History of Portugal• Portugal has a deep-seeded Roman background. – The Carthaginian and Cale inhabitants defended themselves against Roman legions. • Rome achieved victory through bribery and an internal assassination of the Lusitanian leader. – Rome proved to be a somewhat welcomed presence.• Portugal was later invaded by the Germanic tribes and became a largely Visigoth territory. – Germanic Kings had little cultural impact as they tended to have individualistic goals.
History of Portugal• The Iberian Peninsula was then conquered by the Islamic Moors. – Area was reconquered by Count Vimara Peres.• In 1139 A.D. Alfonso Henriques became the first King of Portugal, establishing Portuguese Independence. – Shortly thereafter Alfonso I was recognized by the Pope.• Since the 13th Century, the Portuguese border with Spain has remained largely unchanged.
The Portuguese Empire• Portugal was quick to make use of the sea. – Fishing and overseas commerce was it’s main source of income.• In 1386 The Treaty of Windsor established a lasting alliance between Portugal and England.• The Portuguese Empire found its beginning with the acquisition of Ceuta in North Africa. – Muslims of North Africa were involved in Civil War, allowing Portuguese victory.• The Empire began to expand exponentially as Spain and Portugal divided the unknown world in half at The Treaty of Tordesillas.
Portuguese Empire• Portugal established strong trading bonds with India.• Explored the Americas and became the first civilization to engage in globalization.• In 1578, Portugal’s King Sebastian died in Morocco without and heir. – Created a power vacuum that resulted in the Spanish King’s rule over both Spain and Portugal. – Spain’s enemies became Portugal’s enemies until 1640 when the Duke of Braganza, a descendant of Manuel I, re-established Portugal’s independence.
Portuguese Empire• The Portuguese Empire would persist until 1999 when it relinquished Macau to China. – Longest lived European colonial empire. – Began its decline when it was subject to Spanish rule and suffered invasions by the enemies of Spain. – Dutch invasion of its colonies, combined with a loss of the trade monopoly it had enjoyed in the Indian ocean were critical factors.
Colonial Brazil• In 1534 Brazil was colonized by Portugal under King John III. – John III granted lands to those rich enough to support colonies. – Thirteen longitudinal territories were established. • Only two of the thirteen succeeded, Sao Vicente and Pernambuco due to their dedication to sugar cane and alliance with natives.• Capitanias system was deemed ineffective. – Centralized colonial government was established at the Bay of All Saints. • Salvador was built as the capital. • Jesuit Missions were also established during this time. • Destroyed 10 year old French colony at Guanabara Bay and established Rio de Janeiro.• Brazil declared its independence in 1822.