Halcon dissertation final defense powerpoint 11-08-10

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Innovations and Competitiveness of Business Schools of
Two Women's Colleges in Metro Manila

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Halcon dissertation final defense powerpoint 11-08-10

  1. 1. Innovations and Competitiveness of Business Schools of Two Women's Colleges in Metro Manila By: FREDERICK A. HALCON Assistant Professor and Chairperson, Milleret School of Business & Management for Women (MSBMW), Assumption College Lecturer, International Business Economics and Diplomacy (I-BEAD) & Entrepreneurship & Franchise Management Department (EFMD) St. Scholastica’s College Manila
  2. 2. “When you educate a man you educate an individual; when you educate a woman you educate a whole family.” –Robert Morrison MacIver (1882-1970), Scottish sociologist
  3. 3. Innovative Business Education
  4. 4. Teresita Sy-Coson AB & BSC Business Administration Fortune Magazine’s 39th Most Powerful Woman in Business Margarita Fores BSC Accounting Restaurateur, CIBO and Café Bola
  5. 5. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION • The Research Problem*** • Research Gaps from the Review of Literature*** • Methodology*** • Summary of Results • Conclusions & Recommendations [Proposed Model] ***as revised after the proposal defense last March 11, 2010
  6. 6. CHAPTER I The Research Problem
  7. 7. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM To what extent do the two selected women’s colleges in Metro Manila, particularly their business schools, employ innovations in their programs in gaining competitiveness?
  8. 8. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1. To identify innovations practiced by each women’s college in order to gain competitive advantage in their business programs The proponent of this research acting as coach of AC MSBMW studenits in the JFINEX competition last September 2010. The case study research design suggests the use of “participant-observer” method as one of its data gathering methods.
  9. 9. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 2. To develop, generate and propose an empirically testable theory and propositions on innovation and competitiveness based on available literature and relevant data from the women's colleges, with their schools of business/commerce as cases The proponent and his colleagues in the MSBMW office preparing for Day 1 of PAASCU visit (September 2008). The case study database includes investigation of archives (such as documentation in the form of photographs) as part of the data to be analyzed.
  10. 10. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 3. To highlight the best or emerging practices or salient features of each school of business The proponent’s International Busienss & Economics (IBE) students (batch 2009) of Assumption College preparing for their thesis defense St. Scholastica’s College students attending a lecture on the Science, Ethics and Business of Stem Cells (July 2010) Photo courtesy of : Dr. Joanne Miranda, Associate Professor, SSC
  11. 11. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Lopez’s Model of Strategic Delivery of Women’s Business Education (2008). Milleret School of Business & Management for Women.
  12. 12. OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK*** Independent Variables Innovations in: -Content Development and Enrichment -Methodologies Development -Materials Development -Research -Co-Curricular Projects -Faculty Development and Enrichment -Student Care and Coaching -Industry Networking Dependent Variable Empirically Testable Model or Framework in Innovation as a strategy for Competitiveness of Women's Colleges ***Intervening Variables are removed, as revised after the proposal defense last March 11, 2010
  13. 13. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES • There is a need for women’s colleges to innovate their business programs or course offerings through content, methodologies and materials development and other related areas to remain competitive in the industry given their business strategy.
  14. 14. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES • Innovation is needed by these women’s colleges’ business schools in order to compete in the field of business education. Students of MSBMW in action (Curricular and extra-curricular programs)
  15. 15. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES • There is no difference between the innovation employed by Assumption College and St. Scholastica’s College in the delivery of business courses/subjects as assumed by the proponent of this research.
  16. 16. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY & RESEARCH VALUE • For advocates of women empowerment • For competency building to gain competitive advantage • For academicians and school administrators • For strategy formulation • For future researchers
  17. 17. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS • Limited to the Schools of Business of the Two Women’s Colleges: – Assumption College’s Milleret School of Business and Management for Women (MSBMW) – St. Scholastica’s College’s School of Commerce
  18. 18. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS • Case study research methodology • Theory building using case study research strategy (Eisenhardt, 1989 & Yin, 2003). – Qualitative data analysis
  19. 19. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS • WORD OF CAUTION or DISCLAIMER: What may be considered as innovative by W.C.s in this study may be deemed as ordinary practices by their university counterparts and/or other larger institutions of higher education endowed with larger networks of resources within their reach.
  20. 20. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH DELIVERABLES
  21. 21. CHAPTER II Research Gaps from the Review of Related Literature and Studies
  22. 22. SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS • Social changes in the Americas and Europe brought WCs to Philippine shores in the 1900s. – Historical perspective: Only single women who desire to become teachers are allowed the privilege of higher education – STIGMA: Teachers are typically unmarried women • WCs started as schools for teachers. Iskul Bukol's resident teacher, Miss Tapia, is an archetype of a teacher assumable to be a graduate of a woman's college. Iskul Bukol is a situational comedy that ran from 1977 to 1988 in Philippine television.
  23. 23. SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS • Women’s colleges to make themselves more relevant started offering business courses. – Stitt-Gohdes (1998)  teaching methodologies – Stitt-Gohdes, Crews and McCannon (1999)  logical situations, hands-on activities – Lorange (2002)  business education evolve from axiomatic to pioneering and value- creating
  24. 24. SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS Scrimshaw (2006) → WCs empower women than their coed counterparts Lopez (2008) → Strategic Delivery of Women’s Business Education Rose (2009) → Innovation is needed to enhance value of students upon graduation Brown (2009) → WCs are learning institutions that are open and empower women Bumatay (2009) → Management education should shift from classical approaches to experiential methods
  25. 25. SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS • Minor Research Gap: Measurement of Innovation is unclear • Identification of Major Research Gap – Are there studies on Educational Innovation? YES – Are there studies on Educational Institutions? YES – Are there studies on Business Education? YES – Are there scholarly articles on women’s studies? YES – Are there studies on Educational Innovation in Business for Women? None so far.
  26. 26. CHAPTER III Methodology
  27. 27. RESEARCH DESIGN • Inductive case study research – in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event to explore causation in order to identify underlying principles • Qualitative data – Triangulation Method: Archives, Interviews and Participant-Observer
  28. 28. RESEARCH DESIGN • Case study (Yin, 2003 & Eisenhardt, 1989) – Does not require behavioral control of events – Focuses on contemporary events (innovations / best practices / salient features) – Examination of a phenomenon in real-life setting; phenomenon and context are not clearly evident
  29. 29. RESEARCH DESIGN • Common critique/misconception to case studies (Yin, 2003): – Provide little basis for scientific generalization – ANSWER: They are only generalizable to theoretical propositions (or universes).
  30. 30. RESEARCH DESIGN • Descriptive Method or Descriptive/Narrative Case Study (Yin, 2003) – deemed appropriate due to the fact that there are only two women's colleges whose schools of business/commerce are under study
  31. 31. POPULATION & RESPONDENTS • For the semi-structured interviews, respondents will be faculty members of the Schools of Business/Commerce of AC & SSC: – Full-time (40 hours a week) – Half-time (20 hours a week) – Part-time (3 to 15 hours a week) in AC; (3 to 9 hours) in SSC
  32. 32. POPULATION & RESPONDENTS • Semi-structured interviews will be audio/video recorded for transcription purposes with the aid of a Research Assistant. Semi-structured interviews with Prof. Rubyrose Barrientos (Information & Communication Technology; Operations Research) [July 10, 2010]
  33. 33. POPULATION & RESPONDENTS • Thirteen (13) professors were interviewed: – Assumption College MSBMW • BARRIENTOS, Rubyrose • BALURAN, Fe (Chairperson, Accountancy Program) • CORTES, Myrna • LOPEZ, Ma. Corazon (MSBMW Dean) • ORJALO, Victoria (Former MSBMW Dean) • SALITA, Gilda Socorro (Chairperson, Entrepreneurship/Tourism/Marketing and HRDM ) • SALVANA, Ria Teodora Semi-structured interview with Prof. Ria Salvana (Business Communication) of AC [July 10, 2010]
  34. 34. POPULATION & RESPONDENTS • Thirteen (13) professors were interviewed: – St. Scholastica’s College School of Commerce • CHING, Remedios (College Dean) • GUANZON, Gloria • MAURICIO, Delfin (Chairperson, EFMD) • MENDOZA, Aldrin • MIRANDA, Joanne • NAYVE, Ruben, Jr., (Chairperson, IBEAD) Semi-structured interview with Prof. Aldrin Mendoza of SSC's IBEAD Department. Prof. Mendoza is also connected with the Corporate Communications Department of PAGCOR. [July 24, 2010]
  35. 35. SAMPLING DESIGN • Theoretical sampling (Eisenhardt, 1989) – Random selection is neither necessary nor preferable in doing case studies – Respondents are chosen purposively – Statistical tools (random sampling and inference-making) are not applicable – BEST RESPONDENTS: Faculty members of both schools
  36. 36. MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION • Semi-structured interview questionnaire • Use of multiple sources of data • Creation of a case study “database” • Maintenance of chain of evidence – Pictures, memoranda, letters, other archives
  37. 37. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • Entering the “field” (Eisenhardt, 1989): – Interviews with AC and SSC Business/Commerce faculty members – Photographs and Audio/Video Recordings – Collection of exhibits as part of the archives – Field notes – Transcription of interviews
  38. 38. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • Processing and analysis of data – Transcription of data – Matching of interview responses, archives and notes – GENERAL ANALYTIC STRATEGY (Yin, 2003): Use of tables/matrices or “empty shells” to summarize qualitative data to reach theoretical saturation (Glaser, 1978)
  39. 39. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • Processing and analysis of data – GENERAL ANALYTIC STRATEGY: Use of tables “empty shells” to group responses among the two schools enables the proponent to perform within-case and cross-case analyses
  40. 40. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • Processing and analysis of data – No standard “cookbook” procedure in analyzing qualitative data for case studies unlike statistical analysis for quantitative data
  41. 41. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • Theoretical saturation – Similar responses are then grouped together  Shorter tables/content imply common and coherent responses among interviewees – Glaser (1978) stated that when building theory, it is necessary to gather data until each category is “saturated” • No new or relevant data emerge in the process
  42. 42. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • To strengthen validity and to prevent researcher’s bias (participant-observer method) or “to go native” (in social science research): – Full-time faculty member in AC – Chairperson, Corporate Business & International Business Programs The researcher participating in a decision- making process in Assumption College In-Service Training Program (May 2010)
  43. 43. RESEARCH PROCEDURES • To prevent researcher’s bias (participant-observer method) and to strengthen internal & external validity: – Lecturer / Part-time faculty of the IBEAD Department (2010- present) – Former Lecturer of the EFMD Department (2005) The researcher teaching Principles of Economics with Taxation & Agrarian Reform to a Third Year class of IT students in SSC (July 2010)
  44. 44. ANALYSIS OF DATA • Multiple Sources of Evidence – Archives, Interviews and Field Observations (triangulation) for matching purposes • Within-case analysis – Grouping of similar responses from interviewees coming from the same school; use of “empty shells” (Yin, 2003) or 2x2 matrices (Eisenhardt, 1989) • Cross-case analysis – Pinpointing similarities and differences of the responses and archives gathered
  45. 45. ANALYSIS OF DATA (Yin, 2003) • Construct validity: Multiple sources of evidence • Internal validity: Pattern matching, linking of interviews to existing/gathered evidence → explanations • External validity: Establishing the degree or field of generalizability: Business schools of WCs • Reliability: Develop case study database
  46. 46. THEORY BUILDING PROCESS (Eisenhardt, 1989) STEP ACTIVITIES DONE BY PROPONENT Getting Started Preliminary Review of Related Literature; Search for research gaps Selecting Cases AC and SSC Schools of Business/Commerce Crafting Instruments/Protocols Drafting and using of semi-structured interview questionnaire Entering the Field Participant-observer method; note taking; collection of artifacts for database; interviewing (3 months) Analyzing Data Grouping of similar responses and matching of evidence from case study database (within-case and cross-case) using “empty shells”. Shaping Hypotheses Noting of prominent responses and evidences Enfolding Literature Comparison of Results of Interviews with Literature Reaching Closure Theoretical saturation
  47. 47. CHAPTER IV Summary of Results
  48. 48. PRODUCING A CASE STUDY DATABASE • CAVEATS: – Yields a mass of qualitative documents; Intensive documentation and transcription – Time-consuming • Proposal Writing (September 2009 – January 2010) • Revisions to Proposal (April-May 2010) • Fund-raising (January 2010-May 2010) • Parallel data-gathering (June- August 2010) • Transcription and analysis (August -September 2010)
  49. 49. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Within-case Analysis for AC – As seen and noted from various data sources: • Strong grounding in Theology for Business Students (12 to 21 units of Theo) • Webbing • TFCD format in syllabi-making (until 2009) • Whole Brain Thinking (WBT) and Self- Social Mastery (SSM) as foundation courses for First Year student
  50. 50. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Within-case Analysis for AC: – Industry practitioners are seen as partners in education – Use of case analysis in imparting knowledge in business courses (verified by RRL) – “Asian perspective” in business and management is being brought to the classroom – Mentoring of achievers and underachievers
  51. 51. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Within case analysis (for SSC): – Music and Arts education for ALL business students – Synthesis: a one (1) unit course required for all graduating students; week-long activity that uses action-based, problem-based learning • Use of problem trigger – i.e. social transformation and social issues
  52. 52. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Within case analysis (for SSC): – Use of concept maps in their syllabi to link key ideas; lifelong learning or “metacognition” or learning about learning – Women's issues are encouraged in integrating lessons – Grounding on Theology (12 units); Ora et Labora (Prayer and Work) • Social Responsibility and Ethics in Business Education
  53. 53. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Within case analysis (for SSC): – The School of Commerce's I-BEAD program is the only existing program in the Philippines that combines International Business (IB), Economics and Diplomacy courses – EFMD program is the only existing program that combines both entrepreneurship and franchise management.
  54. 54. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Cross-case analysis – Unique to AC: HRMD & Tourism Mgt. – Unique to SSC: EFMD, I-BEAD, Business Information & IT, Financial Management – Common degree offerings in both schools are • Marketing Management • Corporate Business and/or Management
  55. 55. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Cross-case analysis – In both schools concerned: • Both schools claim that there are linkages with industry partners and practitioners • Part-time faculty members are typically industry practitioners; partners in education • Strong grounding on theology
  56. 56. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Cross-case analysis – In both schools concerned: • Training programs for faculty and staff (F&S Development) • Manageable class size → AC and SSC face almost similar conditions in terms of enrollment (AC has 900+; SSC has 1000+) – Degree offerings are also found in the universities → girls tend to go where the boys are – Thus, professors / administrators tend to be “nurturing” to address needs of students
  57. 57. INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION • Cross-case analysis – In both schools concerned: • In terms of student and faculty research, “baby steps” are undertaken to establish and improve a strong research culture. – AC: Action research such as feasibility studies as theses; faculty members are encouraged to write and publish in the in- house journal – SSC: Theses mentors are required to attend a thesis protocol seminar. • Both schools have in-house journal publications.
  58. 58. CHAPTER V Conclusions & Recommendations
  59. 59. CONCLUSIONS • Curriculum Investigation and Teaching Methodologies – For AC: Webbing, Self and Social Mastery (SSM) and Whole Brain Thinking (WBT) – For SSC: Problem-based learning (PBL), Music and Arts Education for ALL students (not just Business) – For both schools: Strong grounding on Theology: 12 to 21 units FOREX101 : A webbing of concepts inInternational Finance and Selected Topics in International Business. Event was organized by the graduating class of AC’s IBE students Batch 2010. The proponent served as the professor in both subjects. Music and Arts are taught to all students in St. Scholastica’s College not only to their students in the School of Commerce
  60. 60. CONCLUSIONS • TEACHING METHODOLOGIES. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is considered to be an innovation by the respondents of the study. (i.e. e-modules in coordination with CWC). The proponent of this research (center) attempts to learn new technologies by uploading his department’s activities to the online school calendar online. (May 2010) Faculty & Staff In-Service Program held every last week of May.
  61. 61. CONCLUSIONS • LINKAGES – Knowledge transfer continuum between academe and industry partners – Industry practitioners are part of the faculty lineup (i.e. Dr. Eduardo Morato, Jr. of AIM, Prof. Neil Angelo Halcon of BSP, Prof. Aldrin Mendoza of PAGCOR, etc)
  62. 62. CONCLUSIONS RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS EDUCATION Another form of innovation that can be incorporated in business education in women's colleges is the integration of social responsibility discussed in the light of the philosophy of their respective foundress—St. Scholastica and St. Marie Eugenie de Brou: Strong grounding on Theology.
  63. 63. Institutional Social Development Programs of Women’s Colleges AC MSBMW Faculty Members and students help the staff of a rural hospital setup a computer database and give ICT training for their operations. Assumption Students taking their Integrated Summer Study Program in Infanta, Quezon (2006) SSC’s Citizen’s Watch for Good Governance Launched: July 2010
  64. 64. CONCLUSIONS • SERVICE-ORIENTED ADMINISTRATION: – Small student population size: – Class size: 15 to 35 students (makes webbing and interaction with others possible and practical) – Coordinating functions performed by faculty: “nurturing”.
  65. 65. Changes in Students' Profile in Schools of Business/Commerce In Women's Colleges Changes In Curriculum Adoption and Use of Computer Technology Whole Brain Thinking, Self & Social Mastery, Problem-Based Learning, Music & Arts Industry Linkages & Corporate Practitioners Responsible Business Education Innovative Business Education In Women's Colleges Vision-Mission Educational Philosophies
  66. 66. THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS Proposition No. 1: Innovations in the curriculum are made by the administrators of the schools as they take into account the changing profiles of their students. Proposition No. 2: Academic linkages are established, strengthened and nurtured when industry practitioners become part of the faculty line-up of a business school.
  67. 67. THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS Proposition No. 3: Responsible business is emphasized in the curriculum and activities of the business schools of the women's colleges, given their respective Vision- Mission statements. Proposition No. 4: Women's colleges, specifically their schools of business/commerce, adopt to changing technology to make business education more timely and relevant to the needs of the students and the industry.
  68. 68. TRIANGULATION OF CONSTRUCTS ICT WBT SSM PBL CSR /Theo Small Popn Practitioners Partners in Educ Is it in the archives? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Was it mentioned in the semi- structured interviews? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Was it recorded in the field notes? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes METHODOLOGY Respon- sible Business Education Svc Oriented Admin Industry Linkages
  69. 69. COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATURE Methodology -Sabio (2009): Technology and social learning styles for women learning business -Business School Admission (2009) identifies experiential learning as a common methodology of teaching business
  70. 70. COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATURE Responsible Business -CSR is a mandated course requirement by CHED Memo #39 s. 2006 in Business programs. -It is organic for Catholic schools to integrate concepts of Responsible Business in Theology classes with the help of faculty and lay partners. Community dimension is emphasized (Halcon, 2009)...as well as human dignity and rights (Stabile, 2005).
  71. 71. COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATURE Service-oriented management -Brown (2009) states that WCs are institutions that empower women -Sabio (2009) encourages faculty members to embrace students' different learning styles; know their students better -Diamond (2009) states that WCs are institutions that encourage women to be active agents in the world despite the threat of coeducational institutions.
  72. 72. COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATURE Academic Linkages -Lopez (2008) states that industry networking makes business education more relevant to the needs of the outside world. Ties should be nurtured and preserved with the practitioners.
  73. 73. RECOMMENDATIONS • INCLUDE METRICS: Empirically test the model with statistics; propose standard rubrics • Replicating the same data gathering procedure, inclusion of the Schools of Business/Commerce of other Women’s Colleges: – Miriam College, – College of the Holy Spirit
  74. 74. RECOMMENDATIONS • Innovations may be undertaken not only by women’s colleges but also by their coed counterparts. Replicating the same data gathering procedure involving more schools will enable the researcher to: – Investigate and test any significant differences – Increase the “generalizability” and robustness of the model
  75. 75. RECOMMENDATIONS • Further explore studies that will investigate whether business education should be made gender-sensitive or not. – Women's way of thinking vs. Business is for everyone • Women’s education (in general) in developing countries paves the way for national progress [delayed marriage, less children, entrepreneurial ventures, economic growth, better health] (Todaro & Smith, 2006); (USAID, 2005).
  76. 76. PHOTO CREDITS Mr. Don Jeffrey A. Halcon Prof. Gilda Salita Prof. Ariel Geronimo Prof. Rubyrose Barrientos Dr. Joanne Miranda Prof. James Que International Business & Economics Society (IBES) of Assumption College www.ssc.edu.ph www.assumption.edu.ph www.facebook.com
  77. 77. THANK YOU VERY MUCH! Merci beaucoup! (French) Vielen danke! (German) That in all things, God may be glorified!
  78. 78. DEDICATION To the loving memory of Leonardo A. Halcon (January 31, 1940 – March 4, 2005) My Dad & I (August 1986)

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