Conservation Regional Water Awareness Handbook - Prescott, Arizona


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Conservation Regional Water Awareness Handbook - Prescott, Arizona

  1. 1. Water - Essential for all life This workbook is a regional resource designed to guide and assist citizens in their efforts to conserve water, with an emphasis on the reduction of outdoor water use. It could not have been written and produced without the dedication, professional advice and financial support provided by numerous individuals and groups. Special Thank You to the: Citizens of this region who continue to support the work of water conservation education and the responsible use of our limited resource. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for the funding necessary to produce this workbook and continue our regional water conservation efforts. Prescott Active Management Agency (AMA) Upper Verde River Watershed Protection Coalition Includes the member communities: Yavapai County Water Advisory Committee Yavapai Prescott - Indian Tribe Town of Chino Valley Town of Prescott Valley Town of Dewey-Humboldt City of Prescott Principal Authors and Project Manager: Shaun Rydell, Water Conservation Coordinator- City of Prescott Amelia Ray – Masters Student – Prescott College Editor: Shaun Rydell 2009 Cover Photography by Kim Webb Legal Notice: Wide distribution of information included in this workbook is encouraged and permitted. This document is not intended to be a professional, legally binding instruction manual. The authors, editor, and municipal agents assume no responsibility for damages, financial or otherwise, which may result from use of the information and/or advice included in this publication. If all or part of the information included in this workbook is duplicated, please cite the source as Central Yavapai County Regional Handbook. Copyright © 2009II
  2. 2. Sections Water and Climate 1 Central Yavapai County 9 Energy and Water Connection 27 Outdoor Water Connection 35 Horticulture Page ARID-SOUTHWEST GARDENING INFORMATION University of Arizona Gardening Portal ARIZONA PLANT CLIMATE ZONESIntroduction to Arizona’s Climate with a Map and Zone Descriptions BACKYARD GARDENER Weekly newspaper columns by Jeff Schalau,Yavapai County Agriculture & Natural Resources Agent GOPHER CONTROL PAGE Biology, behavior, and methods of control of backyard pocket gophers INSECT AND DISEASE IDENTIFICATIONDescriptions, locations, dates, and photos of samples found by Agent or brought to the Yavapai County Coopera- tive Extension Offices by clientele XERISCAPE PLANT LIST 250 water conserving landscape plants for3,000 to 5,500 foot elevations in Yavapai County HORTICULTURE LINKS These sites are informative and reliable WILDFIRE DEFENSIBLE/SURVIVABLE LANDSCAPE TOPICS ARIZONA MASTER GARDENER MANUAL Gardening reference guide used to teach the Arizona Master Gardener Course MASTER GARDENER PAGE Information for Yavapai County Master Gardeners: Newsletter, Reporting, and On-Line Manual Cooperative Extension is the outreach arm of The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Tucson, Arizona. Water Conservation Regional Handbook III
  3. 3. W ater .. a resource to use wisely. Naturally, water sustains all living things. Conservation .. Consider it conscious consumption.Respect and appreciation...water is a finite resource. Water conservation in practice is low tech, low cost andeveryone can participate. Conservation provides community capacity to prevent urban and wild land fires. Water purveyor’s are obliged to effectively manage water supplies. Conservation protects the public interest, assuring political, social and economic sustainability during times of water supply scarcity and drought. Water is affordable today and should be secured for future generations. We all play a part in consuming WaterSmart. Shaun Rydell — Water Conservation Coordinator, 2009
  4. 4. Water and ClimateWe can only be said to be alive in those moments whenour hearts are conscious of our treasures. Thornton Wilder,The Woman of Andros
  5. 5. A Global Water Primer Global water consumption has risen tenfold since 1990, and many parts of Earth’s Water 100% the world are now reaching the limits of their supply. The United Nations Saline Water (Ocean) 97% Educational, Scientific and Cultural Fresh Water 3% Organization (UNESCO) predict that by 2020 water shortages will be a serious Fresh water 3% worldwide problem. One third of the population is already facing crises due Groundwater 30.1% to both water shortages and poor Icecaps and Glaciers 68.7% drinking water quality. Negative effects include massive outbreaks of disease, Other - wetlands malnourishment and crop failure. and swamps 0.9% Excessive use of water has also resulted Fresh Surface Water 0.3% in environmental degradation costing the world billions of dollars. Fresh Surface Water 0.3% How much water is there? Only three percent (3%) of all water Rivers 2% on the earth is fresh water, the rest of Swamps 11% earth’s water is saline water located Lakes 87% in oceans. Two percent (2%) of fresh water is contained in glaciers and icecaps, and located beneath the surface Fresh water is an essential component of the as groundwater. About one percent natural environment that supports human, plant (1%) of all other fresh water is surface and animal life. water found in streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, and swamps. Everything in life - food, buildings, vehicles, furniture, and clothing - has embodied water, the amount of water directly or indirectly used during production. “The general public is – although often aware of energy requirements – hardly aware of the water requirements in producing their goods and services.” A water footprint is defined as the total volume Global Perspective on of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual, Water Resources: business or nation. The table below lists the amount of water necessary to produce some everyday items.United Nations Educational, Sci- Everyday Item Quantity Consumed Embedded Waterentific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) 1 Glass of beer 16 Fl oz 40 Gallons 1 Glass of Milk 8 Fl oz 61 Gallons 1 Cup of Coffee 8 Fl oz 74 GallonsWater Footprint: 1 Cup of Tea 8 Fl oz 9 1 Slice of Bread 1 oz 11 1 Potato 3.5 oz 7 Gallonsstra_and_Chapagain_2007.pdf 1 Apple 3.5 oz 18 Gallons 1 Cotton T-shirt 8.8 oz 526 GallonsTreehugger: 1 Glass of Wine 8 Fl oz 64 Gallonswww.treehugger.comfiles/2008/ 02/ 1 Glass of Apple Juice 8 Fl oz 57 Gallonscarbon-footprint-green-basics.php 1 Glass of Orange Juice 8 Fl oz 51 Gallons 1 Bag of Potato Chips 7 oz 49 Gallons 1 Egg 1.5 oz 36 GallonsGoogle Maps Walk: 1 Hamburger 5.5 oz 632 1 Tomato 2.5 oz 3 Gallons 1 Orange 3.5 oz 13 Gallons 1 Pair of Shoes (Leather) two 2105 Gallons 1 Microchip 0.07 oz 8 Gallons 2 Water and Climate
  6. 6. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 represents the first time that public drinking water supplies were protected on a federal (national) level in the United States. Amendments were made to the SDWA in 1986 and 1996. “On the days I use lessons fromSTATES OF WATER Arizona Project WET, my class- room becomes alive with curios-Water can exist as each of the Condensation is the process by ity and discovery.These are thethree states of matter: liquid, which water changes from a gas to days I experience the most joysolid, and gas. a solid or liquid. as a teacher.” Cathy Alger, 7th• Liquid — the most common Science, Bradshaw Mountain Middle Precipitation is the process byform of water. We see it as lakes, School, Dewey, AZ which the condensed water in thestreams, and oceans and in the clouds returns to the earth.glasses of water we drink. Depending on the temperature, precipitation can be rain, snow, ice• Solid — also known as ice. or hail.Snow and hail also make up the“frozen” or solid water. Transpiration is the process by• Gas — called water vapor or which living plants release watersteam. vapor into the atmosphere.Water – Always in motion chang- Percolation is the down-ing forms yet remaining true toits molecular structure, charting ward movement of waterits course through an incredible from the surface of the earthjourney. into below ground aquifers.Evaporation is the processwhere water changes from a liquidto a gas. When water vapor (ordroplets) come together in thesky, they form clouds. Water Education and Teaching Resources Project Wet – Water Education for Teacher- Arizona Department of Environmental Health- Arizona Game and Fish- Food, Lwand and People- One World Journeys- National Parks Service – Tumacacori- Environmental Kids Club – EPA- Conservation Regional Handbook 3
  7. 7. WATER CYCLE Earth has a finite amount of water The sun heats surface water turning it that circulates through the hydrologic into water vapor through evaporation. (water) cycle with no beginning or end. Transpiration occurs as plants lose Powered by the sun’s energy, water water from their leaves. Water vapor Water changes states among gas, liquid, generated through this process is and solid as it moves through the known as evapotranspiration.Vapor atmosphere, along the earth’s surface, enters the atmosphere, cools and and underground. condenses to form clouds in a process Molecules of water called condensation. Eventually, Precipitation falls from clouds to the moisture builds up in the clouds and continually move from one surface in the form of rain or snow. precipitation falls back to the Earth’s state to another, in the air Desert areas are prone to a type of surface, and the cycle continues. as vapor, as liquid and precipitation, known as virga, which starts out as rain but evaporates before sometimes as ice. Without it reaches the ground. Precipitation that Condensation this cycle, people and most falls on land becomes surface runoff, groundwater, or evaporates. Runoff living things could not flows along the land surface into Evaporation Precipitation survive on this planet. streams, lakes, and oceans. Water that seeps into the soil is available to be Surface absorbed by plants or is held beneath Soil run off the surface as groundwater. Ocean Lake Ground Water GROUNDWATER Groundwater is water below the land top of this zone is the water table. surface. It is replenished by natural The zone above the water table is the recharge that occurs when precipitation unsaturated zone; spaces between percolates through the ground into an particles are dry or only partially filled aquifer. An aquifer is a subsurface layer with water. of earth, gravel or porous rock that yields water. Groundwater is found in the saturated zone. The water table level Gravity pulls the water downward rises and falls with the seasons and where it fills the spaces between climatic changes, such as drought or particles of soil, sand, gravel, and rock heavy rainfall. Groundwater is stored until it reaches a depth where the in the pores and cracks of underground ground is filled, or saturated. This materials. Gravity pulls it slowly through area is the saturated zone and the the ground toward places where it can enter a water well, stream or lake as a spring, or be absorbed by a plant root. The bottom of an aquifer is defined by bedrock or another impermeable surface. Groundwater movement can be interrupted by a layer of clay or impermeable rock. Saturated Area4 Water and Climate
  8. 8. AQUIFERSAn aquifer is an underground layer of Aquifers and groundwater Recharge Area Discharge Areasaturated material, soil or permeable can be naturally orrock, which yields water to wells and artificially recharged. STREAMsprings in significant and useful amounts. Pumped WellWells are commonly drilled to pump Natural recharge occurs Water Tablewater from the aquifer to the surface when precipitation falls to Uncon ned Da ys Yea D ars Aquifer Yea ays Da ys rs Yefor use by people for drinking, domestic the surface and percolates rs Con ning Bedpurposes, agriculture, and industry. through the ground into an Con ned CenturiesAquifers vary greatly in size, shape, and aquifer. The rate of recharge Aquifercapacity. Some are confined and others depends on several factors Con ning Bedunconfined. including the amount of Con ned Aquifer Millennia precipitation, topography ofConfined aquifers are overlaid by an the land, type of subsurface material, andimpermeable, or confining, layer through aquifer depth. In some cases, rechargewhich water cannot escape upward. can take days and in others, it can takesWater entering the aquifer from a centuries.higher elevation in an unconfined areacan apply pressure on the water in the Artificial recharge occurs whenconfined portion of the aquifer. Some people intentionally add water toconfined aquifers produce artesian wells aquifers through either groundwaterif the pressure on the aquifer forces injection or infiltration pits.water to surface when the aquifer is Groundwater injection requires high-penetrated by a well. pressure pumps to infuse the aquifer with water through injection wells.Unconfined aquifers do not have an Water can also be spread over a landimpermeable top layer, are saturated area with infiltration pits, furrows, orwith water to the top of the water table, ditches allowing it to rapidly seep intoand are readily pumped for human use. the aquifer. Springs And CreeksSprings occur where groundwater Granite Creek and its tributaries beginmeets the land surface. Water that in the Prescott National Forest at therecharges groundwater will fill an junction of the Bradshaw and Sierraaquifer and naturally needs a place to Prieta Mountains and then flow throughexit. Groundwater, discharged in springs, the Prescott Basin. Fluctuations inis largely recycled water, a part of the the groundwater levels of the Upperhydrologic cycle in which rain falls on Granite Creek Watershed ( It is stored underground, released Prescott Basin) are directly causedto the surface, and returns to the by the intermittent flow of water inatmosphere by a variety of means, to Prescott’s eight creeks. These creeks arefall as rain again. A large amount of this the beginning of the Verde River.water remains beneath the surface foruse by plants, and runs off into surface Springs occur whererivers and streams. groundwater meets the groundwater Resources land surface.Water Resources of the United States- Science for Schools- Creeks- Water Cycle- Conservation Regional Handbook 5
  9. 9. drought and Drought planning Precipitation below average over an accurately predict future events. assess and address the impact of cur- extended period of time and resulting A method used to identify climatic rent drought conditions on the peo- in long-term water shortages is known patterns is the study of successive ple of Arizona, published the Arizona as drought. A dry spell is precipitation annual tree growth rings, a science Drought Preparedness Plan in 2004. below a defined amount for a short known as dendrochronology.Through It defines drought as “a sustained, duration. Unlike drought, a region can tree ring analysis, scientists can identify natural reduction in precipitation quickly recover from a dry spell after occurrences and determine the severity that results in negative impacts to the one or several bouts of precipitation. of past droughts. environment and human activities.” Droughts are a natural component of The southwestern United States, Goals of the drought prepared- the climatic cycle in regions throughout particularly Arizona as a semi-arid state, ness plan are to identify the effects the world. Scientists identify and is a region characterized by climatic drought has on water users, define analyze climatic events that have cycles that include drought. It is an drought-sensitive areas, outline moni- occurred throughout earth’s history to area where water is scarce even when toring programs, and prepare strate- define patterns, better understand how precipitation is normal.There is a widely gies to reduce the effects of drought. climate has impacted life, and more held belief that drought contributed to Personnel with the Arizona Depart- the collapse of the ancient Anasazi ment of Water Resources’ Statewide What can each of us do? civilization in Chaco Canyon, New Drought Program and Statewide Mexico. Conservation Offices are responsible Be aware of our own household water con- for plan implementation. sumption. If you water outdoor landscape, Arizona currently is experiencing pay special attention to your outdoor water use. Once plants are established, water a significant and ongoing drought; Drought conditions can require com- deeply and less often. Consider harvesting precipitation has been below average munities to enact water use restric- rainwater to irrigate outdoor ornamental for 15 years. Although drought can tions that are designed to incremen- gardens. Provide supplemental water to be disastrous, few consider it a natural tally reduce water use and go beyond those trees and shrubs nearest your home. disaster since the effects are less typical conservation programs. The noticeable and develop slowly over ultimate goal of a drought prepared- The Urban Water Cycle and its relationship to Drought. Water time. One big rain will not cure drought ness plan is to address and anticipate stewardship begins with understanding conditions. It requires numerous, future water needs so there is never that water supplies, from source to tap, consistent precipitation events, and can a need to declare an advanced stage flow through a series of four inter-related take years to reverse the impact. of drought. Conservation, as well as stages in a continuous cycle. Sustaining augmenting supplies, are both impor- this cycle is imperative to the health of tant in achieving this goal. the community. Urban planning, without Planning consideration of the water cycle, can lead Throughout the U.S., emphasis to water supply shortages. All citizens, historically has been placed on Climate cannot be institutions, agencies and enterprises within emergency relief after drought and controlled by humans, but a community have a responsibility to use damage has occurred. Several states, water with the goal of economic, social and through a lifestyle of including Arizona, have shifted their stewardship and careful plan- environmental sustainability. focus to preparing for and mitigating ning, the effects of drought on the effects of drought with the goal of water supplies, people and the preventing future emergency situa- tions. environment can be lessened. The State of Arizona Governor’s Drought Task Force, established to Resources Drought/Climate/Dendrochronology Research: University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree Ring - Climate Assessment for the Southwest - US Geological Survey Arizona Water Science Center - Arizona Community Water System Drought and Planning Tool -, Water and Climate
  10. 10. ClimateClimate is defined by the weather temperature (32°F) identified for springpatterns of an area. Yavapai County is is May 16. Look for the first frost in thecharacterized by its mild four-seasons, fall around October 10. For additionaland is classified as a semi-arid region backyard gardener information, refer towith the majority of precipitation falling the Yavapai County Extension articlefrom early July through mid-Septemberand January through March. Cold Temperatures Can Harm Plants. The National Records are maintained of annualWinter precipitation falls as moderate precipitation rates, including rain Oceanic andrain in the lowlands and snow in thehighlands and mountains. Summer and snowfall. Atmospheric n The City of Prescott receivesprecipitation is typified by monsoonthunderstorms during July and August. about 19 inches of annual precipitation. Administration Temperatures from NovemberThunderstorms vary in intensity and through April range from 20° to 60°F.location primarily occurring between Temperatures from May through NOAA was established as part of thenoon and 8 p.m. Fall and spring are dry U.S. Department of Commerce on October range from 50° to 90°F.seasons. The elevation range guaranteesvaried weather including cool winters, n Towns of Chino Valley, Prescott October 3, 1970. The mission ofwarm summers, and moderate humidity. Valley & Dewey-Humboldt receive NOAA is to assess the socioeconomicTemperature fluctuations of about 35 12-14 inches of annual precipitation. impact of natural and technologicaldegrees from the nighttime low to the Temperatures from November changes in the environment and todaytime high are typical. through April range from 25° to 65°F. monitor and predict the state of the Temperatures from May through October range from 55° to 95°F. solid Earth, the oceans and their livingLarge-scale farming is limited in the local resources, the atmosphere, and theregion due to a relatively short growingseason. Anxious spring gardeners space environment of the Earth.should note that average freezing Resources Backyard Gardener- National Weather Service- www.nws.noaa. Conservation Regional Handbook 7
  11. 11. Microclimates Evaporation and Transpiration Microclimates play an important Evaporation is the return of water to role in determining the varieties of the atmosphere from surfaces such as plants that will grow in landscapes. A streams, lakes, puddles, ponds, and soil microclimate is the local climate on pores. Plants contribute water vapor a small site. They are formed by hills to the atmosphere through a process and valleys, structures, paved areas, called transpiration. Scientists refer to hedges and windbreaks. These features these processes, that often occur at alter airflow patterns, day length and/ the same time, as evapotranspiration. or light intensities, as well as trap heat The rates of both evaporation and during the day, slowly releasing it at transpiration depend on wind speed, night. Minimum winter temperature, and temperature and humidity, which frost occurrence, maximum summer are influenced by latitude, elevation, temperatures, and rainfall amount and and proximity to bodies of water. distribution also impact microclimates. Transpiration also varies by plant species, growing season and with the Urban growth has contributed to the amount and type on vegetation. formation of microclimates primarily due to a phenomenon known as the heat island effect. Cities have higher air temperatures than surrounding less populated areas. This is caused by large RESOURCES expanses of concrete and asphalt that collect solar heat. For example, summer high temperatures have increased Arizona Plant Climate Zones significantly in both Tucson and Phoenix over the past forty years. The warmer, climate/azclimatezonemap.html drier environment of urban heat islands has a strong impact on landscape plant performance. Yavapai County Climate Data at the Western Regional Climate Center Arizona Climate Data National Weather Service Plants contribute water vapor to the atmosphere through a process called transpiration. Scientists refer to these processes, that often occur at the same time, as evapotranspiration. Photo by David Morgan8 Water and Climate
  12. 12. Central Yavapai CountyNature is an excellent sedative. It pacifies, i.e., makes aman carefree. And being carefree is of the essence inthis world. Anton Chekhov,The selected letters of Anton Chekhov
  13. 13. GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, FLORA AND FAUNA Yavapai County is a geographic area characterized by elevations from 1,900 to 8,000 feet. Like the state, which is rated as one of the five top biodiverse areas in the country, the county is home to a wide variety of plant and animal species. The“So it is time to call for a new era of 8,128 square mile area is equivalent in size water conservation in our country. to the State of New Jersey, yet only five of We need to start treating water those miles hold water. like the most precious resource we have – wherever we live. We need Three distinct topographic regions define the area: plateau uplands to the north of to realize that the more we waste the Coconino Plateau; central highlandswater, the less water is available for transition to the east of the Mogollon Rim; our neighbors, as well as the fish and the basin and range of the and wildlife in our local streams. Sonoran Desert.Ultimately, wasting water hurts not Yavapai County is primarily situated in theonly the environment, but our local central highlands region, but extends southeconomies, recreation opportunities to the Sonoran Desert, and is generally and our quality of life.” characterized by widespread forests of mixed conifers and ponderosa pines. The RESOURCES Rebecca Wodder, President-- county lies in the center of a 100-mile strip Chamber of Commerce of Ponderosa pine forest land that crosses American Rivers the state from its northwest corner to yavapai%20county.pdf eastern border. It is home to the Prescott Extension Service National Forest, as well as portions of the Kaibab, Coconino, and Tonto National ralresourcesofyavapaicounty.html Forests. Native vegetation includes mixed Yavapai County conifer, pinõn-juniper, chaparral, desert grassland, and flora of the upper Sonoran Desert. Flood Alert Geographically, the quad cities of the Wikipedia Prescott AMA are located at the foot of the northern end of the Bradshaw Mountains ty,_Arizona in central Arizona with ranging elevation from 3,500 to 6,000 feet. To the south, mountains rise to peaks of 7,900 feet; to the Geographic descriptors include the north terrain slopes gently down the valley high altitude desert (elevation 3,500- of Granite Creek to its junction with the 5,000 feet) the cool plateau highlands Verde River. (elevation 4,000-6,000 feet). Everyday we use water in so many different ways. Civilization would not exist without water. We are just one of many of earth inhabitants that influences the efficient use or waste of water, the precious resource. Clarke R. Water: The International Crisis10 Central Yavapai County
  14. 14. A Western Gem Set in Central Arizona Yavapai County was one of four Yavapai County, Arizona is one of theoriginal Arizona Counties created jewels of the west. It is a region of by the 1st Arizona Territorial breathtaking natural beauty dotted with Legislature. The county territory quaint, mountain communities. was defined as being east of Nestled amid this magnificent scenery, latitude 113° 20’ and north of and steeped in Old West and Native This is a paradise for nature lovers the Gila River. Soon thereafter, American history is the quad city area and outdoor enthusiasts with limitless of Prescott, Prescott Valley, Chino Valley opportunities for golf, hiking, backpacking,the counties of Apache, Coconino, and Dewey-Humboldt. In addition to the camping, fishing, biking, horseback riding,Maricopa, and Navajo were carved quad city area the county includes suchfrom the original Yavapai County. bird watching, star gazing, rock climbing, magnificent surrounding communities boating, and picnicking. Residents revelYavapai County’s present boundaries as the Verde Valley, Cottonwood, Camp and live in awe and appreciation of the were established in 1891. Verde, Clarkdale and Sedona. natural wonders that permeate the area. The county is named Blessed with clean air, a mild year round History buffs will also find Yavapai after the Yavapai people, climate, endless blue skies and majestic County to be a region of wonders with views, residents of the quad cities enjoy a who were the principal superior quality of life. This place has an its passed down lore and historical sagas.inhabitants at the time that It is the stuff of legends; rich Native allure all its own, where people come to American ancestry and intricate tales of this area was annexed by visit and decide to stay and call this area mining, ranching, farming and the cowboy the United States. home. Wide expanses of open space, life. Residents can explore old mines, visit miles and miles of hiking trails, stunning Indian ruins, participate in archaeological natural beauty, superb recreational digs, stroll around the grounds of activities, thriving economies, and all of Sharlot Hall Museum, comb through the the amenities one would associate with museum’s exhaustive archives, visit an old a larger urban area, make north central homestead, pan for gold or marvel in the Arizona one of the most desirable areas mystical red rocks. to live in the country. The region is home to Yavapai College, a multi-campus community college system; three four-year colleges, Embry- Riddle University, Prescott College and Northern Arizona University; a state- of-the-art hospital with locations in Prescott and Prescott Valley, and Bob Stump Veteran’s Administration Medical Center. Reprinted in part from Building Yavapai 2008, YCCA Conservation Regional Handbook 11
  15. 15. Prescott Prescott (pronounced Preskit) is Prescott is routinely included among the top community of neighborhoods with tiny perhaps the most well known and, with places to live in the United States. streets secluded in the pines, such as a population of about 43,280 the largest Thumb Butte, Granite Mountain and Granite the picture perfect postcard Pinecrest of the communities.With its historic Dells are among the region’s most famous Historic District. Residents and tourists downtown, famed Whiskey Row and natural features. One never ceases to be alike spend hours strolling through art picturesque courthouse square, this amazed by this splendid natural backdrop galleries, combing the antique stores, and small city exemplifies the Old West. and the boundless views that characterize shopping in the boutiques that line the Surrounded by the Prescott National the mile high city. Known as “everyone’s charming downtown streets. Forest and tucked into the pines, hometown,” Prescott continues to be a Prescott Valley Prescott Valley, incorporated in the Residents are surrounded by the beauty With a population of just over 38,962, 1970s, boasts a new civic center that is home and majesty of the towering Bradshaw Prescott Valley is known for its progressive to the Arizona Sundogs hockey team, a Mountains to the south and Mingus planning and attention to family focused bustling, pedestrian-friendly downtown and Mountains to the north. Glassford Hill, development, guaranteeing the area never entertainment district, 10 public parks and the town’s most notable landmark, is an loses its rural flavor and small town appeal. a recently developed community recreation extinct volcano that sits at an elevation area that includes softball and soccer fields, of 6,177 feet. People who make the trek a public swimming pool, and basketball and to the top are rewarded with amazing tennis courts. panoramic views. Chino Valley Chino Valley is a horses and livestock of all kinds are outdoor recreation and education. A land of wide expanses welcome. 37-acre community center includes a of open space, the new aquatic park, picnic areas, lighted pronghorn antelope, According to the most recent census data, ball fields, an amphitheater, and miles of mountain views and Chino Valley’s population is around 13,069. trails.The Yavapai College Agribusiness & the most amazing It is a rural town where residents cherish Science Technology Center is a high-tech, sunsets to be seen anywhere.This sleepy their simpler, slower pace of life. environmentally efficient education facility ranching and farming community is typified The community is not without its located at historic Old Home Manor. by larger home lots and ranches where amenities geared toward family enjoyment, Bring the horses! Dewey-Humbolt Dewey-Humboldt is known as areas of Dewey and Humboldt. Residents town of Jerome, explore the Indian Arizona’s Country Town. Characterized maintain an independent spirit. They ruins at Montezuma’s Castle, just a by blue-green rolling hills folded into the take pride in and celebrate the area’s 20-minute road trip away, or spend a day foothills of the picturesque Bradshaw pioneering past and a long history of in downtown Prescott, only 15 miles to Mountains in the Aqua Fria Valley, this is a ranching, farming and mining. the west. This is an area of multiple acre quiet, rural and predominantly residential homesteads where people like to spread community with a population of about There is plenty of space in this town, out and come home to a quiet place 4,444. the smallest in population and least with little traffic where they can still hear developed of the quad cities. Travel along the sounds of nature in all of its glory. Dewey-Humboldt became Yavapai meandering country roads that lead County’s newest town in 2004 with the to nowhere in particular. Take a quick melding of the previously unincorporated drive to visit the picturesque mining Verde Valley Jaw dropping rock formations, cities and 90 minutes from the hustle include the City of Cottonwood and weathered mining towns with houses and bustle of Phoenix, the Verde Valley Towns of Camp Verde and Clarkdale perched high atop hills, fascinating is the geographic center of Arizona. It interspersed with the smaller, eclectic Indian ruins, and quaint communities was settled in the 19th century along unincorporated areas of Jerome, all are uniquely set into the beautiful, the banks of the 180-mile Verde River Rimrock, Cornville, Lake Montezuma, historic Verde Valley. Located about when mining was the business and McGuireville, and Page Springs. a 30 minute drive from the quad- bootlegging was king. Communities12 Central Yavapai County
  16. 16. CottonwoodCottonwood, named for the majestic and central Arizona. worry-free lifestyle.With a populationcottonwood trees that dot the landscape, bordering 11,000, the town has maintainedis the business hub of this mostly rural area. Residents enjoy outdoor activities made its rural atmosphere, western flavor, andThe city, with a population of just over possible by the adjacent pristine lands historic character. Montezuma’s Castle, one11,000, is engulfed on three sides by soaring of the Prescott and Coconino National of the most well-preserved cliff dwellingmountains and bounded to the north by Forests. And at the end of a perfect day sites in North America, attracts nearly onebuttes and mesas. It is home to Historic Old in this mild year round climate, they take million visitors a year.Town and the ever popular Verde Canyon pleasure in the colorful desert sunset andRailway where riders travel back in time spectacular star-filled night sky. Camp Verde is completely surrounded bywith their eyes transfixed on the stunning mountains with 18 miles of Verde Riverscenery and wildlife. Known as the “gateway to the Verde Valley,” flowing through the town limits. Its base is Camp Verde is the area’s southernmost the Lower Sonoran Desert.Winters areVisitors and residents take pleasure in community.The valley’s oldest settlement, is pleasant and summer days are hot and dryCottonwood’s many natural and man- home to historic Fort Verde, built in 1865 to with cool nights.The temperate climatemade attributes.This appealing little city, at protect settlers from raids by neighboring allows for all manner of outdoor activitiesan elevation spanning 3,300 to 3,900 feet Indian tribes. including camping, hiking, horseback riding,above sea level, is centrally located and a picnicking, fishing and canoeing.favored home base for visitors traveling to Today Camp Verde is a small, tight knittake in the varied attractions of northern community, known for its quiet, safe and ClarkdaleClarkdale is the smallest of Verde Hill, Clarkdale’s streets are tree-lined communities including four town parksValley’s incorporated communities with with charming, lovingly-preserved and a lighted, state-of-the-art ball field.a population of 4,200. It is a historic bungalows. This bedroom community is They attend concerts in the mainmining community and the state’s first characterized by a tranquil setting and gazebo park at the center of town, andplanned community developed to historic downtown with quaint boutique watch little league games at Selna Field.provide housing for employees who shops, antique stores and a diverse The town is the entry to Sycamorewere working at the nearby copper assortment of restaurants. Canyon, a rugged and beautiful nationalsmelter. wilderness area characterized by a deep Residents of this throwback to days 25-mile gorge surrounded by toweringLocated at the base of Cleopatra gone by enjoy amenities of much larger formations of layered red rocks. SedonaSedona is a wonder of Mother Nature. Red Rock Country is simply stunning. It is small town living with a wild-westThe city of about 11,500 residents is Residents enjoy an unequaled quality of flavor amid the most stunning wonderssilhouetted in a dramatic setting of life in this natural backdrop. They hike nature has to offer. And in only a severalstriking red rock formations so beautiful the red rocks, wade in the water and hour drive is the most visited Worldas to defy description. Every possible picnic at Red Rock Crossing, enjoy the Wonder, Arizona’s majestic Grandstep has been taken to preserve the simmering colors of a dazzling sunrise, Canyon. There truly is something fornatural beauty and serenity that is and traverse Oak Creek Canyon at the everyone in this magical place.Sedona. Located at the base of Oak north end of the city.Creek Canyon and surrounded by The region is a business-casualnational forest, the city limits straddle Yavapai County communities are environment with the resources andboth Coconino and Yavapai Counties. conveniently located to allow access to expertise to generate growth in a universities, airports, shopping, golf, and comfortable relaxed lifestyle.Despite being one of the state’s top tourist world-class medical facilities.destinations attracting about three millionvisitors a year, Sedona remains a quiet,residential municipality popular among active COMMUNITY RESOURCESretirees who are entranced and enthralled Yavapai County Contractors Association- the spectacular setting.The city is known City Data-,for its lively, diverse art scene and varied Wikepedia on line encyclopedia- activities, including the famous Jazz Center for Business Outreach NAU- www.nau.eduon the Rocks, held in the fall each year. Conservation Regional Handbook 13
  17. 17. The purpose of Arizona Department of of Water Resources (ADWR) was Water Resources - Active Management created to ensure a long-term, sufficient Areas (AMA) is to provide long-term and secure water supply for Arizona’s management and conservation of growing communities. Among other designated areas’ limited groundwater things, ADWR administers state supplies. In order to accomplish this the water laws (except those related to AMAs administer state laws, explore water quality), explores methods of ways of augmenting water supplies to augmenting water supplies to meet meet future needs, and routinely work present and future demands, and works to develop public policy in order to to develop public policies that promote promote efficient use and an equitable efficient use and equitable distribution allocation of available water supplies. of water. In 1980, the Arizona Department Safe Yield Prescott AMA To address groundwater depletion The purpose of the AMAs is to provide Because of the safe-yield goal and in the state’s most populous areas, long-term management by encouraging the state legislature created the replacement of existing groundwater the Assured Water Supply program, Groundwater Management Code in supplies with renewable supplies, new subdivisions are not allowed 1980 and directed ADWR to implement recharge and efficient use of all water to use groundwater pumped from it. Areas where groundwater depletion supplies. within the Prescott AMA. To was most severe were designated as The primary management goal of the Active Management Areas (AMAs). Prescott AMA is safe-yield by the year reach safe-yield, existing and future There are five AMAs: Prescott, 2025. water demand must be augmented Phoenix, Pinal, Tucson, and Santa Cruz. by renewable supplies. Current These areas are subject to regulation The Prescott AMA covers over water demand can be reduced pursuant to the Groundwater Code, 485-square miles in Yavapai County and administrative rule and management contains two groundwater sub-basins: through conservation and recharge in all water use sectors reducing the plans.   the Little Chino and Upper Agua Fria. volume of augmentation needed. The Prescott AMA was  officially declared in a state   of groundwater overdraft in   January of 1999, although it  is thought that the AMA had   been in a state of overdraft   prior. Overdraft many years  occurs when more    is withdrawn groundwater  recharged. The than is   resulted in declaration the implementation of the   Assured Water Supply rules    within the AMA – rules   access to that restrict   supplies for groundwater  new subdivisions.  If you would like to learn more   about Arizona Department of Water  The Prescott AMA has a  Resources or the Prescott AMA visit: legislative goal to achieve    safe-yield by the year 2025.  Safe-yield is a groundwater   management goal that at-   tempts to achieve and main-   tain a long-term balance.    14 Central Yavapai County   
  18. 18. The Upper and Middle Verde River The Upper and Middle Verde River Steam flow in the Middle Verde River watersheds include an area that drains (that portion of the Verde River that flows approximately 6,188-square-miles in through the Middle Verde watershed) north-central Arizona. Traversing a total is sustained by surface runoff, base flow distance of about 190 miles, the Verde from the Upper Verde River, base flow River flows freely through this area for in the mainstream Verde River canyon 136 miles before encountering Horseshoe at Perkinsville and Mormon Pocket, and Bartlett Reservoirs en route to the groundwater discharge from the Verde Salt River. It flows through lands managed Basin aquifer, and contributions from the by the U.S. Forest Service, private and major tributaries within the Middle Verde tribal lands, and the population centers of River watershed (e.g. Sycamore, Oak, Wet Cottonwood, Clarkdale and Camp Verde. Beaver and West Clear creeks). The latter are largely comprised of groundwater Within the Upper and Middle Verde discharge from the C aquifer at the River watersheds, the Big Chino, Mogollon Escarpment and Coconino Little Chino and Redwall-Muav, C and Plateau. Verde Valley aquifers play a significant role in sustaining stream flows. The C aquifer Most groundwater occurs mainly in the eastern and southern pumping that occurs in parts of the 10,300-square-mile Coconino the Verde Valley aquifer Plateau area, and the Redwall-Muav aquifer is in proximity to the underlies the entire area. Middle Verde River and associated with individual The Upper Verde River (that portion of well owners, and several the river in the upper watershed) flows large private and municipal intermittently through the Big Chino Valley, water providers. Direct becoming perennial near its confluence diversion from streams with Granite Creek. (See the Upper Verde supplies a number of River Watershed map.) irrigation companies and ditch associations with The Little Chino aquifer is located water for agricultural within the Prescott Active Management irrigation. Area (PrAMA), which has a safe yield goal to achieve and maintain a long- term balance between the amount of groundwater withdrawn and the annual amount of natural and artificial recharge. Watershed and Riparian Resources Adapted from Case Study #3- Upper Middle Verde River, 2007, Prescott Creeks Preservation Association: 928-445-5669 (Voice) Sonoran Institute, Sustainable Water Management: Guidelines for meeting the needs of people and nature in the arid west, (pg. 34) Sonoran Institute:- American Rivers- www.americanrivers.orgThis Sonoran Institute guide explores the relationship of groundwater and surface water to rivers and streams, and proposes aframework for sustainable water management. It takes an in-depth look at Arizona, applies the sustainable water managementframework to three case studies - the San Pedro, Santa Cruz, and Verde rivers - and recommends water policies to meet the needsof people and nature. Find the complete guideline on the web, Conservation Regional Handbook 15
  19. 19. Water in the Upper Agua Fria River Basin Garry Rogers, Agua Fria Open Space Alliance, Inc. September , 2008 Remaining groundwater is a relatively permanent resource that can be “mined” The Agua Fria River’s watershed consists just as if it were a mineral deposit. Use of of an upper section that extends from the groundwater resource is sustainable Glassford Hill east of Prescott to Lake as long as pumping and associated Pleasant near the Yavapai County— increases in evaporation and plant Great Horned Owl chicks in a Cottonwood Maricopa County border, and a lower use do not exceed the natural rate of tree near the Agua Fria River. (Rogers) section that extends south through urban accumulation. and agricultural areas to the Gila River. Only the upper portion of the basin is Groundwater pumping in the basin is considered here. Land ownership and widespread. The many private wells are management responsibility is shown on distributed along stream channels and in the map. (page 17) areas where sediments and rock fractures hold accumulated water. Capacity of The upper watershed’s 1,300 square the basin’s individual aquifers is not miles are mostly covered by shallow well known, but the largest is probably mineral soils atop thin sedimentary the Lonesome Valley or Upper Agua deposits of permeable material underlain Fria aquifer in the southern portion of by igneous rock, and some metamorphic the Prescott Active Management Area and sedimentary rock. Water availability is (PrAMA). Water accumulation there is an Riparian vegetation along a perennial limited by the region’s small amounts of important contributor to perennial flow stretch of the Agua Fria River. (Rogers) rain and snow, high temperatures, dry air, in the Agua Fria River for several miles and limited groundwater storage capacity. from just south of State Highway 169 on through the town of Dewey-Humboldt During winter there is sometimes enough and farther south. A relatively large water to fully saturate the soil and allow sediment deposit occurs near Castle Hot water to move beyond the reach of Springs in the south end of the basin. The plant roots into underground aquifers greatest volume of flow from a spring composed of sediments, sedimentary in the basin has been reported there. rocks, and fractured igneous rock. Some Perennial stream segments are shown on of the stored groundwater moves down the accompanying map. (page 17) slope until it is released at springs or soaks into and follows river channels. The Soil moisture accumulated in the Agua steady release of groundwater maintains Fria River basin during winter evaporates perennial flow in about 10 percent of the or is used by plants during spring and basin’s stream channels. early summer. Soil moisture accumulation during summer is limited because runoff and stream flow after intense summer rains are rapid. Thirsty plants and evaporation use up most of the rest of Agua River Watershed Resources the incoming water. The rate of runoff Agua Fria Open Space Alliance PO Box 940, Dewey, AZ 86327 and amount of sediment carried into and down stream channels is influenced by the Agua Fria History- nature of the slopes—their steepness, soil The University of Arizona’s Guide to the State’s Water Information and Organizations: texture, and vegetation cover. Watershed is a term used to refer to the slopes The Watershed Report by Arizona NEMO: within the basin, and the term “healthy watershed” means that the natural The Arizona Water Atlas: vegetation cover is as complete as it can be under the influence of the prevailing climate, and, as a result, soil surfaces are The Report on the Big Bug Creek Area near the center of the Upper Agua Fria River Basin protected and stable without excessive erosion.16 Central Yavapai County
  20. 20. Vegetation of the Agua Fria River basin “The wildlife and its habitat cannot speak.watershed is made up of slow-growing So we must and we will.”drought tolerant plants. Small forests ofPonderosa Pine are present at the highestelevations in the Bradshaw Mountains to President Theodore Rooseveltthe west and Black Hills to the east.Woodlands and shrublands composed ofPinyon pines and Juniper trees, evergreenOaks, and other shrubs cover theintermediate mountain slopes. Patches ofshrubs and expansive desert grasslandscover the broad, more gently slopingvalley floors. Riparian vegetation withdense stands of Cottonwood trees,Willows, Mesquite, Salt Cedar, andnumerous other tree, shrub, and herbspecies occurs in narrow ribbons alongperennial and intermittent streamsthroughout the basin.Riparian habitat covers less than onepercent of the surface area of the basin,yet is the most critical source of water,food, and cover for the basin’s nativeanimals. Researchers have found thatmore than half of the animals in the basinare fully or partially dependent on riparianhabitats.The water future of the Agua Fria Riverbasin depends on climate, watershedprotection, and water use by people.Groundwater levels are declining nearwells in some areas, and various forms ofrationing to conserve water are cominginto play. At present there is no evidencethat any of the perennial stream reacheswithin the basin have declined. As thehuman population of the area grows,the preservation of riparian habitats willrequire adoption of wise conservationstrategies. One of the most important andeasiest techniques is to plant drought-tolerant native plants in yards and usedrip irrigation in gardens. Green buildingtechniques that further reduce use ofgroundwater will also help. Data Sources Arizona Land Information System (ALRIS 2004), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS 2006), U.S. Census Bureau TIGER 2000, USGS DLG 1988, The Nature Conservancy.Perhaps most important is the growing Projection: Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 12. North American Datum 1983. Horizontal Unitsrecognition by people living in the area Meters Cartographic Composition by Lainie Levick and Mickey Reed, Advanced Resource Technologythat conservation guarantees water will Group, the University of Arizona, February 2007 af_riv_strm8x11.mxdremain available for people, plants andanimals in the Agua Fria River Basin. Conservation Regional Handbook 17