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Ericsson Technology Review: Driving transformation in the automotive and road transport ecosystem with 5G

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A variety of automotive and transport services that require cellular connectivity are already in commercial operation today, and many more are yet to come. Among other things, these services will improve road safety and traffic efficiency, saving lives and helping to reduce the emissions that contribute to climate change. At Ericsson, we believe that the best way to address the growing connectivity needs of this industry sector is through a common network solution, as opposed to taking a single-segment silo approach.

The latest Ericsson Technology Review article explains how the ongoing rollout of 5G provides a cost-efficient and feature-rich foundation for a horizontal multiservice network that can meet the connectivity needs of the automotive and transport ecosystem. It also outlines the key challenges and presents potential solutions.

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Ericsson Technology Review: Driving transformation in the automotive and road transport ecosystem with 5G

  1. 1. OEM advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) Fleet management (including remote assistance of driverless vehicles) Critical IoT Cellular connectivity Broadband IoT Massive IoT Logistics and connected goods Connected road infrastructure services Vehicle-centric OEM and aftermarket services (including telematics) Vehicle-as-a-sensor for general third-party applications (including weather and maps) Regulated Cooperative-Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) Coverage Latency Reliability Coverage Latency Reliability Coverage Capacity Latency Reliability Coverage Capacity Latency Capacity Coverage Coverage Capacity Coverage Capacity Convenience and infotainment services ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH5G C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 1 3 ∙ 2 0 1 9
  2. 2. ✱ TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G 2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 Major mobile network operators around the world have started rolling out 5G cellular networks, with subscriber penetration expected to reach about 20 percent by 2024 [1]. One of the many benefits of these powerful, multipurpose networks is their ability to provide reliable, secure and fit- for-purpose cellular connectivity in automotive and transport applications. THORSTEN LOHMAR, ALI ZAIDI, HÅKAN OLOFSSON, CHRISTER BOBERG Once considered merely “nice to have,” connectivity is rapidly becoming a critical part of road transportation systems. Ericsson predicts that the number of connected cars in operation will rise to more than 500 million in 2025 [9]. ■Alreadytoday,vehicleoriginalequipment manufacturers(OEMs)areincreasinglyfocusing ondeliveringservicesinadditiontosellingvehicles asproducts.Softwareisnowacriticalcomponent ofvehicles,andOEMsareinvestingheavilyin automation,architecturesimplificationandnew drivetraintechnologiessuchaselectrification. Atthesametime,trafficandroadauthoritiesare seekingnewtechnologysolutionstoreducecarbon emissions,trafficcongestionandcasualties– solutionsthatareoftendependentonvehicle functionalityandtheabilitytoprovidevarious typesofsupportfordriversandvehicles.Meeting thesediverseneedsrequiressoftware-definedand network-awarevehicles,combinedwithadvanced networkconnectivity. Whileitistruethatmanyoftoday’s2G-4G networkscanprovidesufficientconnectivityfor numerousInternetofThings(IoT)applications, thehigherdatarate,lowerlatencyandimproved capacityprovidedby5GNewRadio(NR)access make5Gsystemstheidealchoicetomaximize thesafety,efficiencyandsustainabilityofroad transportation. IN THE AUTOMOTIVE AND ROAD TRANSPORT ECOSYSTEM WITH 5G Driving transformation
  3. 3. TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3 Overviewofautomotive androadtransportservices Awidearrayofautomotiveandroadtransport servicesrequirecellularconnectivity,withmany alreadyincommercialoperation.Tobetter understandthebigpicture,wehaveclassifiedthese servicesintoeightgroups,asshowninFigure1. RegulatedCooperative-IntelligentTransport Systems(C-ITS)focusongovernmentalregulated servicesforroadsafetyandtrafficefficiency.Traffic efficiencyusecaseshaverelaxedlatency requirements,whilesafety-relateddataoften requiresreliablelow-latencycommunication.A benefitofregulationistoencouragecross-OEM cooperationinstandardized(regulated)information exchange.RegulatedC-ITSservicesmayalsouse dedicatedITSspectrumincertainregions;for example,fordirectshort-rangecommunication using3GPPPC5orIEEE(InstituteofElectricaland ElectronicsEngineers)802.11ptechnologies. ThepurposeofOEMadvanceddriverassistance systems(ADAS)istoincreaseroadsafetyby focusingonthedriveranddrivingbehavior.They relyprimarilyonvehiclesensorinformationandare typicallynotcollaborativeacrossvehiclebrands. ADASservicescanalsobenefitfromdataprovided bytrafficauthoritiessuchastrafficlightinformation. Theyareexpectedtoevolvetosupportthedriverless vehiclesofthefuture. Fleetmanagementservicesareaimedatvehicle fleetownerssuchaslogisticsorcar-sharing companies.Thecommunicationserviceisprimarily usedtomonitorvehiclelocationsandthevehicle/ driverstatus.Whenthefleetconsistsofdriverless vehicles,thefleetmanagementalsoincludescommu- nicationsupportforoperationsmonitoringandremote assistance,whichcanimplyfullremotedriving. Theprimaryfocusinthelogisticsandconnected goodscategoryisonthetrackingoftransported objects(commodities,merchandisegoods,cargo Figure 1 Overview of automotive and road transport services that require cellular connectivity OEM advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) Fleet management (including remote assistance of driverless vehicles) Critical IoT Cellular connectivity Broadband IoT Massive IoT Logistics and connected goods Connected road infrastructure services Vehicle-centric OEM and aftermarket services (including telematics) Vehicle-as-a-sensor for general third-party applications (including weather and maps) Regulated Cooperative-Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) Coverage Latency Reliability Coverage Latency Reliability Coverage Capacity Latency Reliability Coverage Capacity Latency Capacity Coverage Coverage Capacity Coverage Capacity Convenience and infotainment services
  4. 4. ✱ TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G 4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 andsoon)duringtheproductionandtransport cycleoftheobject. Convenienceandinfotainmentservicesdeliver contentsuchastrafficnewsandaudioentertainment fordrivers,andgamingandvideoentertainmentfor passengers. Invehicle-as-a-sensorforgeneralthird-partyuse cases,thesensorsinstalledinthevehicletoprovide informationtosolutionsaimedatachievingdriving improvements(suchasADASorautomateddriving) arereusedtoprovideanonymizeddatatoother partiestomonitorcityinfrastructureandroad status,maintainstreetmapsortogiveaccurateand up-to-dateweatherinformation. Vehicle-centricOEMsandaftermarketservices focusonvehicleperformanceandusage.Theymake itpossiblefortheOEMtocollectvehiclediagnostics datathatenablesittomonitor/adjustthevehicleand giveadvicetothedriverforimproveddriving efficiency.Otherexamplesofservicesinthis categoryincludevehicletracking andpredictive maintenance. Connectedroadinfrastructureservicesare operatedbycitiesandroadauthoritiestomonitor thestateofthetrafficandcontrolitsflow,suchas physicaltrafficguidancesystems,parking managementanddynamictrafficsigns. Eachservicegroupcontainsmultipleusecases, andrequirementscanbediversewithinagroup. Thekeyconnectivityrequirementspersegment arenotedinFigure1. 5G-enablednetworkforallservices Connectedvehiclesandroadinfrastructurearepart ofabroaderIoTecosystemthatiscontinuously evolving.Toensurecostefficiencyandfuture-proof support,mobilenetworkoperators(MNOs)aimto meettheconnectivitydemandsofmultipleindustry verticals,includingtheautomotiveandtransport industry,usingcommonphysicalnetworkinfra- structure,networkfeaturesandspectrumresources. EricssondividescellularconnectivityfortheIoT intofourdistinctsegments:massiveIoT,broadband IoT,criticalIoTandindustrialautomationIoT[2]. Examples of connected services trials In addition to all the connected services already in commercial operation, there are many noteworthy advanced trials on 4G/5G cellular networks, including: ❭ C-ITS in Australia: https://exchange.telstra.com.au/making-our-roads-safer-with-connected-vehicles/ ❭ C-ITS in Europe: https://5gcar.eu ❭ Multi-party information exchange for C-ITS: https://www.nordicway.net/ ❭ Connected traffic light information and driver advice for C-ITS: https://www.talking-traffic.com/en ❭ ADAS: https://www.ericsson.com/veoneer ❭ AD-aware traffic control: https://www.drivesweden.net/en/events/demo-ad-aware-traffic-control-0 ❭ Tele-operated driving and HD mapping: https://5gcroco.eu/ ❭ Self-driving, remote-assisted trucks: https://www.ericsson.com/en/press-releases/2018/11/ericsson- einride-and-telia-power-sustainable-self-driving-trucks-with-5g ❭ Service continuity at border crossings: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/5/connected-vehicle-cross- border-service-coverage ❭ Connected logistics: https://clc.ericsson.net/#/use-cases
  5. 5. TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 Thefirstthreesegmentsarerelevantforautomotive andtransportservices.ThecoloreddotsinFigure1 indicatetheirrelevanceforeachoftheeightservice groups,basedonkeyconnectivityperformance indicators. MassiveIoT MassiveIoTconnectivitytargetslowcomplexity narrow-bandwidthdevicesthatinfrequentlysendor receivesmallvolumesofdata.Thedevicescanbein challengingradioconditionsrequiringcoverage extensioncapabilitiesandmaysolelyrelyonbattery powersupply.MassiveIoTissuitableforlow-data- rateusecasesthatcanbesupportedwithnarrow bandwidthmodems.Theseusecasescanbefound inlogistics,telematics,fleetmanagementand connectingpartsofroadinfrastructure,forexample. BroadbandIoT BroadbandIoTconnectivityenableslargevolumes ofdatatransfer,extremedataratesandlowlatencies fordeviceswithsignificantlylargerbandwidthsthan massiveIoTdevices.BroadbandIoTconnectivityis alsocapableofenhancingsignalcoverageperbase stationandextendingdevicebatterylifeifrequire- mentsondatarateandlatencyarenotstringent. BroadbandIoTisvitalforthemajorityoftheauto- motiveusecasesthatrequirehighdataratesandlow latency,suchasinfotainment,telematics,fleet management,sensorsharing,basicsafetyandADAS. CriticalIoT CriticalIoTconnectivityenablesultra-reliable and/orultra-lowlatencycommunication.Itaimsto delivermessageswithstrictlyboundedlowlatencies eveninheavilyloadedcellularnetworks.CriticalIoT canenablesomeveryadvancedservices,suchas remotedrivingofautomatedcommercialvehicleson specificroutes. 4GnetworksalreadysupportmassiveIoT(based onLTECategoryM1andNarrowbandIoTaccess) andbroadbandIoT(basedonLTEaccess).5G networkswillboostbroadbandIoTperformance andenablecriticalIoTwiththeintroductionofNR. WiththeevolutionofcellularIoTinthe5Gera, cellularnetworkswouldenablethefullrangeof existingandemergingautomotiveapplications. Thishorizontalapproachofsupportingallservices throughthecellularnetworkismuchfasterandmore cost-efficientthandeployingdedicatedsystemsfor differentservices,suchasadedicatedshort-range communicationsystemforregulatedC-ITS[3]. Acceleratingtheadoptionof5Gconnectivity Whenrollingout5Gnetworks,MNOsaimto balanceinvestments,newrevenuesand competitiveness.Decisionsaboutwhereandwhen todeploy5Gnetworksdependnotonlyon commercialfactorsbutalsoonspectrumavailability indifferentregions.Acceleratedadoptionof5G intheecosystem,includingtheautomotiveand transportindustry,requires: ❭❭ The ability of 5G NR deployments to deliver value from day one. ❭❭ The ability to efficiently share spectrum resources between 5G NR and 4G LTE. ❭❭ Operators’ ability to reuse 4G LTE radio base station equipment for 5G NR deployments as much as possible. Oneofthe5Gfundamentalsistightinterworking between4GLTEand5GNRradioaccess. Thisinterworkingallows5G-capabledevicesto simultaneouslyaccess4GLTEand5GNRcarriers. A5G-capablemodemcanconnectwithNR(whenin NRcoverage)toexperienceaboostinperformance andcapacitywhilemaintainingits4GLTE connection.Thisapproachensuresthat5GNR deploymentscandelivervalueforautomotiveand transportservicesfromdayone. Bothwide-area5Gcoverageandautomotive sectorrequirementsdemandthat5GNRand4G LTEareabletoefficientlysharespectrumresources. Lowercarrierfrequencieswhere4GLTEis operationalareidealfromacoverageperspective (duetobetterradiowavepropagationcharacteristics) andveryattractivefor5GNRdeployments. However,4GLTEwillberequiredformanyyearsto supportlegacydevices(suchasvehicleswith4G
  6. 6. ✱ TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G 6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 modems).Toaddressthis,Ericssonhasdeveloped fullydynamicspectrumsharingbetweenNRand LTEonamillisecondlevelforoptimizedutilization ofspectrum[4]. Withrespecttooperators’abilitytoreuse4GLTE radiobasestationequipmentfor5GNRdeployments, theEricssonRadioSystemcanbefullyreusedon existingsitesfollowingaremotesoftwareupgrade, includingbasebandunits,radiosandantennas (whenNRandLTEshareaspectrumband)[4].This important5Gfunctionalitywillfacilitatemarket- drivendeploymentsalongmoststreetsandroads. However,insomecases,publicincentivescantrigger fasterroadcoveragedeployment,forexampleby lettingMNOsdeploynetworksusingroad authorities’siteassets,orregulatingroadcoverage requirementsinspectrumlicenseauctions[5]. Therelationbetweenin-vehicle andwide-areaconnectivity Figure2illustrateshowcellularconnectivityworks forvehiclesandroadsideequipment.Itvisualizes vehiclesasmultipurposedevicesinwhichseveral connectivity-dependentusecasesareexecuted simultaneously.Atthesametime,eachvehiclealso containsaninternalnetworkthatinterconnects in-vehiclesensors,actuatorsandotherdevices, includingdriverandpassengersmartphones. Agatewayfunction(traditionallyimplemented intheTelematicsControlUnit)connectsthe vehicle-internalnetwork(s)totheexternalnetwork. Amongotherthings,thisgatewayfunctionprotects thevehicle-internaldevicesagainstexternalmisuse. Additionalsecurityandtrafficseparationsolutions restrictaccesstosensitivein-vehicledevicesfrom insidethevehicleaswell. Connectivitytotheexternalnetworkisrealized byoneormoremodems,containingoneormore subscriptions(representedbySIMcards)when usingcellularaccess.Thenumberofmodems andsupportedsubscriptions(providedbythe OEM,forexample)hasgenerallybeenatrade-off betweencostconstraintsandsimpleserviceusage. Morerecently,capacityandredundancygains havealsobeentakenintoconsideration. Figure 2 Cellular connectivity for vehicles and roadside equipment Fleet GW Fleet mgmt services Passenger Wi-Fi Telematics, ADAS, C-ITS Infotainment Private vehicle Roadside equipment Wide-area cellular network Commercial vehicle for people transport Wi-Fi Telematics OEM GW OEM GW Owner GW
  7. 7. TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7 Insomecases,thefleetoperatorprovides connectivitytothetransportedobjects(passengers inthiscase),asillustratedinFigure2.Alternatively, thevehicle’sOEMsubscriptioncanbeusedto providepassengerWi-Fi. Insteadofusingthevehicle-mountedconnectivity support,infotainmentandnavigationareoften providedbyasmartphonewithitsownsubscription thatiscarriedintothevehicle.AsfutureITSand ADASservicesevolve,theytoowillbeavailable throughsmartphones,whichwillincreaseservice penetrationtooldervehicles. Achievingglobalconsistency inautomotiveandtransportconnectivity Vehiclesallaroundtheworldneedconnectivityto communicate,and,likeanyotherdevice,avehicle needsanMNOsubscriptiontoaccessacellular network.Thestarkcontrastbetweentheglobal natureofvehicles’connectivityrequirementsand thelocalnatureofMNOspresentssignificant challengestomeettheautomotiveandtransport ecosystem’sconnectivityneeds,mostnotablyinthe areasofsubscriptionprovisioning,roaming,local breakout/distributedcomputingandcost separation/trafficprioritization. Subscriptionprovisioning Oneofthechallengesparticulartotheautomotive andtransportecosystemisthatthelonglifecycleof vehiclesandtheirvaryingroamingneedsovertime maymakeitnecessaryforavehicleownerand/or OEMtochangethesubscriptionmultipletimes. SincethephysicalSIMcardsthatcontainthe subscriptioncredentialsarenoteasilyaccessible invehicles,itisproblematictohavetochangethem. EmbeddedSIM(eSIM)technologyovercomes thischallengebyenablingremoteprovisioningof MNOsubscriptions.AneSIMunitcanbesoldered intothecellulardevicewhichstorestheMNO- specificnetworkaccesscredentials(thesubscription) asaSIMcardprofile.Thesubscriptionscanthenbe changedremotelyover-the-airwithoutphysically touchingthevehicle.Tosimplifytheusageofthis technology,theGSMAhasdevelopedaneSIM profilespecification[6]. Roaming Itiscommontodayforavehicletobeproducedinone country,soldinanother,ownedinathird,anddriven acrossborderstonumerousadditionalcountriesor regions,withhighrequirementsondatathroughput andlatencyindependentoflocation.Inlightofthis, roamingisfrequentlythedefaultoperatingmodelfor aconnectedvehicle.Today’sroamingsolution,how- ever,issingle-human-user-centric–designedto supportuserstravelingoutsidethecoverageoftheir homemobilenetworks.Itisnotdesignedforconnected vehiclesonaglobalscale.Asaresult,ithasanumber oflimitationsinautomotiveandtransportapplications. Terms and abbreviations 3GPP – 3rd Generation Partnership Project | ADAS – Advanced Driver Assistance Systems | AMQP – Advanced Message Queuing Protocol | C-ITS – Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems | DSDA – Dual Sim Dual Active | eSIM – Embedded SIM | GW – Gateway | HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol | IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers | IOT – Internet of Things | MAC – Media Access Control | MNO – Mobile Network Operator | MQTT – Message Queuing Telemetry Transport | NR – New Radio | OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer | PC5 – LTE-V2X short-range access interface | PGW – Packet Data Network Gateway | PDCP – Packet Data Convergence Protocol | PHY – Physical Layer | RLC – Radio Link Control | SCEF – Service Capability Exposure Function | SLA – Service Level Agreement | TCP – Transmission Control Protocol | TLS – Transport Layer Security | Uu – Utran-UE (interface in 3GPP)
  8. 8. ✱ TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G 8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 Firstly,sinceroamingfeesareonlypartially regulated,theydependtoalargeextentonbilateral agreementsbetweentwoMNOs.Asaresult,thefees canvary,whichcanmakeitdifficulttopredictthe costfortheusedconnectivityincertaincases. Secondly,ithastraditionallybeenthecasethat onlybasicconnectivityandcommunicationisenabled whileroaming,whichmeansthatsomemore advancedserviceandcapacityrequirementsmay notbemetwhenavehicleconnectsoutsideitshome network.RoamingagreementsbetweenMNOs typicallyputlimitationsonhowtheconnectivitycan beused,andthevisitedMNOcandisconnectthe deviceifitisnotinlinewiththeagreement. Thirdly,thecurrentlydeployedroamingarchi- tectureisdesignedtoroutetraffictothehomenetwork first,whichincreaseslatency.Thisisproblematicin automotiveusecasesthatarelatency-criticalor producehighdatathroughput.Inthesecases,fast accesstonational/localdatacentersisrequired. Fourthly,thefactthatamobiledeviceloses connectivityforsometime(uptoabout120seconds) whenbeinghandedoverfromoneMNOtoanother isaseriousissueformanyusecases.Thereason forthedelayisthatthemobiledeviceneedsto firstscanforasuitablenetworkproviderand thenregisteritselfinthenewmobilenetwork. Thisappliesatbothinternationalcountryborders andnationalcoverageborders. InEricsson’sview,therearetwocomplementary pathstoovercomingroamingchallengesinthe automotiveandtransportindustry: 1. Enhancing the existing roaming solution through the creation of an alliance of MNOs. 2. Avoiding roaming altogether by using local subscriptions and eSIM technology for provisioning in each local network. Theenhancementoftheexistingroamingsolution wouldensurethatoperatorstreatroamingusersthe samewaytheytreatlocalusers–thatis,therewould benoadditionalcostsandroaminguserswouldhave consistentcapabilityandsupportforlow-latencyand high-volumeservices.Thiscouldbeachieved throughthecreationofanallianceofMNOsthat enablesthe3GPProamingarchitecture“Local breakoutinthevisitednetwork,”[7]whichwould providedirect,fastaccesstolocaldatacenters. Alternatively,itispossibletoavoidtheroaming modelaltogetherbyusinglocalsubscriptionsand eSIMtechnologyforprovisioningineachlocal network.Thisapproachensuresaccesstoallthe functionalityandcapacityprovidedbythelocal network,includingdirectaccesstolocaldatacenters. Someformofcoordinationofservice,subscription andcostmodelsbetweentheinvolvedoperators wouldberequiredtoachieveconsistency. Bothofthesealternativesinvolvetheuseof differentcorenetworks,whichmeansthattherecan bevariancesinserviceexperienceandSLAsupport betweenoperators.Thisisduetothefactthatthecore networkistheentitythatcontrolsmostoftheservice- specificparametersandmanagesthetechnicalSLAs. FullharmonizationofservicesandSLAcontrol requiresanalignmentofcorenetworkfunctions. Regardlessofwhichoptionischosen,afastinter- MNOmobilitysolutionisalsorequiredtoreduce thetimefornetworkswap.Acombinationofnetwork featuresinarecenttrialhasbeenshowntoprovide fastinter-networkservicecontinuity[8]. Localbreakoutanddistributedcomputing Severalemergingautomotiveservicesrequire vehiclestobeconnectedtothecloudandnetworks tofacilitatethetransferofalargeamountofdata betweenvehiclesandthecloud.Someoftheservices maybemoretime-critical,whileotherservicesallow timephasingtoadifferenttimeslotoranotheraccess network.TheAECC(AutomotiveEdgeComputing Consortium)addressesthetechnicalrealization ofsuchusecasesbydesigningatopology-aware distributedcloudsolutiononaglobalscale, tobetteraccommodatetheneedsoftheautomotive industry[9,10]. Costseparationandtrafficprioritization Intheautomotiveandtransportecosystemthereisa needtoseparatethecostsforcellularconnectivity fordifferentservicesinthevehicletargetedat
  9. 9. TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 9 differentstakeholders–suchastheownerofthe vehicleorvehiclefleet,thedriver/userofthevehicle, thevehicleOEMandtraffic/roadauthorities.For example,onemaywantentertainment-relatedcosts tobechargedtothepassengers,whiletheOEM coversthecostforvehicle-centricsensordata uploads.Supportfordatatrafficprioritizationisalso essential,particularlyattimesofhighnetworkusage, suchaswhenvehiclesarestuckinatrafficjam. Therearetwomainalternativesforcost separation:multiplesubscriptionsormultiple connectionsusingasinglesubscription(alsoknown asdedicatedbearers).Avehiclecanhavemultiple subscriptionstoconnectwithoneormultiplemobile networksformultipleservices.Multiple subscriptionscanbeactivesimultaneouslywhen multipleservicesareneededconcurrently.The vehiclecanbeeithernativelyequippedtosupport multiplesimultaneousactivesubscriptionsthrough theuseofaDual-SimDualActive(DSDA)device, forexample,oradditionalcommunicationdevices canbeaddedtothevehiclelater(eachwithitsown subscription).Thesedevicescouldbepermanently mountedortheycouldbetemporarydevicessuchas thedriver’ssmartphone. Adedicatedbearerframeworkallowsseparation oftrafficflowsfordifferentiatedQoShandlingand chargingusingasinglesubscriptionandsingle modem.3GPPsystemssupporttrafficdifferentiation basedonPolicyandChargingControlrules. Theterm‘policy’referstovarioustraffic-handling policies,suchasdifferentQoSfordifferenttrafficflows. In4Gnetworks,theseparateddatastreamsare handledasdifferentbearers,whichareknownas dedicatedbearers.Thecellularnetworkidentifies thetrafficflowsbasedontrafficflowtemplates– typicallya5-tupleintheformofIPaddresses, protocolandtransportlayerports.Theconsumed datavolumescanbeaccountedseparatelyforeach bearer.Within5Gnetworks,theseparateddata streamsarehandledasdifferentQoSflows. Figure3depictsanend-to-endarchitecture usingdedicatedbearersfortrafficseparation, consideringdistributedcomputingwithedgeclouds. Figure 3 Usage of dedicated bearers for traffic separation within one vehicle OEM cellular subscription Cellular network Default bearer Dedicated bearers with different priorities Request network feature OEM edge cloud IoT protocol stack Other servers OEM central cloud PGW SCEF GW MQTT, AMQP, HTTP, etc. TLS TCP 3GPP Uu IP PDCP RLC MAC PHY
  10. 10. ✱ TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G 10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 Theedgecloudserversareshieldingthecentral cloudserversbyexecutingtheheavylifting workloads.Thecentralserverscoordinatetheheavy workloadfunctionsanddistributetheloadacross differentedgecloudserversandsites. Thecentralcloudserverssteerthevehicle’s connectiontoanappropriateedge,whichsupports theserviceandhassufficientcomputational capacity.Thepolicyrulesfortrafficseparationcan beprovidedeitherstaticallywithinthepolicysystem ofthenetworkordynamicallyusingtheService CapabilityExposureFunction(SCEF),whichis providedbythemobilenetworktowardtheOEM. TheSCEFisevolvingintotheNetworkExposure Functionin5G. Figure3alsoillustratesanexampleprotocolstack fordifferentIoTconnectivityprotocols.Popular publish/subscribeIoTprotocolslikeMQTT(S)or AMQP(S)canbeusedforeventnotificationtoone ormorereceivers.Vehiclescansubscribeto channels(calledtopics)thatprovideinformation relevanttoacertaingeographicalarea. HTTP(S)istypicallyusedtofetchinformationor providefeedback.Forusecasessuchasremote driving,additionalprotocolsareusedforsending uplinkvideoanddownloadvehiclecontrol commands.Whenusedwithdedicatedbearers,all themessagesusingthesametransportconnection (TCP,forexample)willbetreatedaccordingtothe samepolicyrule(prioritization,forexample). Inupcoming5Gnetworks,thenetworkslicing concept[11]maybeusedforserviceandcost separation. Conclusion Theconnectivityneedsoftheautomotiveand transportecosystemarediverseandcomplex, requiringacommonnetworksolutionratherthan asingle-segmentsiloapproach.Theongoingrollout of5Gprovidesacost-efficientandfeature-rich foundationforahorizontalmultiservicenetwork. 5Gnetworks(including2G-4Gaccesses)offer excellentcapabilitiesthatmakethemtheideal choicetomeetthewidevarietyofneedsinthe automotiveandtransportecosystem.Thetime-to- marketfor5Gnetworksandservicesisfasterthan earliergenerations,andtheconnectivitycapabilities canbetailoredtodifferentservicesusingmechanisms thatenablebothseparatedQoStreatmentand separatedcharging.Thisfunctionalitycontributes tomaking5Ginstrumentalinhelpingtomaximize thesafety,efficiencyandsustainabilityofroad transportation. Further reading ❭ Learn more about evolving cellular IOT for industry digitalization at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/networks/ offerings/cellular-iot 5GPROVIDESACOST- EFFICIENTANDFEATURE-RICH FOUNDATIONFORAHORIZONTAL MULTISERVICENETWORK
  11. 11. TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 11 References 1. Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/49d1d9/a ssets/local/mobility- report/documents/2019/ericsson-mobility-report-june-2019.pdf 2. Ericsson white paper, Cellular IoT Evolution for Industry Digitalization, January 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/white-papers/cellular-iot-evolution-for-industry-digitalization 3. 5GAA white paper, C-ITS Vehicle to Infrastructure Services: how C-V2X technology completely changes the cost equation for road operators, available at: https://5gaa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/5GAA- BMAC-White-Paper_final2.pdf 4. Ericsson, 5G deployment considerations, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/networks/trending/ insights-and-reports/5g-deployment-considerations 5. BundesnetzagenturfürElektrizität,Gas,Telekommunikation,PostundEisenbahnen,2018,availableat: https://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/EN/Areas/Telecommunications/ Companies/TelecomRegulation/FrequencyManagement/ElectronicCommunicationsServices/ FrequencyAward2018/20181214_Decision_III_IV.pdf;jsessionid=0A5E0D5D76E944D2218CF71B6D9EC500?__ blob=publicationFile&v=3 6. GSMA, The SIM for the next Generation of Connected Consumer Devices, available at: https://www.gsma.com/esim/ 7. 3GPP TS 23.501, System architecture for the 5G System (5GS), available at: https://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/23501.htm 8. Ericsson blog, Keeping vehicles connected when they cross borders, May 21, 2019, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/blog/2019/5/connected-vehicle-cross-border-service-coverage 9. Ericsson Technology Review, Distributed cloud – a key enabler of automotive and industry 4.0 use cases, November 20, 2018, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/ericsson-technology-review/archive/2018/ distributed-cloud 10. AECC white paper, General Principle and Vision, version 2.1.0, December 25, 2018, available at: https://aecc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/AECC_White_Paper_v2.1_003.pdf 11. Ericsson, Network Slicing, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/digital-services/trending/network- slicing?gclid=CjwKCAjw-ITqBRB7EiwAZ1c5U-MQSqTjzDQJRiH43LlO4CPSFvBZC7sBbDRt-iSMX7yXrDd_ hzn1LxoCFCwQAvD_BwE
  12. 12. ✱ TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION WITH 5G 12 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ SEPTEMBER 13, 2019 Thorsten Lohmar ◆ joined Ericsson in Germany in 1998 and has worked primarily within Ericsson Research. He specializesinmobilenetwork architectures, focusing on end-to-end procedures and protocols. He is currently working as an expert for media delivery and acts as the Ericsson delegate in different standards groups and industry forums. Recently, he has focused on industry verticals such as automotive and transport. Lohmar holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Ali Zaidi ◆ is a strategic product manager for cellular IoT at Ericsson. He received an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in telecommunications from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2008 and 2013, respectively. Since 2014, he has been working with technology and business development of 4G and 5G radio access at Ericsson. He has co-authored more than 50 peer-reviewed research publications and two books, filed over 20 patents and made several 3GPP and 5G-PPP contributions. He is currently responsible for LTE for machines, NR ultra-reliable low-latency communication, NR Industrial IoT, vehicle-to- everything communication and local industrial networks. Håkan Olofsson ◆ has 25 years’ experience of the mobile industry, and its RAN aspects in particular. He joined Ericsson in 1994 and has served the company and the industry in a variety of capacities, mostly dealing with strategic technology development and evolution of 2G to 5G. He is currently head of the System Concept program in Development Unit Networks. He is also codirector of the Integrated Transport Research Lab in Stockholm, founded together with the KTH Royal Institute of Technology and the Swedish vehicle manufacturer Scania. Olofsson holds an M.Sc. in physics engineering from Uppsala University, Sweden. Christer Boberg ◆ serves as a director at Ericsson’s CTO office, responsible for IoT technology strategies aimed at solving networking challenges for the industry on a global scale. He initially joined Ericsson in 1983 and during his career he has focused on software and system design as a developer, architect and technical expert, both within and outside Ericsson. In recent years, Boberg’s work has centered on the IoT and cloud technologies with a special focus on the automotive industry. As part of this work, he founded and drives the Automotive Edge Computing Consortium (AECC) together with industry leading companies. theauthors Theauthorswould liketothank TomasNylander, MaciejMuehleisen, Stefano Sorrentino, MichaelMeyer, MarieHogan, MikaelKlein, AndersFagerholt, TimWouda, FredrikAlriksson, RobertSkogand HenrikSahlinfor theircontributions tothisarticle.
  13. 13. ISSN 0014-0171 284 23-3339 | Uen © Ericsson AB 2019 Ericsson SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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