Mst powerpoint presentation 4.2010


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Slides about the MST (Spring 2010) by the Friends of MST

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Mst powerpoint presentation 4.2010

  1. 1. Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST)<br />Agrarian Reform and Human Development<br />
  2. 2. Splitting the land: capitanias and sesmarias<br /> Second attempt:<br /> From 1533 to 1535, the Portuguese crown distributed the entire area through private capitania grants, and sesmaria subgrants.<br /> This established the massive land concentrations that made large-scale agriculture possible.<br />“Whereas the sesmarias in Portugal had created a class of small copyholders or peasants, in Brazil, where land was seemingly endlessly available, the sesmarias were often enormous and in the long run resulted in a system of great holdings. The regulations that only as much land could be given as could be used were ignored, and by the late seventeenth century some families in Brazil held sesmarias that were larger than whole provinces in Portugal” (Lockwood and Schwartz, 186) <br />
  3. 3. Sugar: the invention of the factory<br />“The search for workers became the main theme of sixteenth-century Brazil” (L&S, 190)<br /> Massive production: <br /> By the end of the 16th century, giant engenho sugar mill production had begun. Slave labor predominated.<br /> 24-hour work, inside a highly-mechanized system, financed on an entrepreneurial basis by Dutch and English capital: these might be considered the first factories. Brazil became one of the most dynamic sites in the world economy. The capital sent back to Europe helped to build Manchester and Birmingham.<br />”The central social institution of colonial Brazil was the engenho, that complex of land, coerced labor, technical skills, and capital that produced Brazil's primary export commodity, sugar” (L&S, 204)<br />Brazil’s usefulness: as a center for controlling displaced laborers.<br />Because the labor process depended on extensive hierarchy and centralization, it also depended on the maintenance of extensive inequalities. Theses have enduring effect. By 2005, Brazil is the 11th most unequal country in the world (CIA, 2005).<br />
  4. 4. The industrial turn<br /> Planned industrialization:<br /> A succession of 20th-century governments engineered the growth of urban industry. This drive characterized most of the 20th century.<br />
  5. 5. Land reform averted: the coup of 1964<br /> Land tension:<br /> Rural/ urban migration in the early 1960s helped to fuel a land reform movement, the Ligas Camponesas, led by Francisco Juliao. President Joao Goulart sided with the Ligas– and was deposed by a military coup.<br /> For 24 years, the military government largely pushed industrialization.<br />
  6. 6. Agriculture, and democracy, return<br /> Renewed agricultural focus:<br /> With the global move away from government-led industrial growth in the 1980s, Brazil’s leaders refocused on agricultural growth. This economic shift was accompanied by a return to democracy– and by the emergence of the MST landless movement in 1984.<br /> When the new constitution was inaugurated in 1988, it included Article 186: land deemed unproductive can be expropriated by the government and redistributed to people in need.<br />Brazil is currently the world’s largest producer of chicken, fruit, and sugarcane, and the world’s second-largest soy producer. <br />The question returns: what does wealth mean? Is Brazil a wealthy country because it has natural resources? Or is what we call wealth the effect of a system of inequalities? <br />
  7. 7. Land Concentration in Brazil<br />Percent of Total FarmsPercent of Land Area<br />Farms Under 10 Hectares <br /> (24.7 Acres) 30.4% 2.7%*<br />Farms Under 100 Hectares<br /> (247 Acres) 89.1% 20%<br />Farms Over 1,000 Hectares <br /> (2,471 Acres) 1.6% 46%<br />Source: 1996 Brazilian census<br />
  8. 8. Wealth Inequality<br />5,000 families (less than .01% of the population) control 40% of Brazil’s national wealth<br />10% of the population controls 75% of the national wealth<br />90% of the Brazilian people own less than 25% of the wealth<br />Source: Professor Márcio Pochmann, Institute of Economics, State University of Campinas<br />
  9. 9. Need for Agrarian Reform<br />4.6 million landless families living in conditions of extreme poverty and distress<br />55,000 rural properties (300,000 acres) classified as unproductive<br />
  10. 10. Migration to the City<br />
  11. 11. Urbanization<br />Brazil had an urban index of 15% in 1940, 36% in 1950 and 82% in 2006 – 4th most urbanized country in the world<br />157 million out of a total population of 188 million lived in urban areas in 2006<br />64% of Brazil’s poor live in urban areas, over 18 million people<br />Almost 7 million urban dwellers lack a water supply and over 20 million lack sanitation coverage<br />Source: 2000 Brazilian census<br />
  12. 12. MST<br />Encampments and Settlements<br />
  13. 13. OCCUPY<br />RESIST<br />PRODUCE<br />
  14. 14. OCCUPY<br />
  15. 15. Brazilian Constitution<br />The Brazilian constitution requires land serve a social function. [Article 5, Section XXIII.] As such, the constitution requires the Brazilian government "expropriate for the purpose of agrarian reform, rural property that is not performing its social function." [Article 184.]<br />According to Article 186 of the constitution, the social function is performed when rural property simultaneously meets the following requirements:<br />Rational and adequate use. <br />Adequate use of available natural resources and preservation of the environment. <br />Compliance with the provisions which regulate labor relations. <br />Exploitation which favors the well-being of the owners and workers. <br />
  16. 16. Beginning An Occupation<br />
  17. 17. Beginning An Occupation<br />
  18. 18. Cutting the Wire<br />
  19. 19. 2006 Occupation<br />
  20. 20. Encampment Viewed From Hill<br />
  21. 21. Encampment “Street”<br />
  22. 22. Encampment Community Center<br />
  23. 23. Families in Community Center<br />
  24. 24. Her Home<br />
  25. 25. Flower Garden<br />
  26. 26. In Front of Fields They Can’t Farm<br />
  27. 27. Land Occupations By Family<br />
  28. 28. MST Results<br />Between 1985 and 2009, MST won land rights for more than 370,000 families organized in over 2,500 agrarian reform settlements on 7.5 million hectares of land<br />As of 2009, 150,000 MST families occupy unproductive land in 900 encampments awaiting approval to begin farming and developing a settlement<br />
  29. 29. RESIST<br />
  30. 30. Resistance<br />
  31. 31. Burial of Victims of Carajás Massacre<br />
  32. 32. 1998 Occupation<br />
  33. 33. The Price of Resistance<br />From 1985 – 1999:<br />1,158 MST and other rural activists assassinated<br />820 additional assassination attempts<br />2,412 documented death threats<br />Only 56 prosecutions and 10 convictions for these crimes<br />
  34. 34. Mistica<br />
  35. 35. PRODUCE<br />
  36. 36. Settlement Community Center<br />
  37. 37. Settlement Community Kitchen<br />
  38. 38. Settlement Home<br />
  39. 39. Assentamento Campos Novos - Santa Catarina <br />
  40. 40. Production<br />
  41. 41. Production<br />
  42. 42. MST PRODUCTION<br />Since 1985*, the MST has created:<br />• 400 production, commercialization, and services associations<br />•79 Agricultural production Cooperatives, both Collective and Semi-Collective with 2,299 associated families<br />• 50 Trade Services Cooperatives with 11,174 direct members<br />• 3 Credit Cooperatives (Popular Bank) with 5,400 associates<br />• 140 small and medium agro-industrial food processors of fruits and vegetables, dairy, cereals, meats, and confectionery<br />• “Green Embrace” Project for forest preservation through consortium plantations<br />• Environmental Education Campaign for beautifying the settlements by planting trees, flowers, forests and establishing gardens<br />• Production of BioNatur Agroecological (organic) Seeds<br />• Several orchards for reforestation in Agrarian Reform areas<br />• Production of organic maize seeds<br />• Training of settlers in alternative technologies for agroecological production <br />(*MST Data from 2003)<br />
  43. 43. Ché Guevara Settlement<br />
  44. 44. Settlement Teens<br />
  45. 45. Settlement Farm Building<br />
  46. 46. MST EDUCATION<br />• Training of educators at middle and higher levels.<br />• Basic education of 50,000 youth and adults in literacy projects<br />• 2,000 public schools in settlements and encampments throughout the country<br />• 200,000 landless children and adolescents attending school, 95% in special curriculum designed for rural youth<br />•Training of more that 3,900 educators in secondary and higher education<br />• Partnership with more that 13 public universities for bachelor’s and master’s course in education, history, agronomy and more<br />•Establishment of more than 250 pre-school centers for children 0 to 6 years of age <br />Development of “itinerant schools” that accompany encampments, currently more than 45 in 7 states with 350 teachers and 4,000 students<br />
  47. 47. Training at Cooperative<br />
  48. 48. Settlement School<br />
  49. 49.  Escola Nacional Florestan Fernandes <br />
  50. 50. Escola Nacional Fernando FloresDining Hall<br />
  51. 51. Escola Nacional Fernando FloresLibrary<br />
  52. 52. MST Store – São Paulo<br />
  53. 53. Health Sector<br />The MST has achieved:• Training of community health educators;• HIV/AIDS prevention program in partnership with the Ministry of Health;• Land and Health Program, with groves for medicinal plant production, with the Ministry of Health;• Completion of medical training in Cuba for 28 youth from settlements with 100 medical students currently in Cuba and Venezuela; and• Diagnostics reaching 9,000 settled families regarding quality of life and housing, in partnership with UNB/ Ministry of Health.<br />
  54. 54. Communications Sector<br />• Sem Terra Journal– The MST's newspaper is one of the longest uninterrupted published journals in a popular movement and was established 27 years ago<br />• Radio - MST works with 158 community and university radio stations, and medium range radio transmitters<br />• Website– On the Internet, since 1996, the MST is present on its website, which receives an average of 5,000 daily visits:<br />• Sem Terra Magazine – A bimonthly magazine, which covers issues related to economy, politics, culture, and social movements nationally and internationally<br />
  55. 55. 5th National CongressBrasilia June 2007<br />Reforma Agrária: Por Justiça Social e Soberana Popular<br /> <br />
  56. 56. Congress Site<br />Entering for a Session<br />
  57. 57. Classroom – Paulo Freire Itinerant School<br />
  58. 58. The “Marriage” of Brazil’s Agro-Elite and Multi-National Corporations<br />
  59. 59. The MST must be confronted “to show that the rural producers do not peacefully accept land invasions and political provocations … Attitudes such as these, of legally questionable [land] expropriations, send a bad message to investors chasing them away and provoking ‘Brazil risk.’ For every invasion of land that occurs in the region there will be a similar action by the Society. We are not going to permit the rural producers … to be insulted by ideological movements of any kind.”<br /> Alessandro Meneghel, President of the Rural Society of the Western Region.<br />
  60. 60. Ocupação da Cargill – 3/7/07<br />
  61. 61. Ocupação da Cargill 3/7/07<br />
  62. 62. Ocupação da Cargill 3/7/07<br />