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Motivation

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The holy grail of management.
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Part of the Slide Topics Professional Development Programme

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Motivation

  1. 1. 1| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation MOTIVATION The holy grail of management Slide Topics: The Professional Development Programme
  2. 2. 2| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation 1 2 3 5 6 7 4 8 Attribution: All images are from sources where a Creative Commons license exists for commercial use. All icons are on subscription from thenounproject. All clipart is from free sources. Flickr attribution for cover pic: Personal Motivators Motivation Introduction: The de-motivated or plateau-ed performer is the person who reaches a certain level of performance, in both meeting standards and producing results, and then goes no further. In time, without further improvement, staying still results in a decline in achievement, as others pass them by or standards are raised. When a person can perform but chooses not to, the problem is likely to lie in motivation. Carrot And Stick Carrots are rewards; sticks are punishment Money Money can motivate but also de-motivate Recognition Love your hair! Needs We are driven by un-met needs, such as the need to be safe Expectation Of Rewards You can train dogs – and people - with rewards Team Chemistry When a team works well, it is a source of joy Meaningfulness Everyone works better when they know what it’s for /chrigu/5360635141/ Each person has their own inner values and standards
  3. 3. 3| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Plateau-ed Performance All activity, work and performance have motivation at their heart. We take action - move ourselves forward - in the belief that we will gain in some way. This view is not shared by the plateau-ed performer. The plateau-ed performer is typically an experienced employee who knows their present job well, can perform without too much effort and is content with the rewards they already get. They may no longer have the expectation of promotion or large pay rises and are likely to convince themselves that it is better to stick to a low level of performance than to work for anything better. Performance can plateau, or level out, when it fails to reach the level of others in the team; it can also plateau in relation to what the individual is capable of achieving themselves. Flickr attribution: /willie_eckerslike/163106814/
  4. 4. 4| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation 1. CARROT AND STICK The "carrot and stick" approach is the oldest and most basic form of motivation. It relies on force to get someone to do what you want. The stick is a "from behind" incentive prodding people on. It is often the same as a threat: do this or else. The carrot is an "up- front" incentive offering a reward or bribe for the same result: do this and I'll give you something in return. Carrots are rewards; sticks are punishment Flickr attribution: /toddle_email_newsletters/17233999165/
  5. 5. 5| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Carrot and Stick The most basic form of human motivation is pleasure and pain. We seek those courses of action that we believe will result in pleasure and avoid those that we believe will end in pain. This simple instinctive theory suggests why many plateau-ed performers dislike the thought of change. They believe it will be uncomfortable, require too much effort and involve painful self-awareness. The "carrot and stick" is the practical application of the instinctive theory of pleasure and pain. In these cases, we are offered the prospect of something pleasurable as a carrot (money, praise, kind words, a happy workplace, security...) and the prospect of something painful as a stick (loss of money, loss of job, bad feelings, unhappiness, a dismal cv, a poor reference...)
  6. 6. 6| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation 2. MONEY Money is the most widely-used motivational device. It is the reason most people go to work. In its own way, it is the carrot that entices us to work harder. However, money is not a straightforward incentive. Its effects often wear off quickly and have to be replaced with other kinds of bribe. It is also complex, there being no universally- agreed correlation between money and performance. And, of course, if used repeatedly as a way of motivating people, they'll keep coming back for more at your expense. Money can motivate but also de-motivate Flickr attribution: /franciscodelossantos/4202846880/
  7. 7. 7| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Money F.W. Taylor and the early management theorists were in no doubt that money was the only true motivator. Their simple management theories were built around the concept that, to get a person to perform and continue to perform, you only needed to pay him enough. Taylor proved this by showing how people responded to incentive schemes. Much later, in the 1950's, Davison proved again that when more money is offered by way of bonus schemes, profit pay, productivity pay and piece- work, performance improves. Davison measured a 60% rise in output at six British factories when bonuses were paid. Money is not a simple motivator. Its motivational effects may last only a short time and when it is given disproportionately and unfairly or in place of things people would rather have, it may even act as a disincentive. Why Money Is Odd Flickr attribution: /76657755@N04/7027595009/
  8. 8. 8| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Incentives Don'tAlways Improve Performance In 1945, psychologist Karl Duncker developed an exercise called "The Candle Problem" in which students were given a candle, a cardboard box of tacks and matches and told to work out a way to attach a lit candle to the wall so that the candle wax doesn't drip to the floor. Most students struggle for a solution. Some try to tack the candle to the wall or melt the candle wax and use it to stick the candle to the wall. Neither method works! The solution is to empty the box of tacks and attach the box to the wall with the tacks. The candle can then be placed in the box, lit by the matches and no wax will fall on the floor. Princeton University researcher, Sam Glucksberg used the Candle problem to find out whether teams would perform better with incentives. In the first team, he simply said that the aim was to find out how long it would take to complete the task. In the second team, he offered rewards of $20 to the quickest performer and $5 to the top 25% of performers. The result? The incentivised students performed 3 minutes slower than the first group. Image attribution: Wikipedia
  9. 9. 9| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation 3. RECOGNITION Recognition and its opposite, withdrawal of recognition, are the psychological equivalents of the carrot and the stick. You give praise as a reward for work to the desired standard and you withdraw praise as a punishment for work that is not up to the desired standard. Praise and recognition work because most of us want our efforts to be recognised and acknowledged. However, while it costs nothing to give, recognition only works if it is sincerely expressed and genuinely felt. Love your hair! Flickr attribution: /darpi/855468699/
  10. 10. 10| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation The Hawthorne Effect While seeking their own theory of motivation, a team of psychologists led by Elton Mayo carried out a series of experiments at the GEC Hawthorne plant in Chicago from the 1930's onwards. In one renowned study, they experimented with different levels of lighting, lengths of break, and lengths of the working day, to find a connection between the best conditions and the best output. What they stumbled on instead was that productivity defied any set conditions. To their amazement, productivity went up when conditions deteriorated. In one study of lighting levels, it even continued to rise when the level was close to moonlight. After a series of such findings, the experimenters concluded that it was their own presence and the recognition given by them to the workers that made all the difference to how well people worked. Image of the Hawthorne plant, ca 1925: Wikipedia
  11. 11. 11| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Thanks for viewing this preview slide. Visit Slide Topics for a FREE copy and download the full version in PowerPoint and/or pdf. www.slidetopics.com
  12. 12. 12| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Slide Topics
  13. 13. 13| Slide Topics: The Professional Development ProgrammeMotivation Copyright KSA Training Ltd. All rights reserved. Slide Topics is a registered trademark of KSA Training Ltd at www.slidetopics.com Slide Topics Just a great way to learn

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