetwork. Forinstance,theBSScanmonitorallowancesand balancesinrealtime,ifsorequiredbyapartner agreement,ordecidetopostponetheratingand balancemanagementtoanearreal-time asynchronousflow. AllowingtheBSStodecidetheimportanceand risklevelofeacheventbasedonagreements,Service LevelAgreements(SLAs)andoperatorbusiness rulesmakesitpossibletoaccommodatemultiple chargingmodelssimultaneously.Amongother things,thisapproachenablesreal-timemonitoring ofindividualdeviceherds,whileatthesametime providingpartnerratingsforoneormultiple involvedpartnersinacontinuous,nearreal-time, flowforindividualdevicesessions. Chargingmodelsfornon-telcoservices 5G-evolvedBSSmustalsosupportthemanagement andmonetizationofservicesthatarenottraditional telcoservices,suchasthosefortheIoTplatformor applicationhostingattheedge.Inthepast,BSS havetraditionallyreliedonawell-definedsetof parametersprovidedthroughstandardized protocols,butthisapproachwillnotbesufficient whenenteringthenon-telcoservicearena. Tomonetizeonnon-telcoservices,the5G-evolved BSSmusthavetheflexibilitytousepreviously unknownidentifiersandparameters,especially inthechargingandbillingsystems. Theusageofanon-telcoservicecanbemonetized usingsomethingassimpleasanetworkslice identifiertodeterminehowtoaggregateandcharge foraservice.Inotherinstances,amuchmore complexmodelmustbeused,involvingmultiple inputparametersforeacheventtodeterminewhich partyorpartiesshouldbechargedandwhich chargingmodelshouldbeapplied.Consequently, thechargingandbillingsolutionin5G-evolved BSSmustprovidetheflexibilitytomapandevaluate non-telcoidentifiersandotherparametersat configurationtime. Figure 3 Ericsson’s digital BSS implementation architecture Customer and partner interaction BSS exposure layer Order capture and fulfillmentCatalog Charging Mediation BillingBilling Party management Intelligence management = Decoupling and integration ONE EFFECTIVE APPROACH IS TO EXPOSE APIs AND TOOLS THAT ALLOW PARTNERS ... TO ONBOARD AND MANAGE DEVICES ✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱ 8 9MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 202014 15
  • 9. 16 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 17 Thefront-endchannelsinthecustomerandpartner interactionlayerandtheBSSexposurelayerare deployedasamicroservicearchitecturetofacilitate businessagility,scalingandtheintroductionof customizedsolutionsasperoperatorneeds. Furtherdowninthestack,thearchitectureisbased onminiservices,primarilytooptimizefootprint, performanceandlatency. Table2mapsoutthe5GevolutionareasinBSS tothemainfunctionalblocksinourdigitalBSS BSS functional block 5G evolution areas Customer and partner interaction • Catalogdriven,omnichannel • B2CandB2Bdigitalfrontend:customer/partnerjourneys • B2CandB2BCPQ(configure,priceandquote),framecontracts • B2B2Xmarketplace BSS exposure layer •OpenAPIexposure • Looselycoupledprinciple • SDKtosupportAPIaggregation Catalog • Exposureforpartnerproductcreation • Enhancedbundlingwithpartnerproducts • Productmodelsfornetworkresources • Productmodelsforenterpriseproducts • Partnercatalog • Multi-deviceofferings Order capture and fulfillment • Ecosystemorchestration • Newbusinessmodelsupport Charging • Supportfornewchargingtriggerpoints • ManagecommunicationservicesatIoTscale • Charginglife-cyclemanagementasapartofmassIoTdevice andmasssubscriptionlife-cyclemanagement • Multipartycharging •Charginginhierarchies • Chargingonbehalfof • Non-telcoservicecharge Mediation • Calldetailrecordgenerationfor5G • OnlinemediationSBI->diameter Party management • ExtendedB2B(supplyagreements,non-telcocontracts) • Digitalpartnermanagement Intelligence management • SLAmanagement • Datalake Billing • Life-cyclemanagementasapartofmassIoTdeviceand masssubscriptionlife-cyclemanagement • Multipartybilling • Billingonbehalfof • Revenuesharing • IoTpartnersettlements Table 2 Prioritized 5G evolution areas in the main BSS functional blocks Further reading ❭ EricssonTechnologyReview,BSSandartificialintelligence–timetogonative,January2019,availableat: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/ericsson-technology-review/articles/bss-and-artificial- intelligence-time-to-go-native ❭ Ericsson blog, Impacts of monetizing 5G and IoT on Digital BSS, October 29, 2019, Michael Fireman, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/10/impacts-of-monetizing-5g-and-iot-on-digital-bss ❭ Ericsson blog, Monetize 5G and IoT business models, October 7, 2019, Michael Fireman, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/10/monetize-5g-and-iot-business-models ❭ Ericsson, Telecom BSS, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/portfolio/digital-services/digital-bss ❭ Ericsson, Digital BSS, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/digital-services/offerings/digital-bss References 1. TMA, Open Digital Architecture Project, available at: https://www.tmforum.org/collaboration/open-digital- architecture-oda-project/ architecture.Containerization,microservicesanda commontechnologystackarecommontoallblocks. Conclusion The5Gnetworkevolutionpresentscommunication serviceproviderswiththeopportunitytotransform themselvesfromtraditionalnetworkdevelopersto serviceenablersfor5GandtheInternetof Things, andultimatelytoservicecreatorswiththeabilityto collaboratebeyondtelecomsandestablishlucrative digitalvaluesystems.Alongtheway,thisjourney opensupsubstantialnewrevenuestreamsin verticalssuchasindustrialautomation,security, healthcareandautomotive.Tosuccessfully capitalizeonthisopportunity,CSPsneedBSS thatareevolvedtomanagecomplexvaluechains andsupportnewbusinessmodels. 5G-evolvedBSSenablesmoothcollaboration betweenconnectivityproviders,servicecreators, partners,suppliersandothersthatresultsinthe efficientcreationofattractiveandcost-effective services.Optimizedinformationmodelsandahigh degreeofautomationarerequiredtohandlehuge numbersofdevicesthroughopeninterfaces. Deploymentinacloud-nativearchitectureensures flexibilityandscalability.Itisimportanttokeepthe businesslogic,interfacesandinformationmodels of5G-evolvedBSSflexible,sotheycanbeadjusted tosuitthevaluechainsandbusinessmodelsofthe differentindustryverticals. AtEricsson,wewillcontinuetoevolveourBSS offeringtosupportourcustomersontheirjourneys fromnetworkdeveloperstoserviceenablers,from serviceenablerstoservicecreatorsandbeyond. Aspartofthiswork,wearealsofirmlycommitted todrivingandcontributingtorelevantstandards intheBSSareaandparticipatinginopensource anddevelopercommunitiestopromoteopenness andinteroperability. CSPs NEED BSS THAT ARE EVOLVED TO MANAGE COMPLEX VALUE CHAINS ✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY ✱ 10 11MARCH 26, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 202016 17
  • 10. 18 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 202018 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 theauthOrs Jan Friman ◆ is an OSS/BSS expert in the architecture and technology team within Business Area Digital Services. Since joining Ericsson in 1997, he has held various OSS/BSS-related positions within the company’s R&D, system management and strategic product management organizations. Friman holds anM.Sc.incomputerscience from Linköping University, Sweden. Michael Nilsson ◆ is a BSS expert in the solution architecture team within Business Area Digital Services. Nilsson joined Ericsson in 1990 and has extensive experience from the telecommunications area in support and verification, radio, core and transmission network design and BSS product development. Since 2012, he has held the position of chief architect for next generation BSS development. Elisabeth Mueller ◆ is an expert in BSS end-to-end systems whose current work focuses on 5G/IoT BSS architecture. She joined Ericsson in 2006 when LHS in Frankfurt was acquired to complement the Ericsson BSS offerings with a billingsystem. Since then she has taken on many different roles within the company, including system design, system management and solution architecture in all BSS areas. Mueller holds an M.Sc. in mathematics from Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, along with several patents in the BSS area. ✱ BSS IN THE 5G ECONOMY 12 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MARCH 26, 2020
  • 11. 20 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 21 The UICCs used in all cellular devices today are complex and powerful minicomputers capable of much more than most Internet of Things (IoT) applications require. Until a simpler and less costly alternative becomes available, it makes sense to find ways to reduce the complexity of using them and use their excess capacity for additional value generation. BENEDEK KOVÁCS, ZSOLT VAJTA, ZSIGMOND PAP UICCs are used today to facilitate network connection in all 3GPP user equipment – mobile phones, IoT devices and so on. ■ The most important tasks of UICC modules – commonly referred to as SIM cards – in today’s mobile networks are to store network credentials and to run network security and access applications in a secure and trusted environment. In addition, they are also capable of storing a large amount of extra information and running multiple toolkit applications. A UICC’s own operating system provides a full Java environment. It can run dozens of Java-based applications in parallel and support powerful remote management operations. Backward-compatibilityisprovidedbyrunning anetworkserviceapplicationonUICCmodules, whichcanemulatethefilesystemforstoring necessarycredentialsandold-schoolsmartcard protocols,extendedwithfeaturessuchasenhanced security,extendedtelephoneregisterandoperator logoimage.TheinterfacebetweentheUICCmodule andtheuserequipment(devices)isstandardized, whichenablesoperatorstorunvalue-added applications,suchasmobilewalletormobilelottery, ontheUICCmodule. WhiletheadvancedfeaturesofUICCmodules continuetoprovideconsiderablevalueinmobile phoneapplications,mostofthemaresuperfluous inIoTapplications.Inlightofthis,theindustry isworkingtofindalesssophisticatedsolution thatismoreappropriateforapplicationsthat requiremassivenumbersofdevicesinprice- sensitiveenvironments.Industryalignmenton suchasolutionisexpectedtobeachallengingand time-consumingprocess,however,duetothefact thattheIoTareaisfragmentedintomanydifferent verticals,applicationareasandusecases. Ericssonisfullycommittedtosupportingthe long-term,industry-alignedsolution.Inthemeantime, however,itisvitaltofindworkaroundstoensure thatthecostofUICCsdoesnotstifleIoTgrowth. Whilethedefinitivesolutiontothequestionof whatshouldreplacetheUICCishardtopredict, twomid-termworkaroundsareclear:thecomplexity ofusingUICCsandleveragingtheirexcesscapacity togenerateadditionalvalue. ReducingthecomplexityofusingUICCs There are three main approaches to reducing the complexity of using UICCs in IoT applications: optimization, usage of 3GPP standardized certificate-based authentication, and virtualization. Optimization A typical operator profile on a 3GPP consumer mobile phone is up to tens of kilobytes; the average IoT sensor only requires 200-300 bytes. And of all the functionality that a UICC can provide, an IoT device only really needs the Universal Subscriber Identity Module application and the remote SIM provisioning (RSP) application, which allows remote provisioning of subscriber credentials (also known as operator profiles). Onegoodwaytosignificantlyreducethefootprint oftheUICCistooptimizetheoperatorprofileand thenecessarysoftwareenvironmentwithinthe UICCmodule.Doingsonotonlysavesstorageinthe devicebutalsoreducesenergyconsumptionduring over-the-airdownload.Furthersizereduction ofthedevicemaybeachievedwhentheUICCis completelyintegratedintothebasebandmodem orapplicationprocessor(integratedUICCor iUICC[2]).Thissimplifiedandintegratedsolution couldworkeffectivelyforusecasesthatrequire low-cost,simple,secureandlow-powerIoTdevices inhighvolumes. TheuseofaniUICCrequiresaneffective RSPprotocol[3,4]thatmakesitpossibleto changesubscriptioncredentials.CurrentRSP standardsaretoocomplexforiUICCsformany reasons,includingtheiruseofHTTPS OPTIMIZING UICCmodules forIoT applications Definition of key terms Identity describes the link between the identifier of an entity and the credentials that it uses to prove that it is the rightful owner of the identity. First used in Finland in 1991, the original subscriber identity module (SIM) was a smart card with a protected file system that stored cellular network parameters. It was designed to connect expensive user equipment – mobile phones – with expensive subscriptions to the cellular network. When it became clear that smart cards did not have the capacity to provide an adequate level of security in next-generation cellular networks, they were replaced with universal integrated circuit cards (UICCs) – minicomputers equipped with general microprocessors, memory and strong cryptographic co-processors [1]. ✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱ 2 3APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
  • 12. 22 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 23 (HypertextTransferProtocolSecure)andreliance onSMSsupport.HTTPSistypicallynotpartofthe protocolstackofconstrainedlow-powerIoTdevices. Instead,thesedevicesuseastackwithConstrained ApplicationProtocol(CoAP),DatagramTransport LayerSecurity(DTLS)andUserDatagram Protocol.Insomecases,theLightweightMachine- to-Machine(LwM2M)protocolisusedontopof CoAPfordeviceandapplicationdatamanagement. Theuseofonlyonestackkeepsthecostofthe devicedown. Ericssonproposesutilizingthesameprotocol stackforprofiledownloadandprofilemanagement asisusedfordeviceandapplicationdata management.Figure1illustrateshowtoachieve thisbyadaptingtheGSMAembedded-SIM solutionforconsumerdevicesforusewithIoT devices.Inthissolution,thelocalprofileassistant (LPA)issplitintotwoparts.Toreducedevice footprint,themainpartoftheLPA(includingthe useofHTTPS)ismovedfromthedevicetoadevice authentication has been performed. According to the 3GPP, authentication in private networks such as Industry 4.0 solutions may rely entirely on certificate-based solutions such as Extensible Authentication Protocol over Transport Layer Security. Without a UICC for securely storing and operating on secret long-term credentials for network access authentication, another secure environment with secure storage solution is needed. Forcertainapplicationsalowerlevelofsecurity mightbeaccepted.Thevalueofthedatathatthe IoTdeviceprovidesorhandles,inrelationtothe costoftheIoTdevice,determinestherequired securitylevelofthesecureenvironmentforprotecting networkaccessauthenticationcredentials.Inthe caseofaUICCbeingused,itdeterminesthe realizationoftheUICCfunctionality.Forsome low-costconstrainedIoTdevices,arealization usingahardware-isolation-basedtrustedexecution environmentmaybeacceptable.Asthereisno universalandperfectsolution,operatorsmust decidewhichsolutionismostsuitableforanygiven application.ItislikelythattheUICCsandeUICC- basedsolutionswillremainthetechnologyofchoice inpublicnetworksforthenextfewyears. Virtualization Virtualizing the UICC is yet another alternative that addresses the cost issue associated with UICC technology. One way to do this is to run a UICC environment in a virtual machine (or at least on a separated processor core) inside the application processor or the baseband modem. Another approach is to store the operator profiles in the security zone of the application processor, then download them to empty physical UICC hardware on demand. Thebiggestadvantagesofthesevirtualization solutionsisflexibilityandbetterutilizationof existinghardwareresources,whileatthesametime maintainingmanyoftheadvantagesofcurrent technology.Thesemethodsareparticularlyeffective whenanIoTdeviceneedstomanagemultiple operatorprofiles–acircumstancethatwillbecome increasinglycommon,accordingtoananalysis carriedoutbytheGSMA[5]. Thedisadvantagesofvirtualizationaresimilarto thoseofcertification-basedsolutions.Mostnotably, certificationisharderwhenatrustedenvironment isintegratedwiththerestofthedevicecompared withusinganisolatedUICCoreUICC. GeneratingadditionalvaluefromtheUICC Experience shows that it is significantly less expensive to limit a protected and certified manufacturing environment to a dedicated hardware module such as a UICC than to ensure that all the software running in the mobile equipmentcanbetrusted.Inlightofthis,webelieve thatcommunicationserviceproviderswillcontinue usingUICCmodulesforatleastthenext5-10years. During this period, it makes sense to exploit the potential of the UICCs to better support IoT applications by creating value-added services for operators and enterprises. Three examples of this are using the UICC as cryptographic storage, using it to run higher-layer protocolstacks, andusingitasasupervisoryentity. UsingtheUICCascryptographicstorage UICC modules were designed to serve as cryptographic storage and are used today mainly for the storage of security credentials for 3GPP connectivity. We propose, in accordance with GSMA IoT SAFE [1], that the UICC itself should also be used as a crypto-safe for the IoT platform, providing support to establish encrypted connection of the applications. orconnectivitymanagementserver.Thedevice managementprotocolstack(OpenMobileAlliance (OMA)LwM2M[1],forexample)handlesthe communicationbetweenthetwoLPAparts. Profileprotectionisstillend-to-endbetween theiUICC/embedded-UICC(eUICC)andthe provisioningserver(SubscriptionManager-Data Preparation–SM-DP+). Usageof3GPPstandardized certificate-basedauthentication Another way to reduce the need for a UICC is to use a network authentication mechanism different to the classical 3GPP Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA). The use of certificates is a classic solution used in the internet that may easily fit into the existing network architecture of an enterprise/service provider. In public 5G networks, authenticating with certificates is possible as a secondary authentication for a service using AKA, but only after primary network OPERATORSMUST DECIDEWHICHSOLUTION ISMOSTSUITABLEFOR ANYGIVENAPPLICATION Figure 1 Remote provisioning using IoT-optimized technology SIM alliance profile LPA split IoT platform HTTPS Internet Device owner/user LwM2M-based secure communication IoT device with cellular module Provisioning server (SM-DP+) Mobile network operator LPAprLPAdv ✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱ 4 5APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
  • 13. 24 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 25 AgenericIoTdevicehasmultipleidentitiesforuse inmultiplesecuritydomains.Everyidentityhasat leastoneidentifierandcredential,allofwhichmust bestoredsomewhere.Althoughtherearemultiple options,ahardwareelementthatispowerfulenough toplaytheroleoftherootoftrustisdefinitelyneeded. TheUICCisperfectforthisrole,asitisalreadyused asanidentityfor3GPPnetworks,storingInternational MobileSubscriberIdentity,intensifiedcharge- coupleddevice,Wi-FiandOMALwM2M[6] credentialsalongwithdozensofotheridentifiers. Thenecessarytrustedandcertifiedenvironment andinfrastructurearealreadyavailabletomanufacture themodule,downloadandupdateitscontentand carryoutremotemanagementaswell. Tocovereveryaspect,UICC-basedsolutions requirecooperationbetweentheUICCecosystem andtheIoTdevicesecuritysubsystem(ARMTrust Zone[7],forexample).IDandcredentialmanagement itselfisdevice-independent,whichsavesdevelopment costandincreasesthesecuritylevel.Additional advantagesofusingUICCasarootoftrustare: ❭ it has its own local processor ❭ it is usually equipped with powerful cryptographic co-processors ❭ it comes with a powerful, standardized remote management subsystem (RMS) ❭ it is handled through a separate logistics chain. The UICC can generate key-pairs and store private keys for multiple security domains effectively and securely. Effectiveness comes from its powerful cryptographic co-processors, while security is provided by the combination of the standardized RMS and the UICC’s ability to run cryptography processes inside the module. This means that the keys never leave the hardware and therefore they cannot be exposed to the application. Not only does this architecture provide security, it can also securely tie the 3GPP connectivity credentials and other IoT certificates to each other. Sincemodemfirmwareisaclosedenvironment, itisdifficulttoupgradeandtocustomizeitsprotocol stacks(extendingthemwithproprietaryadded values).Inaddition,asmallsecurityholeinthe protocolstackcanbeenoughforahackertotake controlofthewholemodem. Alternatively,thesehigher-layerprotocolstacks canbemovedtotheUICC.Figure2depictsablock diagramofadevice,wheretheOMALwM2M clientrunsontheUICCmoduleandusesanon-IP datadelivery(NIDD)protocolconnectiontosend informationtothedevicemanagementsystem. Runninghigher-levelprotocolsintheUICC modulecanimprovesecurityinseveralways. Forexample,itispossibletoruntheLwM2M stackoveraNIDDconnection[9]andeventoallow thiscodetoexecuteontheUICCmoduleinstead ofonthedeviceprocessor.Inthisscenario, command/controlisneverexposedonthe IPlayerbecauseitisrunninginthesignaling networkoftheoperator.Anadditionaladvantage ofthisapproachisthatitincreasesinteroperability. Thereisastandardizedwayofupgradingthe communicationstackintheUICC–itiseven possibletoinsertthecommunicationstackinto theoperatorprofile.Thisdoesnotcompletely solvecompatibilityandinterfacingproblems, butacertifiedoperatorcanhandletheseissues onahighersecurityleveltoprovidewider solutionmatching. InthesimplestIoTdevices,itmightevenbe possibletoruntheactualIoTapplicationonthe UICCmodule.Thiswouldopenforedge-computing solutionsinwhichsimpletasksareexecutedonthe device–datafilteringtoreducetheamountofdata beingsentovertheair,forexample.Securitycanalso beimprovedifthebinaryisstoredontheUICC insteadofonthedeviceapplicationprocessor. TherecentlyreleasedGSMAIoTSAFE[8]offers asolutionwheretheUICCisutilizedasarootof trustforIoTsecurity.Here,anappletontheUICC/ eUICCprovidescryptographicsupportandstorage ofcredentialsforestablishingsecurecommunication (forexample,usingDTLS)toanIoTservice.The existingUICCmanagementsystem(UICCOTA mechanism)isusedbytheoperatortoestablish trustedcredentialsbetweenthedeviceandtheIoT service.TheGSMAIoTSAFEdefinesanapplication programminginterfaceforinteroperabilitybetween SIMappletsfromdifferentoperators. UsingtheUICCtorun higher-layerprotocolstacks In addition to providing security and encryption functions, UICC modules could also serve as main application processors. Today, a low-cost, sensor-like IoT device usually has at least three processors on board: one is on the UICC module, another runs inside the baseband modem, and a third – the application processor itself (sometimes combined) – collects data and hosts higher level communication stacks such as LwM2M, CoAP or MQ Telemetry Transport. Shiftingthehigher-levelcommunicationstack fromtheapplicationprocessortotheUICC modulecanleadtocheaperhardwareandlower developmentcosts,aswellasprovidingaunique approachtointeroperability.Asaresult,some modemmanufacturershaveimplementedthese protocolsinsidethemodem,runningacomplete OMALwM2Mprotocolstackinthebasebandchip, forexample.Whilethismayfreeupanexternal applicationprocessorandspeedupdevice development,thissolutionisratherinflexible. Figure 2 IoT device with LwM2M client running on the UICC module, using NIDD Application Operator profile PSK IMEI BIP Sensor data IoT device UICC PSK NIDD/SMS/USSD NIDD/SMS /USSD Dev. ID SCEF Radio modem LwM2M client Device and data management (LwM2M server) SIMtoolkit EFFECTIVENESS COMESFROMITS POWER- FULCRYPTOGRAPHIC CO-PROCESSORS ✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱ 6 7APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
  • 14. 26 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 27 UsingtheUICCasasupervisoryentity Zero-touch provisioning (ZTP) is yet another possibility for better utilization of the UICC module. ZTP refers to the possibility of adding an identity to a device when required, with automatic setup of the working environment (requiring manual intervention). Aneffectiveautomaticprovisioningsystem requiresremoteprovisioningmanagement, keyandcredentialstorage,identitymappingof UICCmodulesandapplicationsaswellasstrong flexibilityincaseofoperatorprofiles,butallofthis isfarfromenough.ProvisioningofIoTdevicesisa complex,slowandcostlyprocedure.Althoughthere isajointefforttoextendmobilenetworkstosupport standardized,automaticdeviceandsubscription provisioning,itisataveryearlystage. Duringtheprovisioningprocedure,twoormore identitiesaregiventothedevice,whichentails thattheseidentifiersaredownloaded,anddifferent subsystemsareconfigured(mobilenetwork,device ThisiswhereaUICCapplicationcanhelpand supportanOTTZTPservice.AUICCmodulecan storesensitiveinformationfromdifferentsecurity domains.AsitworksclosetotheIoTdevice,itcando correctiveactionslocallyifthereisaproblemwith theconnectivity(attempttoactivateanotherprofile andconnecttoanotheroperator).Inaddition,itis scalingtogetherwiththeIoTdevices.Sincethis solutioniscompletelyunderthecontrolofthe operator,itcanbeindependentoftheapplication, therebyalsosavingdevelopmentcosts. Figure3showsanexampleofthissystem: acentralZTPservice,inconnectionwith multiple subsystemsandasupportapplication ontheUICCmodule. ThecentralZTPserviceworkingtogetherwith theZTPsupportapplicationontheUICCmodule canbeveryeffective.TheZTPserviceandtheZTP supportapplicationtogethercancoveralmost everyusecaseandsolvetheproblemstheIoTarea isstrugglingwithtoday. TheUICCapplicationcanbeusedtomonitor connectivityandfixissueslocally.Thiscanbe highlyeffectiveifcredentialsarestoredonthe UICCmoduleandiftheIoTprotocolstack isalsorunningontheUICCmodule. FornarrowbandIoT,thetraditionalprofile downloadsolutionandthemachine-to-machine SM-DPisineffective.Significantlybetterresults canbeachievedbyusingtheSM-DP+inanewway. Forexample,runningtheLPAproxyontheUICC modulemakesitpossibletousecompletelynew optionsfordeviceprovisioning. Conclusion The universal integrated circuit card (UICC) modules present in all 3GPP IoT devices today are costly and underutilized. managementsystem,datamanagementsystem, andsoon).Severalstandardizedtechnologiesexist tosupportthisprocessbut,unfortunately, theyarenotconnectedintoaworking,efficient, fullyautomatedandcooperativesystem. Themoststraightforwardwaytoconnect differentsubsystemsinaflexibleandprogrammable wayistorunacentralizedserviceaboveoratthe samelevelasthesesubsystems.ThisZTPservice isconnectedtothe3GPPnetwork(forinstance tosubscriberdatamanagement),totheSM-DP+ system(usuallyoperatedbytheUICCmodule vendororanindependentbootstrapoperator), tothedevicemanagementsystemandtothedata managementsystem.TheconnectiontotheIoT deviceitself,tothemanufactureroreventothe installerofthedevicecanalsobeestablished. Themainpurposeofthisserviceistodrivethe IoTdevicethroughthestepsofautomaticdevice provisioningfromtheverybeginning(orderingthe device)tothefinaldecommissioning. Althoughthisover-the-topservice(OTT) canspeeduptheprovisioningprocesssignificantly, ithassomedisadvantages.Itshouldnotstoresensitive data,butonlymanageitindirectly.Furthermore, ifthedevicehasnoconnectionatall,itcannot doanything.Scalingcouldalsobeaproblem. Figure 3 ZTP system with central ZTP service and UICC support Application IoT device ZTP support application Device vendor Data management Device management Enterprise CRM UICC vendor Mobile network operator Operator profile ZTP service AUICCMODULECAN STORESENSITIVE INFORMATION Terms and abbreviations AKA – Authentication and Key Agreement |BIP – Bearer Independent Protocol | CoAp – Constrained Application Protocol | DTLS – Datagram Transport Layer Security | eUICC – Embedded UICC (soldered to the device board) | HTTPS – Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure | IMEI – International Mobile Equipment Identity | IOT – Internet of Things | IUICC – Integrated UICC (integrated to a microchip) | LPA – Local Profile Assistant | LPAdv – LPA (device), interfacing to the UICC | LPApr – LPA (proxy), interacting with the device owner and SM-DP+ | LwM2M – Lightweight Machine-to-Machine | NIDD – Non-IP Data Delivery | OMA – Open Mobile Alliance | OTT – Over-the-Top | PSK – Pre-shared Keys | RMS – Remote Management Subsystem | RSP – Remote SIM Provisioning (protocol) | SCEF – Service Capability Exposure Functions | SM-DP – Subscription Manager–Data Preparation | UICC – Universal Integrated Circuit Card | USSD – Unstructured Supplementary Service Data | ZTP – Zero-Touch Provisioning ✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱ 8 9APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
  • 15. 28 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 29 Further reading ❭ Ericsson Technology Review, Key technology choices for optimal massive IoT devices, January 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/ericsson-technology-review/articles/key- technology-choices-for-optimal-massive-iot-devices ❭ Ericsson, eSIM – Let’s talk business, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/digital-services/trending/esim ❭ Ericsson blog, Secure IoT identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/3/secure-iot-identities ❭ Ericsson blog, Secure brokering of digital identities, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2017/7/ secure-brokering-of-digital-identities References 1. Ericsson blog, Evolving SIM solutions for IoT, May 27, 2019, Smeets, B; Ståhl, P; Fornehed, J, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/5/evolving-sim-solutions-for-iot 2. UICC card HW specification for P5Cxxxx cards, available at: http://www.e-scan.com/smart-card/nxp.pdf 3. GSMA, RSP Technical Specification Version 2.1, February 27, 2017, available at: https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/wp-content/uploads/SGP.22_v2.1.pdf 4. GSMA, Remote Provisioning Architecture for Embedded UICC Technical Specification Version 4.0, February 25, 2019, available at: https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/wp-content/uploads/SGP.02-v4.0.pdf 5. GSMA Intelligence: The future of the SIM: potential market and technology implications for the mobile ecosystem, February 2017, Iacopino, P; Rogers, M, available at: https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/ research/?file=3f8f4057fdd7832b0b923cb051cb6e2c&download 6. OMA, Lightweight Machine to Machine Technical Specification: Core, July 10, 2018, available at: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/release/LightweightM2M/V1_1-20180710-A/OMA-TS-LightweightM2M_ Core-V1_1-20180710-A.pdf 7. ARM, ARM Security Technology, available at: http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.prd29- genc-009492c/PRD29-GENC-009492C_trustzone_security_whitepaper.pdf 8. GSMA, IoT SAFE, available at: https://www.gsma.com/iot/iot-safe/ 9. OMA, white paper, Lightweight M2M 1.1: Managing Non-IP Devices in Cellular IoT Networks, October 2018, Slovetskiy, S; Magadevan, P; Zhang, Y; Akhouri, S, available at: https://www.omaspecworks.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/10/Whitepaper-11.1.18.pdf theauthOrs Benedek Kovács ◆ joined Ericsson in 2005. Over the years since he has served as a system engineer, R&D site innovation manager (Budapest) and characteristics,performance management and reliability specialist in the development of the 4G VoLTE solution. Today he works on 5G networks and distributed cloud, as well as coordinating global engineering projects. Kovács holds an M.Sc. in information engineering and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in Hungary. Zsigmond Pap ◆ joined Ericsson in 2012. After working in the cloud native and 5G packet core areas as technical manager and system architect respectively, he moved into the IoT area. He specializes in low-level software development and he has participated in multiple hardware and firmware developments related to custom hardware solutions. He holds an M.Sc. in the area of hardware and embedded computers and a Ph.D. in information engineering fromtheBudapestUniversity of Technology and Economics in Hungary. Zsolt Vajta ◆ joined Ericsson in 2015 as a software developer focused on developing and maintaining modules to implement the link aggregation control protocol in the IP operating system. In 2018, he became involved in research on IoT device activation and zero-touch provisioning. As of early 2020, he has joined the packet core area as a product owner. He holds an M.Sc. in informatics and physics as well as a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from the University of Debrecen in Hungary. The authors would like to thank the following people for their contributions to this article: Gergely Seres, John Fornehed, Per Ståhl, Peter Mattsson, Bogdan Dragus, Robert Khello and Tony Uotila. The industry is looking for ways to replace them with a next-generation solution, but for the foreseeable future UICC modules are here to stay. While there are a few ways to reduce the complexity of using UICC modules and thereby reducing the cost of IoT devices, it is also possible to extend the application of UICC modules well beyond the cellular domain. For example, members of the existing UICC ecosystem can start exploiting UICC capabilities for storing IoT identities, executing IoT protocols, increasing security, providing end-to-end connectivity as a service, and/or supporting zero-touch provisioning. ✱ UICC MODULES AND THE IoT UICC MODULES AND THE IoT ✱ 10 11APRIL 14, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ APRIL 14, 2020
  • 16. ✱ CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 ✱ FUTURE NETWORK TRENDS CREATING INTELLIGENT DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE Allaroundtheworld,theunprecedented events of 2020 have brought into focus thecriticalrolethatdigitalinfrastructure plays in the functioning of virtually every aspect of contemporary society. More than ever before, communication technologies are providing innovative solutions to help address social, environmentalandeconomicchallenges by enhancing efficiency and enabling both intensified network usage and more well-informed decisions. Oneofthemostimportantfeaturesofdigital infrastructureistheabilitytobridgedistances andmakeiteasiertoefficientlymeetsocietal needsintermsofresourceutilization, collaboration,competencetransfer,status verification,privacyprotection,securityand safety.Thecommunicationsindustry supportsotherindustriesbyenablingthem todeliverdigitalproductsandservicessuch ashealthcare,education,finance,commerce, governanceandagriculture.Italsoplaysa vitalroleintacklingclimatechangebyhelping otherindustriesreduceemissionsand improveefficiency. Inlastyear’strendsarticle,Iintroduced theconceptofthenetworkplatformand explainedhowitservesasacatalystinthe developmentofanopenmarketplace thatisalwaysavailabletoanyconsumer ofthedigitalinfrastructure.Thenetwork platformformsthecoreofthedigital infrastructure,withtheabilitytoensure long-termcompetitivenessforenterprises andmeetthefullrangeofsocietalneedsas well.Itisatrustworthysolutionthat guaranteesresilience,privacy,reliability andsafetyforalltypesoforganizations– public,privateandeverythinginbetween. Italsohasthescale,costperformanceand qualityrequiredtosupportfutureinnovations. Asaresultofthesecharacteristics,itisthe mostsustainablesolutiontoaddressall futurecommunicationneeds. Futuretechnologieswillenableafully digitalized,automatedandprogrammable worldofconnectedhumans,machines, thingsandplaces.Allexperiencesand sensationswillbetransparentacrossthe boundariesofphysicalandvirtualrealities. Trafficinfuturenetworkswillbegenerated notonlybyhumancommunicationbutalso byconnected,intelligentmachinesand botsthatareembeddedwithartificial intelligence(AI).Astimegoeson,the percentageoftrafficgeneratedbyhumans willdropasthatoftrafficgeneratedby machinesandcomputervisionsystems– includingautonomousvehicles,drones andsurveillancesystems–rises. Themachinesandother‘things’that makeuptheInternetofThings(IoT)require evenmoresophisticatedcommunication thanhumansdo.Forexample,connected, intelligentmachinesmustbeableto interactdynamicallywiththenetwork. Sensordatawillbeusedtosupportthe developmentofpervasivecyber-physical systemsconsistingofphysicalobjects connectedtocollaborativedigitaltwins. Futurenetworkcapabilitieswillalsoinclude supportforthetransferofsensing modalitiessuchassensationsandsmell. Thenetworkplatformactsasaseamless universalconnectivityfabriccharacterized byitsalmostlimitlessscalabilityand affordability.Itiscapableofexposing capabilitiesbeyondcommunication services,suchasembeddedcomputeand storageaswellasadistributedintelligence thatsupportsuserswithinsightsand reasoning. Inthisarticle,Iwillexplaintheongoing evolutionofthenetworkplatforminterms ofthekeyneedsthataredrivingits evolution(trends1-3)andtheemerging capabilitiesthatwillmeetboththose andotherneeds(trends4-7). BY: ERIK EKUDDEN, CTO 30 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 31
  • 17. ✱ CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 ✱ TREND#1: ACOLLABORATIVE,AUTOMATED PHYSICALWORLD Asphysicalanddigitalrealitiesbecome increasinglyinterconnected,advanced cyber-physicalsystemshavebegunto emerge.Thesesystemsconsistofhumans, physicalobjects(machinesandotherthings), processes,networkingandcomputation, andtheinteractionsbetweenthemall. Theirprimarypurposeistoprovideindividuals, organizationsandenterpriseswithfull transparencytomonitorandcontrolassets andplaces,therebygeneratingmassive benefitsintermsofefficiency.Oneearly exampleofthisisthewaythatcyber-physical systemscanhelpplannersoptimizeenergy andmaterialsusage. Soon,therewillbehundredsofbillionsof connectedphysicalobjectswithembedded sensing,actuationandcomputing capabilities,whichcontinuouslygenerate informativedata.Thesensordatagenerated byphysicalobjectscanbeusedtocreate theirdigitaltwins.Collaborativedigital twinswillhavetheabilitytomanagethe interactionsbetweenthephysicalobjects theyrepresent. Digitalizingthephysicalenvironment inwhichthephysicalobjectsinteract requiressensordatafusion–thatis, usingdatafrommultiplesourcesto createanaccuratedigitalrepresentation ofthephysicalenvironment.Oneexample ofsensordatafusionisachievinghigh- precisionpositioningbycombining network-basedpositioningdatawith informationfromothersensorssuchas camerasandinertialmeasurementunits. Ultimately,thejointcommunication andsensinginfuturesystemswillmakeit possibletoleveragealltheinterconnected digitaltwinsanddigitalrepresentations oftheenvironmenttocreateacomplete digitalrepresentationofeverything. TREND#2: CONNECTED,INTELLIGENT MACHINES Machineswillbecomeincreasingly intelligentandautonomousastheir cognitiveabilitiescontinuetoexpand. Theirunderstandingoftheworldaround themwillcontinuetogrowintandemwith theirabilitytointeractwithothermachines aspartofacognitivesystemofsystems. Anintelligentmachineusessensorsto monitortheenvironmentandadjustits actionstoaccomplishspecifictasks inthefaceofuncertaintyandvariability. Thesemachinesincludethreemajor subsystems:sensors,actuatorsandcontrol. Examplesofintelligentmachinesinclude industrialrobots,speechrecognition/ voicesynthesisandself-guidedvehicles. Thecomplexityofcontrolandlogicskills makesexpertsystemscentralintherealm ofintelligentmachines. Trends 1-3: The key drivers of network platform evolution The three key drivers that are most significant to the evolution of the network platform are all related to bridging the gap between physical reality and the digital realm. Most notably, this involves delivering sensory experiences over networks and utilizing digital representations to make the physical world fully programmable. Thenetworkplatformwillprovide anautomatedenvironmentinwhich interconnected,intelligentmachines cancommunicate,includingsupportfor AI-to-AIcommunicationandautonomous systemssuchascommunicationamong self-drivingvehiclesandintelligent machinesinfactories. Intelligentmachineshavetheirownway ofperceivinginformation(data),whichis differentfromhowhumansperceiveit. Forexample,communicationamong intelligentmachinesrequiresnewtypesof videocompressionmechanisms,astoday’s videocodecsareoptimizedforhuman perception. Anotheraspecttoconsiderishow intelligentmachineswillinteractand communicatewitheachother.Toimprove thereliabilityandefficiencyofmachine- to-machinecommunication,machineswill needtounderstandthemeaningofthe communicationintermsofcapabilities, intentionsandneeds.Thiswillrequire semantics-drivencommunication. Cognitionisoneofthemostimportant capabilitiesofanintelligentmachine. Cognitivemachinesarecapableof self-learningfromtheirinteractionsand experienceswiththeirenvironment. Theygeneratehypothesesandreasoned arguments,makerecommendationsand takeactions.Theycanadaptandmake senseofcomplexityandhandle unpredictability.Thefuturenetworkwill empowercognitivemachinesbyproviding themwithnewnetworkfeaturesandservices suchassensing,high-precisionpositioning anddistributedcomputingcapabilities. TREND#3: THEINTERNETOFSENSES Theabilitytodelivermultisensoryexperiences overfuturenetworkswillmakeiteasierthan everbeforetotransferskillsovertheinternet. Itwillultimatelyleadtotheemergenceof theinternetofsenses,whichcombines visual,audio,hapticandothertechnologies toallowhumanbeingstohaveremote sensoryexperiences. Theinternetofsenseswillenable seamlessinteractionwithremotethings andmachines,makingitpossibletofully realizeusecasessuchasremotehealth checks,remoteoperationofmachinery, holographiccommunicationandvirtual reality(VR)vacations.Amongotherbenefits, theinternetofsensesisexpectedtohavea significantimpactintermsofsustainability, bydramaticallyreducingtheneedfortravel. Intheyearsahead,majorleapsforward areexpectedinsensorandactuator technologies,suchastheactuationof smellandhigh-qualitytouchsensation. Duringremoteoperations,theadvancesin hapticdeviceswillallowvirtualobjects tobeperceivedjustastherealobjects themselves.Holographiccommunication willbepossiblewithoutwearingextended realityglasses,dueto3Dlightfielddisplay technologies. Bodyaugmentationcapabilitieswillenable humanstobesmarter,strongerandmore capable.Otherexamplesarecontactlenses thatcandisplayaugmentedreality(AR) content,universaltranslatorearbuds thatallowforlanguage-independent communicationandexoskeletonsthat increasephysicalstrength.Eventually, brain-computerinterfaceswillenable communicationatthespeedofthought where,insteadofspeakingtomachines, humanswillmerelythinkinorderto directthem. Thenetworkplatformsupportsthe internetofsenseswithnovelnetwork enablerssuchasdistributedcompute,high- precisionpositioning,integratedsensing andapplicationprogramminginterfaces. Theseareneededtosupportbandwidth andlatencyreservation,networklatency reportingandnetworksliceprioritization. Ericssonhasdeployedadigitaltwin intheItalianportofLivorno(Leghorn). Asaresult,terminalportoperations willincreasinglybecomeamixture ofphysicalmachinery,robotics systems,automatedvehicles, human-operateddigitalplatforms andAI-basedsoftwaresystems. Allthosecomponents,servedby a5Gsolution,transformtheport environmentintoa‘playground’ inwhichtoexperiencethefuture ofanautomatedphysicalworld. Theport’sdigitaltwinmakesuse ofaplethoraofreal-timedata capturedbyconnectedobjectsat thephysicalport,includingsensors, camerasandvehicles.AnAIoperation managementsystemoperatesonthe digitalmodeltodeterminethe sequenceoflogisticstasksand activities.Feedbackfromthese processesprovidesliveupdates tothehumansupervisorsusing VRandtothedocks/quay operatorsthroughAR. Resultsindicatethatthereare about60directandindirectbenefits ofthesolution,includingimproved competitiveness,increasedsafety forpersonnel,sustainablegrowthof theportcity,improvedmanagement oflogisticsandapositive environmentalimpact. USE CASE DIGITAL TWIN IN THE PORT OF LIVORNO 32 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 33
  • 18. ✱ CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 ✱ TREND#4: OMNIPRESENTANDNON- LIMITINGCONNECTIVITY Theconceptofubiquitousradioaccessis evolvingtowardthevisionofafuturenetwork thatwilldelivernon-limitingperformance tosatisfytheneedsofhumans,thingsand machinesbyenhancingmultidimensional coverage,stellarcapacityandaugmenting capabilities. Accesscoverageeverywhere Furtherdensificationofnetworksisneeded toprovidehigh-speedcoverageeverywhere. Connectedairbornedevices,suchasdrones, requireaccessonaltitudesuptoseveral kilometers,makingitnecessarytohavea 3Dpointofviewincludingtheelevation aspecttoprovidecoverage.Thereisalso aneedtoensurehigh-performingindoor connectivitybyincreasingthenumberof indoorsmallcellsandfullyintegratingthem. Flexiblenetworktopologies anddeployments Networktopologiesanddeploymentswill needtobecomeincreasinglyflexibleto providecoverageeverywhereanddeliver extremeperformance.Onepossibilityisa multi-hop-basedradionetwork,wherea multitudeofnodescollaboratetoforward amessagetothereceiver.Thissolutionis particularlyinterestingforsmallercells oflimitedreach.Satellites,high-altitude platformsandairbornecellscanbe integratedintothenetworkasacomplement toextendcoverage.Furthercomponentsin aflexibletopologycanincludeconnected devicerelayandthepossibilityforad-hoc deploymentsofnetworks.Ultimately, distributedmassiveMIMO(multiple-input, multiple-output)solutionsmayleadtofully distributedconnectivity,wheremanyradio networknodessimultaneouslyserveauser, withoutfixed-cellborders. Accessforzero-energydevices Therapidlygrowingdemandforvast numbersofconnectedsensorsand actuatorshasmadeitnecessarytoinvent zero-energydevices.Thesewillbedeployed onceandwillcontinuouslyreportandact withouttheneedformaintenanceor externalcharging.Thesteppingstones alongthewayincludenarrowbandIoT enhancementsandmassivemachine typecommunicationfor5GNewRadio forlocalareanetworks(LANs)aswellas forwide-areausage. Extremeradioperformance Thenetworkwillutilizehigherfrequency bandstodeliverextremeperformance. Forexample,communicationsoverthe terahertzfrequencyband(above100GHz) havesomeattractiveproperties, includingterabit-per-secondlink capacitiesandminiaturetransceivers. Trends 4-7: Critical enablers of the future network platform The network platform is designed to deliver the kind of extreme performance required by applicationareassuchastheinternetofsensesandcommunicationamongintelligentmachines. It will also serve new types of devices with close-to-zero-cost and close-to-zero-energy implementations, which can be embedded into everything. Looking ahead, increasingly advanced technologies in four areas (trends 4-7) will expand the capabilities of the digital infrastructure through the network platform. Thedesignofterahertzelectronicsincludes verysmallantennaandradiofrequency (RF)elementsaswellashigh-performance oscillators. Fullduplexisanothercomponentthatcan, insomespecificscenarios,substantially increasethelinkcapacitycomparedwith halfduplex.Fullduplexismadepossibleby self-interferencesuppressioncircuits. Visiblelightwirelesscommunication, piggybackingonthewideadoptionofLED (light-emittingdiode)lighting,isanother potentialstepinthefrequencydomainto complementRFcommunications. Networkasasensor Higherfrequencieswillfurtherenhancethe spatialandtemporalresolutionoftheradio signal.Reflectionsofsuchradiosignalscan beusedtosensethesurroundings. Furthermore,highfrequencieshave distinctatmosphericandmaterial interactions,wheredifferentfrequencies aremoreorlesssusceptibletothingslike absorptioninwater,forexample.Thishas beenshowntobesufficienttoforecast weatherandairquality. Distanceinformationtoreflecting surfacescanbeidentifiedbyintegrating positioningandsensingcapabilities. Suchinformationcanbeusedtodetect obstaclesandspeedaswellastogenerate real-timelocalmaps. TREND#5: PERVASIVENETWORK COMPUTEFABRIC Asdistributedcomputeandstorage continuestoevolve,thelinesbetween thedevice,theedgeofthenetworkand thecloudwillbecomeincreasinglyblurred. Everythingcanbeviewedasasingle, unified,integratedexecutionenvironment fordistributedapplications,including bothnetworkfunctionsandthird-party applications.Inthenetworkcompute fabric,connectivity,computeandstorage willbeintegrated,interactingtoprovide maximumperformance,reliability, lowjitterandmillisecondlatencies fortheapplicationstheyserve. Ratherthanprocessingdatacentrally, inmanycasesitismoreefficientinterms ofbandwidthand/orlatencyconstraints tobringtheprocessingclosertowhere thedataisproduced,insightsareconsumed andactionsaretaken.Insomecases,local operationmayberequiredbyregulationsor preferredforprivacy,securityorresilience reasons. Asidefromtheapplications,thenetwork alsoprovidesacontinuousexecution environmentforaccessandcorefunctions. Itrunsonadistributedcloudinfrastructure withintegratedaccelerationfordata- intensivevirtualnetworkfunctionsand applications. Thefuturenetworkplatformgoes beyondtheuseofmicroservicesto implementnetworkfunctionsasserverless architectures.Theservermanagementand capacityplanningdecisionsarefully autonomousfromthedeveloperandthe networkoperator.Thenetworktakescare 34 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 35
  • 19. ✱ CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 ofthedeployment,scalingandallresources requiredtoensurethatthefunction deployedisalwaysavailableatanyscale. Upcomingnovelcomputingarchitectures includememory-centriccomputing,optical computing,nanocomputing,neuromorphic computingandevenquantumcomputing. Inthefuture,thesearchitectureswillenable continuedexponentialgrowthincompute capacityformostapplicationsrunningon thenetworkcomputefabric–animportant developmentastheendofMoore’slaw approaches. TREND#6: TRUSTWORTHY INFRASTRUCTURE Governmentsandenterprisesareadopting advancedtechnologiesforsecureassurance ofmission-andbusiness-criticalprocesses suchasfactoryautomation,remotecontrol ofassetsandmore.Thehighlytrustworthy networkplatformfulfillstherequirements ofeventhemostmission-andbusiness- criticalusecases.Itoffersafusionof connectivityandcomputecharacterizedby differentdimensionsofresilience,privacy, security,reliabilityandsafety.Itwillalso provideadaptableandverifiabledimensions oftrustworthinessinascalableandcost- efficientmanner. Ratherthanbeingdesignedpernode orforaparticularpartofthenetwork,the always-oncharacteristicsofthenetwork platformsuchasreliability,availabilityand resilienceriseuptocoverthecomplete network.Always-onmechanismsarebuilt intouserplane,controlplaneanddevice mobilitysolutions.Allpartsofthenetwork willbeaddressedincludingtransport nodesandtransportnetworks,network infrastructureandsitesolutions. Toprotectcommunicationanddata, secureidentitiesareutilizedatevery layerbetweenhumans,devicesand applicationsindifferentindustrysegments. Theseidentitiesaresecurelyanchored todevicesandnetworknodesbyroot- of-trustmechanisms. Networkplatformsolutionsutilize confidentialcomputingtoprotectidentities andtheirdataandestablishtrustamong networkcustomersandtheirassets, therebyalsoofferingassurancetousers andregulators.Thisrequiresautomated trustassessmentofallnetworkelements, things,machinesandapplications,aswell ascomputeandstorageresourcesby usingremoteattestationandAI. ResponsibleAIwillbringtrustworthy automatedprotectionandriskmanagement. AI-basedautomationprovidestheability toactonahighnumberofeventsaffecting thenetworkinfrastructureorthenetwork usage. TREND#7: COGNITIVENETWORK Inthevisionofzero-touchnetwork managementandoperations,networks aredeployedandoperatedwithminimum humanintervention,usingtrustworthy AItechnologies.Alloperationalprocesses andtasks,including,forexample,delivery, deployment,configuration,assurance andoptimization,willbeexecutedwith 100percentautomation. Thenetworkitselfwillcontinuously learnfromitsenvironmentobservations, interactionswithhumansandprevious experiences.Thecognitiveprocesses understandthecurrentnetworksituation, planforwantedoutcome,decideonwhat todoandactaccordingly.Theoutcome servesasaninputtolearnfromitsactions. Thecognitivenetworkwillbeableto optimizeitsexistingknowledge,buildon experienceandreasoninordertosolve newproblems. Thenetworkwillutilizeintent-based anddistributedintelligenceformultiple functions,includingoptimizationofthe radiointerface,automationofnetwork managementandorchestrationsuchas theoptimizationofparameters,handlingof alarmsandself-healing.AIalgorithmswill bedeployedandtrainedatdifferent networkdomains,forexample,in management,thecorenetworkandthe radionetwork.Physicallayeralgorithms, suchaslinkadaptation,handover,power controlanddynamicschedulingof resourcescanbeoptimizedwithAIagents. Networkmanagementwillbecomeless complexthroughintelligentclosed-loop automationwithsupportforhumansto interactwiththenetworkandmonitorits behaviors.Thenetworkoperatorexpresses theintentofadesirednetworkstateorgoal, andthenetworkinternallyresolvesthe detailedstepsnecessarytoachievethat intent.Networkknowledge,dataand actionsareshapedinsuchawaythatthe operatorinteractingwiththenetworkcan understandthem. Thecognitivenetworkwillbebasedon controldesign,usingbothmachine reasoningandmachinelearningtechniques thataredistributedandcapableofactingin realtime.Thenetworkisahighlydistributed systemwheremultipleAIagents,present acrossthenetwork,needtointerworkto optimizeoverallnetworkperformance. Localdecisionsneedtobecoordinated withmorecentralintent-baseddecisions. ThecentralAIagentneedstomakedecisions inrealtimebasedonbothlocalandglobal information.MultipledistributedAIagents sharedistributedinsightsthroughout thenetworkthroughfederatedlearning. Cognitivenetworkswillbeinherently trustworthy–thatis,reliable,safe, secure,fair,transparent,sustainable andresilient–bydesign. CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 ✱ 36 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 37
  • 20. ✱ CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 CTO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 2020 ✱ Thedigitalinfrastructureoffersendless possibilities to individuals, enterprises and governments across the globe, with its unique ability to bridge vast distances and enable powerful new solutions to a wide rangeofsocial, environmentalandeconomic challenges. Health care, education, finance, commerce, governance and agriculture are just a few of the sectors that stand to benefit from the massive efficiency gains that digital infrastructure can provide. Designedtocarryvitalmessages, commands,reasoning,insights,intelligence andallthesensoryinformationneededto supportthecontinuousevolutionofindustry andsociety,thenetworkplatformisdesigned tobethespinalcordofdigitalinfrastructure. Itisalsotheidealplatformforalltypesof innovation,withtheabilitytosupport interactionsthatempoweranintelligent, sustainableandconnectedworld. Themajoradvantageofthenetwork platformisthatitwillbeaccessible anywhere,always-onandwithguaranteed performance.Nomadicdistributed processingandstoragewillbeembedded intoittosupportadvancedapplications. Itwillbeinherentlyreliableandresilient, fulfillingalltherequirementsforsecure communication.Cognitiveoperations andmaintenanceofthenetworkandits serviceswilldeliverthemostcost-efficient andsustainablesolutiontomeetany andallcommunicationneeds. Withthisinmind,itisclearthatthemost importantfuturenetworktrendstowatchin 2020arethosethatrelatemostcloselyto thegrowthandexpansionofintelligent digitalinfrastructureonthenetworkplatform. Thefirstthreeoftheseventrendsthisyear arethekeydriversofnetworkplatform evolution–thecreationofacollaborative automatedphysicalworld,connected, intelligentmachinesandtheinternetof senses.Allthreehighlightthegrowingneed tobridgethegapbetweenphysicaland digitalrealities.Trends4-7areincreasingly advancedtechnologiesinfourareas– non-limitingconnectivity,pervasive networkcomputefabric,trustworthy infrastructureandcognitivenetworks. Breakthroughsinthesefourareaswillbe essentialtofullyenabletrends1-3and continuouslyexpandthecapabilitiesofthe digitalinfrastructurethroughthenetwork platformintheyearsanddecadesahead. ◆ As Group CTO, Erik Ekudden is responsible for setting the direction of technology leadership for the Ericsson Group. His experience of working with technology leadership globally influences thestrategicdecisionsandinvestmentsin,forexample,mobility,distributedcloud,artificialintelligence andtheInternetofThings.Thisbuildsonhisdecades-longcareerintechnologystrategiesandindustry activities.EkuddenjoinedEricssonin1993andhasheldvariousmanagementpositionsinthecompany, including Head of Technology Strategy, Chief Technology Officer Americas in Santa Clara (USA), and Head of Standardization and Industry. He is also a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the publisher of Ericsson Technology Review. ERIK EKUDDEN SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER AND HEAD OF GROUP FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY CONCLUSION The network platform is the spinal cord of intelligent digital infrastructure Furtherreading ❭ Ericsson blog, What do cyber-physical systems have in store for us?, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/12/ cyber-physical-systems-technology-trend ❭ Ericsson report, 10 Hot Consumer Trends 2030, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/consumerlab/ reports/10-hot-consumer-trends-2030 ❭ Ericsson blog, Driving business value in an open world, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2020/7/cto-driving-business- value-in-an-open-world ❭ Ericsson Technology Review, CTO Technology Trends 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/reports-and-papers/ ericsson-technology-review/articles/technology-trends-2019 38 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 39
  • 21. 40 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 41 With a vastly distributed system (the telco network) already in place, the telecom industry has a significant advantage in the transition toward distributed cloud computing. To deliver best-in-class application performance, however, operators must also have the ability to fully leverage heterogeneous compute and storage capabilities. WOLFGANG JOHN, CHANDRAMOULI SARGOR, ROBERT SZABO, AHSAN JAVED AWAN, CHAKRI PADALA, EDVARD DRAKE, MARTIN JULIEN, MILJENKO OPSENICA The cloud is transforming, both in terms of the extent of distribution and in the diversity of compute and storage capabilities. On-premises and edge data centers (DCs) are emerging, and hardware (HW) accelerators are becoming integral components of formerly software-only services. ■ One of the main drivers into the age of virtualization and cloud was the promise of reducing costs by running all types of workloads on homogeneous, generic, commercial off-the- shelf (COTS) HW hosted in dedicated, centralized DCs. Over the years, however, as use cases have matured and new ones have continued to emerge, requirements on latency, energy efficiency, privacy and resiliency have become more stringent, while demand for massive data storage has increased. Tomeetperformance,costand/orlegal requirements,cloudresourcesaremovingtoward theedgeofthenetworktobridgethegapbetween resource-constraineddevicesanddistantbut powerfulcloudDCs.Meanwhile,traditionalCOTS HWisbeingaugmentedbyspecialized programmableHWresourcestosatisfythestrict performancerequirementsofcertainapplications andlimitedenergybudgetsofremotesites. Theresultisthatcloudcomputingresources arebecomingincreasinglyheterogeneous,while simultaneouslybeingwidelydistributedacross smallerDCsatmultiplelocations.Clouddeployments mustberethoughttoaddressthecomplexityand technicalchallengesthatresultfromthisprofound transformation. Inthecontextoftelecommunicationnetworks, thekeychallengesareinthefollowingareas: 1. Virtualization of specialized HW resources 2. Exposure of heterogeneous HW capabilities 3. HW-aware workload placement 4. Managing increased complexity. Getting all these pieces right will enable the future network platform to deliver optimal application performance by leveraging emerging HW innovation that is intelligently distributed throughout the network, while continuing to harvest the operational and business benefits of cloud computing models. Figure1positionsthefourkeychallengesin relationtotheorchestration/operationssupport systems(OSS)layer,theapplicationlayer,run-time andtheoperatingsystem/hypervisor.Thelowerpart ofthefigureprovidessomeexamplesofspecialized HWinatelcoenvironment,whichincludesdomain- specificaccelerators,next-generationmemoryand storage,andnovelinterconnecttechnologies. Computeandstoragetrends With the inevitable end of Moore’s Law [2], developers can no longer assume that rapidly increasing application resource demands will be addressed by the next generation of faster general-purpose chips. Instead, commodity HW is being augmented by a very heterogeneous set of specialized chipsets, referred to as domain-specific accelerators, that attempt to provide both cost and energy savings. Forinstance,data-intensiveapplicationscantake advantageofthemassivescopeforparallelization HIGHLY DISTRIBUTED WITH HETEROGENEOUS HARDWARE Thefutureof cloudcomputing Figure 1 Impact of the four key challenges on the stack (top) and heterogeneity of HW infrastructure (bottom) HW-aware workload placement Exposure of HW capabilities Virtualization of specialized HW Orchestration/OSS Application Run-time Operating system/hypervisor Distributed compute & storage HW • Memory pooling • Storage-class memories • GPUs/TPUs • FPGAs • Cache-coherent interconnects • High bandwidth interconnects • Cache-coherent interconnects • High bandwidth interconnects • Near-memory computing • PMEM • GPUs/ASICs • FPGAs and SmartNICs Distributed compute & storage HW Next-generation memory & storage Domain-specific accelerators Novel interconnect technologies Operating system/hypervisor Run-time User device Application Central Edge 5G UPF 5G gNB Managing increased complexity ✱ THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING ✱ 2 3MAY 12, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 12, 2020
  • 22. 42 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 43 physicalacceleratorintomultiplevirtualaccelerators mustbedonemanually.Addressingtheseissues willrequireappropriateabstractionsandmodels ofspecializedHW,sothattheircapabilitiescanbe interpretedandincorporatedbyorchestration functions. Theneedforappropriatemodelswillbefurther amplifiedinthecaseofdistributedcomputeand storage.Here,theselectionoftheoptimalsite locationwilldependontheapplicationrequirements (boundedlatencyorthroughputconstraints,for example)andtheavailableresourcesandHW capabilitiesatthesites.Theprogrammingand orchestrationmodelsmustbeabletoselect appropriatesoftware(SW)options–SWonlyinthe caseofmoderaterequirements,forexample,orSW complementedwithHWaccelerationforstringent requirements. AsSWdeploymentoptionswithorwithoutHW accelerationmayhavesignificantlydifferent resourcefootprints,sitesmustexposetheirHW capabilitiestobeabletoconstructatopologymap ofresourcesandcapabilities.Duringexposureand abstraction,proprietaryfeaturesandtheinterfaces tothemmustbehiddenandmappedto(formalor informal)industrystandardsthatarehopefully comingsoon.Modelingandabstractionofresources andcapabilitiesarenecessaryprerequisitestobe abletoselecttheappropriatelocationand applicationdeploymentoptionsandflavors. Orchestratingheterogeneousdistributedcloud Based on a global view of the resources and capabilities within the distributed environment, anorchestrationsystem(OSSintelcoterminology) typically takes care of designing and assigning application workloads within the compute and storage of the distributed environment. This means that decisions regarding optimal workload placement also should factor in the type of HW components available at the sites related to the requirements of the specific application SW. Duetothepricingofandpowerconstraints onexistingandupcomingHWaccelerators, ingraphicsprocessingunits(GPUs)ortensor processingunits(TPUs),whilelatency-sensitive applicationsorlocationswithlimitedpowerbudgets mayutilizefield-programmablegatearrays (FPGAs).Thesetrendspointtoarapidlyincreasing adoptionofacceleratorsinthenearfuture. Thegrowingdemandformemorycapacityfrom emergingdata-intensiveapplicationsmustbemetby upcominggenerationsofmemory.Next-generation memoriesaimtoblurthestrictdichotomybetween classicalvolatileandpersistentstoragetechnologies– offeringthecapacityandpersistencefeaturesof storage,combinedwiththebyte-addressability andaccessspeedsclosetotoday’srandom-access memory(RAM)technologies.Suchpersistent memory(PMEM)technologies[3]canbeused eitheraslargeterabytescalevolatilememory,oras storagewithbetterlatencyandbandwidthrelative tosolid-statedisks. 3Dsilicondie-stackinghasfacilitatedthe embeddingofcomputeunitsdirectlyinsidememory andstoragefabrics,openingaparadigmofnear- memoryprocessing[1],atechnologythatreduces datatransferbetweencomputeandstorageand improvesperformanceandenergyconsumption. Finally,advancementsininterconnecttechnologies willenablefasterspeeds,highercapacityandlower latency/jittertosupportcommunicationbetweenthe variousmemoryandprocessingresourceswithin nodesaswellaswithinclusters.Thecachecoherency propertiesofmoderninterconnecttechnologies, suchasComputeExpressLink[4]andGen-Z,can enabledirectaccesstoconfigurationregistersand memoryregionsacrossthecomputeinfrastructure. Thiswillsimplifytheprogrammabilityofaccelerators andfacilitatefine-graineddatasharingamong heterogeneousHW. Supportingheterogeneoushardware indistributedcloud WhilethecombinationofheterogeneousHW and distributed compute resources poses unique challenges, there are mechanisms to address each of them. Virtualizationofspecializedhardware The adoption of specialized HW in the cloud enables multiple tenants to use the same HW under the illusion that they are the sole user, with no data leakage between them. The tenants can request, utilize and release accelerators at any time using application programming interfaces (APIs). This arrangement requires an abstraction layer that provides a mechanism to schedule jobs to the specialized HW, monitor their resource usage and dynamically scale resource allocations to meet performance requirements. It is pertinent to keep the overhead of this virtualization to a minimum. While virtualization techniques for common COTS HW (x86-based central processing units (CPUs), dynamic RAM (DRAM), block storage and so on) have matured well during recent decades, corresponding virtualization techniques for domain-specific accelerators are largely still missing for production-grade systems. Exposureofhardwarecapabilities Current cloud architectures are largely agnostic to the capabilities of specialized HW. For example, all GPUs of a certain vendor are treated as equivalent, regardless of their exact type or make. To differentiate them, operators typically tag the nodes equipped with different accelerators with unique tags and the users request resources with a specific tag. This model is very different to general-purpose CPUs and can therefore lead to complications when a user requires combinations of accelerators. Currentdeploymentspecificationsalsodonot havegoodsupportforrequestingpartialallocation ofaccelerators.Foracceleratorsthatcanbe partitionedtoday,thedecompositionofasingle Definition of key terms Edge computing provides distributed computing and storage resources closer to the location where they are needed/consumed. Distributed cloud provides an execution environment for cloud application optimization across multiple sites, including required connectivity in between, managed as one solution and perceived as such by the applications. Hardware accelerators are devices that provide several orders of magnitude more efficiency/ performance compared with software running on general purpose central processing units for selected functions. Different hardware accelerators may be needed for acceleration of different functions. Persistent memory is an emerging memory technology offering capacity and persistence features of block-addressable storage, combined with the byte-addressability and access speeds close to today’s random-access memory technologies. It is also referred to as storage-class memory. Moore's law holds that the number of transistors in a densely integrated circuit doubles about every two years, increasing the computational performance of applications without the need for software redesign. Since 2010, however, physical constraints have made the reduction in transistor size increasingly difficult and expensive. THESETRENDSPOINTTOA RAPIDLYINCREASINGADOPTION OFACCELERATORS... ✱ THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING ✱ 4 5MAY 12, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 12, 2020
  • 23. 44 #02 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ #02 2020 45 theyareexpectedtobescarceamongedge-cloud sites,whichinturnwillrequiremechanismsto employprioritizationandpreemptionofworkloads. UnlikeconventionalITcloudenvironments, distributedcloudallowsconsiderationsofremote resourcesandcapabilities. Moreover,telcoapplicationsandworkloads hostedintelcocloudsmayrequiremuchstricter ServiceLevelAgreements(SLAs)tobefulfilled. Prioritizationandpreemptionfornewworkloads mayonlybeaviableoptionifcapabilitiesor resourcesarealreadytaken.However,itisimportant tomigrateevictedworkloadseithertoanew location,ortoanewSWandHWdeploymentoption tominimizeservicedisruptionduringpreemption. Managingincreasedcomplexity Traditional automation techniques based on human scripting and/or rule books cannot scale to address the complexity of the heterogeneous distributed cloud. We can already see a shift away Whenaservicerequestarrives,theorchestration servicedesignstheserviceinstancetopologyand assignsresourcestoeachservicecomponent instance(redarrows).Theseactionsarebasedon theactualservicerequirements,theserviceaccess pointsandthebusinessintent. Opportunitiesandusecases In terms of the opportunities in support of the ongoing cloudification of telco networks, let us consider the case of RAN. The functional split of higher and lower layers of the RAN protocol makes it possible to utilize Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and distributed compute infrastructure to achieve ease of deployment and management. The asynchronous functions in the higher layer may be able to be run on COTS HW. However,asetofspecializedHWwillberequired tomeetthestringentperformancecriteriaoflower- layerRANfunctions.Forinstance,thetime- synchronousfunctionsinthemedium-access controllayer,suchasscheduling,linkadaptation, powercontrol,orinterferencecoordination,typically requirehighdataratesontheirinterfacesthatscale withthetraffic,signalbandwidthandnumberof antennas.Thesecannotbeeasilymetwithcurrent general-purposeprocessingcapabilities. Likewise,decipheringfunctionsinthepacket dataconvergenceprotocollayer,compression/ decompressionschemesoffronthaullinksand channeldecodingandmodulationfunctionsinthe physicallayerwouldallbenefitfromHW acceleration. Thesecurityrequirementsfordataflowsacross thebackhaulfor4G/5GRANsmandatetheuseof IPsecurityprotocols(IPsec).Byoffloadingencrypt/ decryptfunctionstospecializedHWsuchas SmartNetworkInterfaceControllers(SmartNICs), application-specificintegratedcircuits(ASICs) orFPGAs,theprocessingoverheadassociatedwith IPseccanbeminimized.Thisiscrucialtosupport higherdataratesinthetransportnetwork. Thenetworkdataanalyticsfunctionin5GCore networkswouldbenefitfromGPUstoaccelerate trainingofmachinelearning(ML)modelsonlive networkdata.Theenhancementstointerconnects (cachecoherency,forexample)makeiteasierforthe variousacceleratorsandCPUstoworktogether. Theinterconnectsalsoenablelowlatenciesand highbandwidthswithinsitesandnodes.Thereis increasingdemandonmemoryfromseveralcore networkfunctions(user-databasefunctions, forexample),bothfromascaleandalatency perspective.ThescaleofPMEMcanbeintelligently combinedwiththelowlatencyofdoubledatarate memoriestoaddresstheserequirements. Whiletheseopportunitiesarespecificto telecommunicationproviders,therearealsoseveral classesofthird-partyapplicationsthatwouldbenefit fromdistributedcomputeandstoragecapabilities withinthetelcoinfrastructure.Industry4.0includes severalusecasesthatcouldutilizeHW-optimized processing.Indoorpositioningtypicallyrequiresthe processingofhigh-resolutionimagestoaccurately determinethelocationofanobjectrelativetoothers onafactoryfloor.Thisiscomputationallyintensive andGPUs/FPGAsaretypicallyused.Likewise, theapplicationofaugmentedreality(AR)/virtual reality(VR)technologiesinsmartmanufacturing forremoteassistance,trainingormaintenance willrelysignificantlyonHWaccelerationand edgecomputingtooptimizeperformanceand reducelatencies. Thegamingindustryisalsowitnessing significanttechnologyshifts–specifically,remote renderingandmixed-realitytechnologieswillhave aprofoundimpactontheconsumerexperience. Thesetechnologiesrelyonanunderlyingdistributed cloudinfrastructurethathasHWacceleration capabilitiesattheedgetooffloadtheprocessing fromconsumerdevices,whilemaintainingstrict latencybounds. Furthermore,severalusecasesintheautomotive industryinvolvestrictlatencyrequirementsthat demandHWaccelerationintheformofGPUsand FPGAsatremotesites.Examplesincludereal-time objectdetectioninvideostreamsthatareprocessed byeithervehiclesorroad-sideinfrastructure. from human-guided automation to machine- reasoning-based automation such as cognitive artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. Specifically, a paradigm is emerging where the human input to the cloud system will be limited to specifying the desired business objectives (intents). The cloud system then figures how best to realize those objectives/intents. Figure2presentsanexemplarydistributedcloud scenariowithaccesssites,regionalandcentralDCs andpublicclouds.Itisbasedontheassumptionthat themanufacturingnetworkslice(red)includesboth telco(xNF)andthird-partyworkloads(APP), outofwhichoneAPPrequiresnetworkacceleration (SmartNIC),whileanotherxNFdependsonPMEM. Multiplenetworkslicesarecreatedbasedon customerneed.Networkslicesdiffernotonlyintheir servicecharacteristics,butareseparatedand isolatedfromeachother.Aggregatedviewsof HWacceleratorsperlocationarecollectedforthe zero-touchorchestrationservice(grayarrows). Figure 2 Integrated network slicing (telco) and third-party applications Gaming AR/VRB E-MBB Automotive Network slices Internet of Things Fixed access Manufacturing APP SmartNICs PMEM HW capability exposures Access sites (edge cloud) Central sites Public clouds Distributed sites (edge/regional cloud) xNF: telco Virtual Network Function or Cloud-native Network Function APP: Third-party application HW capability control Business intent Zero-touch orchestration APP APP APP APP APP APP xNF xNF APP xNF xNF APP xNF xNF xNF xNF xNF ✱ THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING ✱ 6 7MAY 12, 2020 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEWERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ MAY 12, 2020