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  1. 1. Internationalization Guide Multinational Houston Company United States Headquarters Prepared for: Dr. Natalia Matveeva, University of Houston - Downtown ENG 6310 – Intercultural & World Communication Fall 2011 Semester
  2. 2. 2 Internationalization priorities and concerns:  Resolve complaints about miscommunication and misunderstandings between U.S.-based and foreign employees.  Create documents and deliverables that conform to a shared standard.  Accommodate the multiplicity of cultures represented within the company.  Minimize conflicts and misunderstandings while maximizing team productivity.
  3. 3. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. PREFACE.....................................................................................................................................................4 II. BASIC RULES OF COMMUNICATION.............................................................................................................6 III. VISUAL DESIGN .......................................................................................................................................10 IV. PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION ...........................................................................................................11 V. TECHNOLOGY USAGE...............................................................................................................................12 VI. CULTURAL FLUENCY................................................................................................................................13 VII. RESOLVING CONFLICT ............................................................................................................................16 WORKS CITED...............................................................................................................................................18 APPENDIXA – MEMO TEMPLATE...................................................................................................................20 APPENDIX B – EMAIL TEMPLATE....................................................................................................................21 APPENDIX C – US BUSINESS LETTER TEMPLATE...............................................................................................22 AcknowledgementAgreement......................................................................................................................23
  4. 4. 4 I. PREFACE What’sin This Guide? The 2011 editionof thisguide providescommunicationguidelinesfor interactingwithmulti-culturaland international audiences. Thisguide includesthe followingresources:  Basic rulesforgrammar,punctuation,andstyle  Informationaboutvisual andverbal communication  Perspectivesonpropertechnologyusage  Reference informationoncultural fluencyandresolvingconflict Who Is This Guide For? Our company: Adheringtothisguide will helpourorganizationachieve itsobjectives,increase productivity, improve jobsatisfaction,championdiversity,andcreate awelcomingenvironmentwhere everyone feelsvalued inthe workplace. Our employees: Thisguide appliestoemployeesatall levelsof the organizationfromindividual contributorsto executiveleadership. Teammemberscanuse thisdocumentnotonlyas a guide for effective andinclusive writingstyle,butyoumayalsouse it as a reference forimprovingbehavior,settlingworkplace conflicts, performingaudience analysis,orimprovingcultural fluency. Be sure to returnthe Acknowledgement Agreementonthe lastpage to yourmanager. Legal Guidelines Privacy Policy Be aware that privacylawsdifferbyregionandbycountry. Privacyincludesawide range of issuesrelatedto communication,personal healthinformation,finances,andonlineactivity. Pleasenote thatprivacylawsvary widelybetweenthe UnitedStates,Europe,andAsia. Europeancountries inthe EuropeanUnionhave some of the strictestprivacylawsinthe world. AccountabilityRegarding Harassment Employeesare accountable fortheirownbehaviorandthe companyprohibitsall formsorharassmentbetween employees. Anywitnessorclaimof harassmentshouldbe immediatelyescalatedtohumanresourcesasmid- managementisnottrainedorsuitedtohandle issuesof harassment. Inthe eventaharassment complaintis filedwithhumanresources,the companywill investigatethe complianttothe fullestextentpossible. Be aware that harassmentclaimscanarise fromemail or otherformsof electronicoronline communication,and harassmentisnotconfined toduringbusinesshours. Harassmentmayinclude anyphysical orverbal misconductthatcreatesa hostile environmentforanotheremployeebasedontheirage,gender,sexual orientation,race orethnicity,religion,national origin,disability,oranyothercharacteristicevenif nota “legally protectedstatus.”
  5. 5. 5 Some examplesof harassmentmayinclude:  Unwelcome comments,jokes,epithets,threats,insults,ornegative stereotyping,OR  Unwelcome physical contact,damagingpersonal property,offensive gestures,anydemeaningact,or any displayof derogatoryorpornographicpictures,photos,orothergraphical media.  Please be aware harassmentisnotalwayslimitedtosexual innature;nonethelesswhenharassmentis sexual,itcanoccur betweenoppositesexesorbetweensame sexes. The U.S.Supreme Courtruledin Oncalev. SundownerIndustries thatsame-sex sexual harassmentcananddoesoccur and ispunishable underthe law.  Anti-harassmentanddiversitytrainingiscompulsoryduringthe monthof hire forall new employees and once everyotheryearforincumbentemployees. AnnualEvaluationsand CorrectiveAction Annual evaluationswill be conducted annuallyeach April. Inputisobtainedfromthe followingsources:  Your directmanager  Your second line manager  Yourself (self-review)  One persononyour team  One personinyour departmentbutnotonyour team  One of yourcustomersor colleaguesinanotherdepartment(if applicable) You will be rankedona five pointscale where one isthe lowestandfive isthe highestranking. Datais aggregatedbyyour managerintoan annual performance appraisal witha360 degree view of yourperformance. Disagreementswithyourfinal rankingsineachcategoryorsubcategoryshouldbe raiseddirectlytoHR rather than yourmanager. Raisesand meritincreaseswill be retroactivefromApril 1,andwill appearsometimeduring the May pay cycle. Please note,raisesandmeritincreasesmaynotbe rewardedforeveryemployee andpay increasesare contingentuponbothcompanyandindividual performance. Employeesrankedinthe bottom20th percentile will be automaticallyenteredintoourperformance improvementprogram. These employeesare in jeopardyof terminationif,aftersix months,theirperformance hasnotimprovedtodesirable levels.
  6. 6. 6 II. BASIC RULES OF COMMUNICATION Writing in an international style means simplicity. Using plain English and simplifying how information is communicated helps translators and readers with limited English proficiency understand written communication. Grammar & Plain EnglishStandards Plain English is sometimes also referred to as plain language. Plain English standards emphasize clarity and elimination of technical jargon in writing. Using Plain English standards also helps reduce cost and improve efficiency for language localization and translation initiatives. Verify spelling using spell check, realizing that spell check is not always completely reliable. Basic rules ofPlain English Grammar 1. Always write with your audience in mind. 2. Avoid slang, jargon, colloquialisms, and clichés. 3. Carefully edit documents to eliminate any potential ambiguity. 4. Chose simple, common, and concrete words over complex words and use these words consistently. 5. Consider bulleted lists for a list of conditions or symptoms. Separate sequential steps into a numbered list. 6. Create a table of contents and/or a table of figures for longer documents. 7. Eliminate gender bias or sexist language. 8. Do not use all capital letters except for acronyms. 9. Do not use double negatives. 10. Incorporate parallel structure for serial lists. 11. Omit compound prepositions. 12. Keep the subject and verb group phrases as close together as possible. 13. Minimize the use of present participles and gerunds (-ing words) and avoid infinitives such as “to be.” Instead, use action verbs. 14. Punctuation marks are language specific. Punctuate sentences carefully and in the correct places. 15. Use active voice. 16. Use determiners such as “a,” “an,” and “the.” 17. Use headings when possible. 18. Use personal pronouns when appropriate. 19. Write short sentences and omit unnecessary words. 20. For more information, see the Federal Plain Language Guidelines at Also see Thirty-nine Steps for Writing Plain English at Punctuation Use International Organization Standardization (ISO) 1973 for punctuation. Always check English punctuation to ensure correct use for any documents that will be translated.
  7. 7. 7 Punctuation marks are language specific. For example, the use of the question mark in English is not a universal sign for questions or information (Bosley 263). According to some research,only 48 percent of a tested population understood the question mark’s use. Abbreviations Always declare acronyms on first use, and capitalize all letters of an acronym on subsequent use. Only use common abbreviations such as eg. for example, ie. for additional information, a.m. and p.m. for time, and for declared acronyms. Languages Use International Organization Standardization (IS) 639-1 for language names. Languages can be represented by a two character code,which is particularly useful for computer file name conventions. Language codes are always written in lower case. Table of Common Language Codes Code Language de German en English es Spanish fr French it Italian ja Japanese nl Dutch mul Multiple Languages NOTE: Additional language codes include en-na (North American English), en-z (international English), zh-s (simplified Chinese), zh-t (traditional Chinese) Telephone Numbers Use International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Standard ITU-T E.123 (1988). The plus sign “+” represents any number or numbers a person must dial to get a line before dialing the actual telephone number. Telephone Number Syntax Examples  Call +1 713 224 3700 to reach Eric Roberson in North America.  Call +65 6526 3855 to reach Wendy Gaines on her international mobile phone.
  8. 8. 8 Currency Use International Organization Standardization (ISO) 4217:1990 for currency codes. Remember that the dollar sign “$” symbol is not unique to U.S. currency. Write the amount followed by a space and then the currency code in all capitals. Currency Syntax Examples  Our services are priced at 99 USD per hour.  Our services cost 2001 EUR per year. Table of Common Currency Codes Currency Code Canadiandollar CAD Euro EUR Poundsterling GBP Yen JPY U.S. dollar USD Measurements Decimals Use International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) SI Brochure,7th edition (1998). Do not get confused by the International Organization Standardization (ISO) Handbook Quantities and Units or ISO 31-0:1992. Do not use a comma to separate numerators from denominators. Always use a period or dot for correspondence from our company. Express large numbers in their smallest form to make them easy to read. Example Decimal Syntax  To represent 3,700,000, write 3.7 million.  To represent the decimal equivalent of pi, write 3.14. Dates and Times Use International Organization Standardization (ISO) 8601:1988 for date and time expressions. Using the correct syntax will eliminate ambiguities for date and time notations used in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is expressed as “Z,” while local time zones are expressed as the number of hours from UTC. Example Date and Time Syntax  To represent the date November 11, 2011: 2011-11-11  To represent the time 6 o’clock p.m. for Grenich Mean Time: 18:00Z.  To represent the time 5 o’clock p.m. for Central Standard Time: 15:00 CST.
  9. 9. 9 Copyrights,Patents, & Warnings Copyrightand Trademarknotifications Never violate copyright and trademark laws in written correspondence that will be distributed externally. Trademarks and copyright symbols identify and distinguish the product, design, words, or phrases for the source of goods from a company or organization. For copyright notifications, include the © symbol , and for trandemark notifications include the TM symbol. For more information, visit the United States Patent and Trademark Office website at Warnings Properly placed warnings alert the audience to potential dangers and protect the company from legal liability. Put conditions at the front of a caution or warning statement, and place warnings before any sequential list of steps. For a comprehensive list of boilerplate warnings protected from editing except by our technical writing team, please consult your manager Additional Resources  International Organization Standardization website  Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) website  International Telecommunications Union website  United States Patent and Trademark Office website
  10. 10. 10 III. VISUAL DESIGN This section on visual design is intentionally brief. It serves as a reminder of the most important visual design principles, and how certain visual design elements are interpreted by multicultural audiences. It is suggested you rely on personal knowledge about visual design, keeping these most important concepts in mind when working on documents and other deliverables. Colors Colors designate a variety of meanings in written communication. For example, in some cultures such as in North America, Europe, and Japan, the color red designates “warning” or “danger,” but in China the color red symbolizes “joy” (Bosley 263). In another example, the color yellow represents caution in Europe and North America, but in Arabic countries in the Middle East yellow means fertility or strength. Always remember that “assumptions about the meaning of color are not universal,” and you must research your target audience before implementing the use of colors in documentation and visual design (Bosley 263). Document Design White Space Use adequate white space for margins and in between section headings. Use a ragged right margin. Use informative headings to break up sections. Figures and Tables For longer documents, use a table of figures at the beginning of the document. Tabulate tables so information is properly aligned (left, right, or center.) Graphics It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the use of graphics in visual design. Consider using interviews, questionnaires, or focus groups to test audience reactions to graphics. Participants should comprise as broad an audience as possible in each region where the graphics will be distributed. The goal is to minimize the risk of offending our target audiences around the world. This internationalization guide is not adequate as a reference materialfor graphics. Please consult “Chapter 11: Visual Elements in Cross-Cultural Technical Communication: Recognition and Comprehension as a Function of Cultural Conventions” in the book Exploring the Rhetoric of International Professional Communication.
  11. 11. 11 IV. PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION Understanding the theories that support intercultural communication can be helpful for both verbal and written interactions. Understanding these ideas may help you excelin your position with the company. High-ContextVersusLow-Context Edward Hall’s theory of high-context or low-context communication “refers to the amount of information that is in a given communication as a function of the context in which” the communication occurs (Bosley 268). In high-context communication, most meaning is in the context with little transmitted in the message. Most South American countries are high-context cultures. In low-context communication, information is explicitly stated in the communication which is specific and direct. The United States is an example of a low-context culture. People in high-context cultures often share very similar worldviews based on education level, ethnicity, and religious orientation. But people in low-context cultures come from a variety of demographic backgrounds and do not often share the same worldviews (Bosley 268). High- and low-context cultural orientations affect communication style and perception. Visual Communication It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the use of graphics in visual design. This internationalization guide is not adequate as a reference materialfor graphics. Please consult “Chapter 11: Visual Elements in Cross-Cultural Technical Communication: Recognition and Comprehension as a Function of Cultural Conventions” in the book Exploring the Rhetoric of International Professional Communication. If you do not have a copy of the book for reference,please order one and expense the cost to the company. Templates “Cultures tend to use the forms of communication (such as orality, writing, e-mail, and hypertext) differently based on how the rhetorical features of the forms correspond to the larger cultural patterns” (Thatcher 468). Having templates to refer to will help keep communication consistent throughout the company. Business Correspondence  Business Letters – See Appendix C  Memos – See Appendix A  Email – See Appendix B
  12. 12. 12 V. TECHNOLOGY USAGE This section governs the use of information technology and explains the software necessary to be successfulin your job function. Requiredsoftware  Skype for group video conferencing – useful for overcoming geographic isolation  Google Talk Instant Messaging (IM) with the Video Chat Plugin – be sure to add each of your teammates to your list of IM contacts so you can easily video chat with them one-on-one  Twitter – useful of sharing industry information and links to interesting articles online; be sure to create a Twitter list of your teammates Optional software  “World Customs” app by Hooked in Motion for iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch  See the Hooked in Motion website at cultures/id337842349?mt=8 Additional Online Resources  Subscribe to Shen’s Books Multicultural Minute YouTube Channel at  Visit the Authentic Journeys – Cultural and Lifestyle Mentoring Facebook page at  Watch the Authentic Journeys video at  Watch the Multicultural Awareness video at Usage Computer hardware,the network infrastructure, software applications, and all electronic communication (collectively information technology) is for business purposes only and owned entirely by the company. Very limited and incidental use of information technology (IT) for nonbusiness purposes is understood and accepted provided time spent using IT does not impact job performance. This privilege must not be abused. Employees are expected to demonstrate a high degree of personal responsibility and professionalism when using IT equipment and unauthorized access by third parties is strictly prohibited. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted to the highest extent allowable by law. Any loss or compromise of personal computing equipment must be reported immediately to your manager and the IT department.
  13. 13. 13 VI. CULTURAL FLUENCY Cultural fluency is an important skill to perform the necessary functions of your position. Knowing your audience’s demographics is paramount to being a success at our company. We must make it our priority to learn about and to appreciate our multicultural workplace. Audience Analysis Audience analysis begins with a series of questions. It is your responsibility to know both your primary and secondary target audiences. Consider the following important points in assessing your audience and their needs.  Understand how they will use the documents you create.  Consider where and how they will use your documents.  Determine audience familiarity with your topic.  Research your audiences’ demographics. Religion Religious symbols that carry non-religious meaning have long been used in documentation. Knowing the meaning of symbols is paramount to minimize the risk of offending your target audience. For example, the plus (+) symbol is commonly used in North America to represent “First Aid” or “Hospital,” but for Muslims a cross of any kind represents Christianity (Bosley 263). A crescent symbol is used in Muslim instead to designate First Aid. Do not assume that symbols used in communication are common and non-religious in nature. Symbols can sometimes offend your target audience. Exercise caution when implementing the use of symbols in communication. Gender Gender is inextricably tied to language, but minimizing a sexist bias in communication is important. For example, some words such as sportsmanship or fireman cannot be changed without changing their meaning or making sense; however,words such as chairman can be changed to chairperson without sacrificing meaning. Pronouns can be a significant challenge in English, but using “him or her” or “he or she” and “their” will help reduce gender bias in writing. For romance languages where masculinity and femininity are tied to nouns and descriptions of groups, follow the rules of the specific language. For example, in Spanish only a homogenous group of women (as opposed to a mixed group of women and men) can take on feminine characteristics. Follow these two rules of thumb:  Use common sense when deciding the best action to be gender neutral in word choice.  Follow the rules of gender expression for romance languages or other languages that are tied to gender.
  14. 14. 14 Relationships Workplace relationships influence the perception of communication. Workplace relationships in the United States and most other low-context cultures emphasizes independence and equality between individual contributors and leadership teams,leaving “a reasoned amount of problem solving to subordinates” (Thatcher 190). Workplace relationships in high-context cultures typically “value dependency, hierarchy, and close overseeing” of employees’ activities (Thatcher 190). Related to these distinctions is Hofstede’s concept of power distance, which “measures the ability of two people with different power and authority to influence” each other (Thatcher 190). For example, South American countries have some of the highest power distance scores,meaning that communication from a subordinate would have very little influence or persuasion over that of a manager or leader in the organization (Thatcher 190). Communication in low-context, high-power distance cultures is “usually one- way and exact,with the expectation that communication will be followed literally” (191). Sexuality Heterosexism is the ideology that favors opposite-sex sexuality and relationships, or relationships bound by traditional norms of “straight relationships.” Gender identity and sexual orientation both play a role in how communication is received, and sexual minorities may easily take offense to heterosexist language and customs. In the United States,sexual minorities typically include gay men, lesbian women, bisexuals, and transgendered persons; however,sexual minorities may be completely excluded in other parts of the word, or this definition may need to be extended to include additional gender identities in some countries. Be particularly mindful of heterosexist communication for external audiences, and attempt to be inclusive of the broadest base of people as possible to minimize offending anyone with alternative views of sexuality. For example, when listing potential choices for relationship status, consider using “single, spouse, partner or significant other, widowed, or divorced.” Doing so will minimize the risk of offending individuals based on their relationship status. Religious& PublicHolidays Different religions and different countries celebrate different holidays. Employees must be aware of times when holiday schedules cause conflict. Know when to expect your teammates to be out of the office. Consider purchasing an international calendar that lists holidays from around the world. Travelers should pay special attention to office closures for holidays when scheduling travel. See 2012 Public Holidays at for a comprehensive list of public holidays for Canada,China, India, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Singapore, the United States,and the United Kingdom. For a list of public holidays in other countries, please see List of Holidays by Country at For a list of religious holidays of major world religions, please see Major Holidays at
  15. 15. 15 We pride ourselves with being a secular organization who respects every religion and nationality. As such, the company provides two personal holidays for you to enjoy time off to celebrate religious holidays with your friends and families; however, we do not endorse any religious preference over another. Keep in mind the workplace is not a place for religious argument, disagreement, or turmoil. Any validated complaints arising from religious opinion or practice brought into the workplace will result in immediate termination of the employee(s). Geography Employees’ geographic locations and country customs influence workplace relationships. Workplace Relationships (types) Do not rely on assumptions of organizational relationships. Make an effort to understand the differences in how people interact in their workplace based on their geographic location. Two concepts that define different types of relationships are as follows:  Hierarchical (Hofstede) & Ascriptive (Trompenaars)  Egalitarian, democratic, and emancipatory (Hofstede) Audience Approach Multicultural audiences may react differently and have different preferences for rhetorical artifacts compared to U.S. audiences (Thatcher 459). Expect broad rhetorical differences between U.S. culture and foreign cultures. Intercultural communicators can draw on mono-cultural empirical methods as a basis for audience analysis, but these methods must be adapted to inter-cultural empirical methods to ensure their validity and ethics in the following three ways:  “Distinguish broad cultural and rhetorical patterns from regional, organization, and personal patterns, which requires balancing the fact of difference with the need for generalization” (Thatcher 459).  “Focus on the relationships of communication media and predominant cultural patterns” (Thatcher 461).  “Construct researcher and participant relationships that are sensitive to the organizational relationships common in the participants’ cultures” (Thatcher 462).
  16. 16. 16 VII. RESOLVING CONFLICT This is a special section on how to deal with workplace conflict. We honor diversity and champion inclusion at our company, with the understanding that everyone deserves to bring their whole self to work. Diversity of thought leads to the most creative and innovation solutions for our customers. Parts one and two of this section will guide you on through the steps of resolving conflict and understanding the sources of conflict. Part 1: Talk with your colleague(s) to try to resolve the conflict. Follow these steps: 1. Articulate what has caused the conflict and acknowledge each of you have different perceptions. Listen to each other. 2. Clearly articulate how you want to resolve the conflict and what reasons you consider important for resolving the conflict. Be sure to ask for specific examples and do not accept generalizations. For example, ask “What exactly was wrong with my presentation during the meeting?” 3. When possible, address the issues face-to-face because written communication can be less productive at resolving conflict. 4. Stick to the specific issues when communicating with others. Bringing up issues that do not apply to the situation can complicate the matter. 5. Take a break when necessary and revisit the communication later. 6. Remember that the two best solutions are collaboration and compromise, whereas competing, accommodating, and avoiding are less desirable solutions. 7. Avoiding the conflict may be the easiest route to take, but it will always lead to the least desirable results. 8. In the end, evaluate the critical feedback you receive. Keep the useful information and let go of the negative feelings. Accept criticism with a positive mindset and move on. With compliments, consider them but do not let them overshadow other feedback. 9. Finally, thank your coworker for their back. Be willing to try to accommodate some of their suggestions in an effort to improve your own personal performance. 10. Ask your manager to mediate or intervene on the situation. Contact human resources to file a complaint as a last resort. For more information, see Part 2: Know the sources of workplace conflict. 1. Poor communication a. Different styles of communication can lead to misunderstandings. b. Silence or a lack of communication can also cause conflict. 2. Different values a. People you work with see the world differently. b. Conflict happens when people do not accept each other’s different worldviews. 3. Different interests a. Conflict happens when people compete for their own personal goals. b. Be mindful of organizational goals and your team’s overall well-being. 4. Scarce resources a. Conflict happens when people compete over resources to perform their jobs.
  17. 17. 17 b. Resource scarce environments can cause conflict despite awareness of the scarcity of available resources. 5. Personality conflicts a. People have different personalities. b. Conflict occurs when people do not accept each other’s work ethics or problem solving approaches. 6. Poor performance a. Conflict can occur when some members of a team underperform or miss deadlines. b. Conflict is inevitable when individual performance issues occur.
  18. 18. 18 WORKS CITED "2012 Public Holidays." Happy New Year 2012,Horoscope, Calendar2011, Wishes, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <>. Apple Publications Style Guide. Cupertino, California: Apple Computer, Inc. 2006. Print. Bosley, Deborah. “Chapter 11: Visual Elements in Cross-Cultural Technical Communication: Recognition and Comprehension as a Function of Cultural Conventions.” Exploring the Rhetoric of International Professional Communication. Amityville, New York: Baywood Publishing Co. Inc. , 1999. Print. "Conflict Resolution - OU Human Resources."University of Oklahoma Human Resources.University of Oklahoma, 13 Sept. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. “Cross Cultural Awareness:Being a Foreigner Abroad – identity issues video.” 15 Dec. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2011 <>. "Federal Plain Language Guidelines: Introduction." Plain Language: Improving Communications from the Federal Government to the Public. Federal Aviation Administration, 1 May 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. Hofstede,Geert. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York:McGraw-Hill, 2005. Print. "ISO Standards." International Organization for Standardization. International Organization for Standardization. n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. Kumor, Jennifer. "Authentic Journeys - Cultural and Lifestyle Mentoring | Facebook." 1 Apr. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. "List of Holidays by Country." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia., 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <>. Lutz, William D. "39 Steps for Writing Plain English by William Lutz." The Plain Language Association INternational (PLAIN):Your Portal ToClear Writing. Plain Language Association International, 2 June 2005. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. “Multicultural Awareness Video.” ineeda2,01 Oct. 2007. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <> Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Inc. et. al, 96 U.S. 568 (1998). Available at "ShensBooks's YouTube Channel: Multicultural Minutes." ShensBooks,11 Feb. 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <>. "SI Brochure 7th Edition 1998." Bureau International Des Poids Et Mesures. 1 May 2006. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>.
  19. 19. 19 “Telecommunications Standardization Sector ITU-T.” International Telecommunications Union. 04 Nov. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <> Thatcher,Barry. “Issues of Validity in Intercultural Professional Communication Research.” Journal of Business and Technical Communication 15.4 (2001): 458-489. Print. "Trademarks FAQs."United States Patent and Trademark Office. 16 Aug. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>. Trompennars, Alfons. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. Print. “World Customs & Cultures iPhone Application.” Apple iTunes Store. 07 Sep. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <>
  20. 20. 20 APPENDIXA – MEMO TEMPLATE M E M O R A N D U M TO: Person, people, department, or group addressed to FROM: Person the memo is from DATE: Month Day, Year RE: Subject This is a template on how to write a memo. Introduce the topic of the memo in a couple of short sentences. Do not crowd the top of the page and allow enough white space at the top. Be sure that the word “memorandum” is centered at the top of the page. Use a ragged right margin and left justify the entire document. Single space each line. Separate paragraphs with double spaces. Heading #1 Summarize the background, request, or information. Remember that memos are often used as cover letters for reports. This would be a good place to make your first point. Heading #2 Make your second point considering the use of a bulleted list as follows:  Detail any important points in a bulleted list.  Try to keep the list short, but use as many as you need. Wrap up your second point, then add additional headings and sections as needed. Conclusion Conclude the memo by summarizing your main points, and remember to thank your audience for taking the time to read your memo. Keep your memo as short as possible and to the point. Include the below lines for attachments and carbon copies. “XXX” below designates the initials of the person who typed your memo if you did not type it yourself. Attachments: Name of attachment CC: Name of person to receive copy Name of person to receive copy XXX
  21. 21. 21 APPENDIXB – EMAIL TEMPLATE TO: Select the email address(es) you will send to CC: Select the email address(es) you will copy to BCC: Select the email address(es) you will blind copy to – recipients cannot see this info FROM: Your email address will be automatically populated DATE: The date and time will be automatically populated when the message is sent SUBJ: Always include a subject Use a simple salutationsuchas“Hi Name,” Email messagesare quite similartobusinessmemos,althoughtheyusuallyhave alessformal tone. Email is more versatile thanbusinessmemos,andyoucan usuallyinserttextorgraphicsfromotherprogramsintothe bodyof an email message. So,considerwritingyouremailinMicrosoftWordor anotherwordprocessing program,thencopy and paste the informationintoanemail message. Rememberthatemail canbe sentto people bothinternal andexternal toourorganization. Be mindfulof this fact and use special care whencomposingyouremail if itwill be senttopeopleoutsideourorganization. Alwaysinclude acomplimentaryclose toyouremail,andif youhave notsetupa standardsignature foryour email please contactthe ITdepartmentforhelpwithdoingso. A suitable close islistedbelow. “Warm regards,” Your Name Multinational HoustonCompany Phone: ###-###-### Don’t forget our company slogan and social media links! Facebook | Twitter ©2011 Company Name. Allrights reserved.
  22. 22. 22 APPENDIXC – US BUSINESS LETTER TEMPLATE Your Name Multinational Houston Company One Main Street Houston, TX 77002 Month Day, Year Recipient Name Their Company Name Their Address City, ST Zip RE: THIS LINE MAY BE OMITTED; BUT USE IT TO STATE THE SUBJECT Dear Their Name: We always use block style for formatting business letters; we do not use a modified block format. Your address comes first and it is the return address. You may omit the return address if you will print the letter on company letter head. The return address is positioned on the left margin. Next, type the address. Separate the return address from the date with three carriage returns. Please use a number form for the day and do not include letters after the day, such as XXth or Xnd . Enter the recipients address, then the reference line. The reference line can be omitted, but if it is included always place it under the recipient’s address. The reference line is useful to designate specific information and may help get a response from them. Single space the main body of your letter, and use ragged right margins with left justification. Do not use full justification for business letters. Use a double carriage return between paragraphs so each paragraph is separated by a blank line. This makes the letter more readable. Be sure to include a closing that includes your title beneath your name. Always sign every business letter you send. Use three carriage returns between the closing and your name so you will have enough place to sign. Sincerely, Your Name Your Job Title
  23. 23. 23 Acknowledgement Agreement For Internationalization Guide Instructions This acknowledgement agreement must be signed by the department manager for your division, then this form must be forwarded to human resources by the department manager. This signed Acknowledgement Agreement must be submitted by either of the following methods: Fax: +1 713-999-0000 Email: Employees will not be compliant with company policy until this agreement is signed and submitted to human resources. I, ______________________________________ [name of employee], have read and confirm my acceptance of this Internationalization Guide, which covers each of the following topics:  Basic rules for grammar, punctuation, and style  Information about visual and verbal communication  Perspectives on proper technology usage  Reference information on cultural fluency and resolving conflict I further understand all of my duties, obligations, and responsibilities outlined in this Internationalization Guide and that this Guide serves as an extension of our Code of Ethics. Any abuse or violation of the terms and conditions of this guide may be punished with disciplinary action. Any questions or concerns regarding the content in this guide should be raised to your manager or to human resources. I certify that these are true and correct statements by my signature below. ____________________________ Employee’s Name ____________________________________ Signature ____________________________________ Date ____________________________ Manager’s Name ____________________________________ Manager’s Signature ___________________________________ Date