WORDS AND CONNECTED SPEECH SPEECH AS A MANIFESTATION OF LANGUAGE TWO LEVELS OF INVESTIGATION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL FROM A PHONETIC POINT OF VIEW EVER-CHANGING CONTINUUM : QUALITIES- QUANTITIES-PITCH AND INTENSITIES PHONETIC/PHONEMIC ACCOUNT ARTICULATORIY ANDD ACOUSTIC FEATURES PHONEMES - ALLOPHONES WORDS / CONNECTED SPEECH PHONEMES COMBINE IN WORDS CITATION FORMS OF WORDS CHANGE IN CONNECTED SPEECH.
ELISION The nature of Elision may be stated simply: under certain circumstances sounds disappear. A phoneme may be realised as zero or have zero realisation or be deleted. It is typical of rapid, casual speech. It is not random and follows certain rules.
ELISIONOLD ENGLISH- PRESENT ENGLISH OLD ENGLISH PRESENT ENGLISH Same process of Weakly accented syllables reduction, with resultant process of contraction. reduction: Two cases of elision Loss: established in Phonemes the language for Vowels some time. current only recently.
ELISION: WORD INTERNAL VOWELS Sequence of unaccented syllables: /I/ or /ə/ Pre-nuclear: Post-nuclear: /ə/ +/r/ of the weak syllable C+ /ə/ +/r/ + weak especially when the vowel: preferable /prefr primary accented əbl/-temporary /tempr syllable : /l/ or /r/ : police- parade- correct- believe əri/ Continuant C + /ə/ +/r/ + C /r/ +weak vowel+C: ( other than /l/ or /r/) : Dorothy /drɒθi/ phonetics- supporter- Weak vowel + C+ suppose /l/:family-carefully Elision / ə/ in perhaps- Loss of syllabicity in Elision of / ɪ/geography- present participles: geometry. Lighten /laɪtņ/> /laɪtnɪŋ/
ELISION: WORD INTERNAl CONSONANTS Established Loss of consonants through vocalization OE hlaford> lord – OE wealcan> walk Loss of allophones /h/ brought- night Reduction of consonant clusters: /wr,kn,gn,hl,hr,hn/: write, know,gnaw,loaf,ring,nut Medial /t/ + /n/ or /l/ : fasten-listen- often-castle Final /mb,mn/ : lamb- hymn
ELISION: WORD INTERNAl CONSONANTS Present Colloquial Loss of alveolars /t,d/ when medial in a cluster of 3 consonants: handbag- kindness-exactly-landscape Dentals/θ/ : asthma- isthmus velar/k/ asked lateral/l/ only [ł] always /ɔ:wIz/ already /ɔ: redi/ Sequence of [ r] sounds: library /laɪbri/-February
ELISION: WORD BOUNDARY VOWELS ALLOPHONIC VARIATION: Go away /gɜ :`weɪ ] –I may as well / aɪ meəz` wel/ try again [tra ə`gen][tra: `gen] PHONEMIC ELISION: Word- final consonant+Initial /ə / + continuant: not alone [not`ļəun]-get another- run along Final /ə / + linking /r/ +word-initial vowel: after a while /a:ftrə`waIl/
ELISION: WORD BOUNDARY CONSONANTS Alveolars:word final /t/ or /d/ preceded and followed by C( voiceless continuant +/t/ or voiced continuant +/d/ ): next turn- first day- cashed them- send two-served drinks- cold day Alveolar /t/ of the negative /-nt/ + C: you mustn’t lose it / ju mʌsn `lu:z ɪt/ Labio-dental /v/:give me a cake /gɪ mɪ ə `keɪk/ lots of them- waste of money Glottal /h/ : woudn’t he come? / wudn ɪ `kΛm/ George has seen her
ASSIMILATION The process by which sounds are influenced by neighbouring sounds and come to share some or all of their phonetic characteristics (Finch- Ortiz Lira) These adjustments are the result of an unconscious propensity towards ease of articulation and economy of effort. It is a type of coarticulation. Two types of assimilation: Regressive: the phoneme that comes first is affected by the one that comes after it. Progressive: one phoneme influences the following phoneme, It can occur at two levels: Allophonic: within a word or word boundaries Phonemic: within a word or word boundaries
ASSIMILATION ALLOPHONIC VARIATION WORD INTERNAL- WORD BOUNDARIES PLACE OF ARTICULATION VOICE LIP POSITION POSITION OF THE SOFT PALATE: NASAL RESONANCE
ASSIMILATION ALLOPHONIC VARIATION WORD INTERNAL PLACE OF ARTICULATION Vowels: /Λ/ retracted in result- influence [ ł] /u:/ centralized in music ( influence of [ j ] Consonants /t/ post –alveolar in try (influence of ɹ) dental in eighth (influence of Ө) -/k/ advanced ( pre-velar) key- /n/ dental in tenth- /m/ labiodental in nymph, infant. VOICE Voiceless C +/l,r,w,j/- devoiced : cry- quite-plight Voiceless C+ / m,n,ŋ/ : smoke- snow- open- bacon LIP POSITION: under the influence of adjacent vowels or approximants /j, w/ - lip- spread or lip-rounded Pea-pool / tea- two/ keep- cool/ mean- moon / leave- bloom/ read- rude/ feel – fool/ seat- soon/ he- who NASAL RESONANCE Nasalization of vowel +/m,n/ ham – and Nasalization of vowel between nasal C: man – men- innermost Nasalization of short vowels between nasal C: any – sunny- /l/ + nasal C: helmet- wrongly.
ASSIMILATION ALLOPHONIC VARIATION WORD BOUNDARIES PLACE OF ARTICULATION /t/ denta- not that ( influence of [ ]- /d/ dental – hide them (influence of [ ] -/m/ labiodental – tne forks- (influence of [ f ] - /s/- retracted – this road ( influence of ɹ) VOICE Voiceless C + / l,r,w,j/- devoiced- eg: at last- at rest- at once-see to it- thank you Word final voiced plosive or fricative C+ silence or plosive C + silence: What can you give?- Can you breathe? It’s his- Near the bridge-They’ve come- with some-very good- LIP POSITION Labialized /t,k,n,ŋ,l,s/ + initial /w/-eg: that one- thin one- wrong one- this way- shall we- NASAL RESONANCE /ə,І/ Vowels > nasalized by nasal C – eg: bring another- come in /l/ > nasalized by a nasal C – eg: tell me
ASSIMILATION PHONEMIC VARIATION VOICED /VOICELESS VARIATION W.f-Voiced fricatives + W-i-voiceless C> Vless Fricative- // with > /Ө / with thanks - /z/ >/s/ he was sent- /v/> /f/ of course- we’ve found it- C lenis + fortis > fortis eg: those people PLACE REGRESSIVE Alveolar C + bilabial > bilabial /t/> /p/ + /p,b,m/ eg: that pen- that boy- that man /d/ > /b/ + /b,p,m/ good pen- good boy- good man Alveolar C + velar > velar /k/ + /k,g/ that cup- that girl /g/ + /k,g/ good concert- good girl /n/ >/ŋ/ + / k,g/ ten cups- ten girls /n/ > / ŋ/ + long vowels – I’ve been gardening- She’ll soon come
ASSIMILATION PHONEMIC VARIATION PROGRESSIVE – relatively uncommon Plosive + nasal /n/ > /m/ after /p,b/ eg: happen-urban /n/ > / ŋ/ after /k,g/ eg: second chance- organ-bacon MISCELLANEOUS /s/>/∫ / before / ∫ , t∫, dʒ, j / eg: this shop- cross channel- this judge- this year- /z/ > /ʒ / before / ∫ , t∫, dʒ, j / eg: those young men- cheese shop- those churches- has she? /t,d,n/ +/w/ > /p,b,m/ eg: in winter-
ASSIMILATION PHONEMIC VARIATION COALESCENT ASSIMILATION or YOD COALESCENCE A fusion of forms takes place Historically it is the origin of the /tʃ / eg: nature or /dʒ/ eg: soldier ; also in fricatives /sj> /ʃ/ /zj/ > / ʒ / eg: /ʃ/ pressure- delicious- patient- Russian- or /ʒ / in measure- Word Internal: depends on the following vowel ( strong- weak) Strong vowel u:/ or /ʊə/NRP- eg: tune- endure Weak Vowel /u / or / ə / factual- educate Word Boundaries: It mainly affects phrases involving you or your Alveolars /t / + /j/ > /tʃ / eg: What you want? Alveolar / d / + /j/ > /dʒ / eg: would you? Fricatives /s/ + /j/ > / ʃ / I eg. in case you need it Fricatives /z/ + /j/ > / ʒ / eg. has your letter come?
COMPRESSION A given articulation, either a vowel or consonant, is performed in a shorter period of time. (Finch- Ortiz Lira) A sequence of sounds has two possible pronunciations: as two separate syllables or compressed into a single syllable (LPD-Wells) Uncompressed version is more usual:Rarer words Slow or deliberate speech The first time a word is used in a given discourse Compressed version is more usual: In frequently used words In fast or casual speech If the word has already been used in the discourse
COMPRESSION VOWELS TRIPHTHONGS /aɪə/ > /aə/ eg. Scientist / saɪ ənt ɪst/ > / saənt ɪst/ /aʊə / > /aə/ eg. Nowadays DIPHTHONGS /aɪ / > /ʌ / I’m not /ɪə / > / ɜ :/ Here in the café / aʊ/ > /a/ How are your pets? VOWELS Short Vowels /ɪ / > /j / brilliant /ə / > /w/ influence Long Vowels /i:/ > /ɪ/ agreeable /u:/ > /ʊ/ ruinous
COMPRESSION CONSONANTS SYLLABIC CONSONANTS Syllabic C > non- syllabic C eg. Doubling- totally- library-… trouble is GEMINATED CONSONANTS Compression of double consonants- eg. In my class / ɪ maɪ `klɑ:s/ take care /teɪ `keə/ some more /sə`mɔ:/
LINKING RP introduces word-final post-vocalic /r/ as a linking form when the following word begins with a vowel: Far off- four aces- answer it- fur inside- near it- wear out- Intrusive /r/ Many examples of linking /r/ occur where there is no /r/. It is an undesirable speech habit. In order to avoid using it speakers tend to make use of a pause or glottal stop. It is mainly used in the case of /ə/ ending. Russia and China- drama and music Less frequent after final / ɑ: ,ɔ:/ eg. Law and order- raw onion-
LINKING The insertions of the /r/ is: Obligatory: before a suffix beginning with a vowel. It is historically justified Optional: before a following word beginning with a vowel. It is historically justified After [ə] an intrusive /r/ is used before a following word. It is historically unjustified. After /ɑ: / /ɔ:/ an intrusive /r/ is avoided before a following vowel. The insertion of intrusive /r/ before a suffix is strongly stigmatized.
LINKING LINKING [ j,w ] Vocalic junctures Words ending in / i:,ɪ,eɪ,aɪ,ɔɪ / + /j/ between two vowels- eg. My arms- may ask- he ought- annoy Arthur Words ending in / u:, əʊ, aʊ /+ vowel. Eg. Window open- now and then- you aren’t- This type of linking may be replaced by a glottal stop. Eg. Very angry-
JUNCTURE The relationship between one sound and the sounds that inmediately precede and follow it. Close juncture: my turn / maɪ tɜ:n / = /m/ +/aɪ / External open juncture: /m/ preceded by silence - /n/ is followed by silence My turn / might earn /t/ > [tʰ] /aɪ/ shorter in might