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  1. 1. Christopher Michael Langan Research and Progress in Intelligent Design - Biola University - October 24 - 27, 2002 The Cognitive-Theoretic Model of the Universe A New Kind of Reality Theory
  2. 2.  Goose barnacles do not suddenly give rise to barnacle geese. “Spontaneous generation is absurd!” say most biologists. “The only scientifically valid position is that species and organisms originate with the Laws of Nature as studied by Mainstream Science!”  Unfortunately, mainstream science itself subscribes to a very deep and fundamental form of spontaneous generation applying to the whole universe. Spontaneous Generation
  3. 3.  Why do so many biologists so readily swallow the spontaneous generation concept with regard to things that are supposed to be even more fundamental than biology, namely physics, cosmology and even mathematics?  Why do they tacitly assume that invoking magic words like “Darwin”, “natural selection”, “random mutation” and “theory of evolution” can somehow overcome the forces of logic?  This constitutes a major paradox. Paradox!
  4. 4. Since biological processes are physical, explaining a biological process means explaining the corresponding physical process, and the standards of validity are ultimately identical. In fact, standards of validity do not belong to any branch of empirical science, but to logic. Logic requires that biological processes occur within a supporting medium. But physical theory provides no structured medium with room or support for mechanism of any kind, including the “laws of nature” themselves. There is merely an empty vacuum with hidden mathematical structure. (Since the vacuum looks empty and featureless, where is this structure hiding?) Are biology and physics separate realms of inquiry with different standards of validity?
  5. 5.  What is the real relationship between the medium of reality and the objects, properties and processes it contains?  Most importantly, the “reality” of this relationship implies that it occupies reality.  So reality comprises a medium everywhere containing its own containment mapping, and the mapping is intrinsic to reality. Containment as a Mapping
  6. 6. But to “everywhere contain a mapping” is to contain the mapping at every point, which implies that the mapping may be contracted or confined to a point, which in turn implies that the mapping is really an identification. The spatial medium and its material contents are essentially the same. Contracting the Mapping
  7. 7. . The Reality Principle Where reality is defined in terms of dynamical relevance, everything relevant to reality is contained within reality. Since anything sufficiently “real” to affect reality is a part of reality by definition, reality displays closure with respect to every conceivable real function or property. Since this includes containment, reality is distributed over its contents as a medium.
  8. 8. • The same reasoning applies to way the medium of reality contains the laws of nature, and the way in which the laws of nature define, explain or “descriptively contain” their natural contents. In principle, these forms of containment are dealt with in the branch of logic called model theory. • These containment mappings must be contracted just like the one between reality and its contents. Model Theory
  9. 9.  In model theory, theoretical “languages” are interpreted in universes. Where the descriptive content of a theory is set-theoretically contained within the universe of the theory, theory and universe intersect.  But in the limiting case where the theory being “interpreted” consists of natural law, i.e. universal patterns and structural relationships actually existing in reality, intersection becomes identity. Reality Models Itself Through Its Laws
  10. 10. • The CTMU simply pushes model theory to this limit, contracting all containment mappings and generating a “metatheory” from which nontrivial implications may be extracted regardless of whether the laws of nature are yet known. • In other words, the CTMU creates a logical metatheory about a “theory of everything” consisting of the actual laws of nature, whatever they may be, and extracts the implications. The CTMU Takes it to the Limit
  11. 11. Metalanguage L’ (semantic mapping: explanation/interpretation) [Meta Object Domain U’  (Object Language L  Object Universe)] …where L and L’ are descriptive constructs (e.g. classes of formulae) with semantic content in U and U’, and the semantic mapping carries (L,L’) into (U,U’) and vice versa.
  12. 12. Logically, contracting the mapping between reality and its contents means contracting the mapping between the containing and contained aspects of their union. This requires that space and matter coincide, and since we perceive space as empty and matter as solid, that there be a temporal alternation between the spatial and concrete aspects of matter. This leads directly to conspansion and conspansive duality, central concepts in the CTMU. Conspansion
  13. 13. Hume’s problem of induction expresses the fact that any attempt to empirically establish universal laws is circular because it requires that the uniformity of nature be assumed in advance. This implies that any attempt to validate the existence of teleology requires a basis in logic and mathematics…not just a theory-to-universe mapping, but an identity relationship between the laws of logic and empirical processes and phenomena. The Problem of Induction
  14. 14. Armed with the CTMU, science does not need to seek explanations outside the reality to be explained, thus involving itself in the paradox of seeking “explanations” that are by definition “unreal” (because not in reality). Instead, explanatory logic is built into the syntactic medium of reality, and valid intrinsic explanations become possible. The CTMU Solution
  15. 15. Now let’s assure ourselves that we are not out of line with the hard sciences by having a look at what the world’s premier physicist, J.A. Wheeler, thinks about the shape a true theory of reality should take (bearing in mind that prior to the CTMU, there was no known mathematical structure capable of supporting all of the following properties). The CTMU Solution
  16. 16. The Self-Excited Circuit: Wheeler asserts that reality is analogous to a “self-excited circuit”. Essentially, this means that reality possesses dynamical reflexivity and closure. Reflexivity plus closure means that the reflexive mapping of reality to itself is intrinsic to the system. This means that causality is intrinsic to the system, i.e. that the system is self-deterministic or “self- caused”. John Wheeler’s Wish List for Reality Theory
  17. 17. The Participatory Universe: Wheeler asserts that the universe is “participatory”, which means that observers affect what happens through observation. Where the “observer” concept is generalized to quantum events, the events of which reality consists become “self-observations” of reality. It follows that reality is essentially a self- observational system in which the observational mapping between observers and events is identified with the events themselves. John Wheeler’s Wish List for Reality Theory
  18. 18. Reality becomes its own observer. But since generalizing the observations of human observers to include quantum events induces a parallel generalization of the inner (cognitive) dynamics of observers, reality becomes “mental” in a generalized sense. That is, it becomes capable of generalized self-observation and self-cognition, where “self-cognition” is associated with intrinsic implementations of the laws of physics. John Wheeler’s Wish List for Reality Theory
  19. 19. Law Without Law / Order From Disorder: Wheeler asserts that there is no preexisting order in terms of which the order of the universe, as captured in its laws, can be explained. In keeping with the Self-Excited Circuit and Participatory Universe concepts, the universe must be intrinsically self-configuring, owing no explanatory debt to anything outside itself. It follows that the universe supports whatever properties and processes are required to this end. John Wheeler’s Wish List for Reality Theory
  20. 20. It from Bit: Reality educes and/or produces itself in the form of information residing in quantum events. Concisely, “physics gives rise to observer participancy, observer-participancy gives rise to information, and information gives rise to physics.” Because information consists of what Wheeler calls “binary yes-or-no indications”, this amounts to saying that reality is based on 2- valued logic (2VL), and since 2VL is based on logical tautology, that reality theory should be based on logical tautology. John Wheeler’s Wish List for Reality Theory
  21. 21.  Like all theories, reality theory is a language. Is there a theoretical language meeting all of Wheeler’s criteria? Yes. Basically, this language expresses the fact that any system with the profound degree of self- containment posited by Wheeler must itself be a language…a new, completely self-contained kind of language that configures and processes itself. To do this, it requires certain features and principles beyond those enumerated by Wheeler. Reality is a Language
  22. 22. 2VL is a definitional coupling of functors and truth values reflecting inclusion or non-inclusion in cognitive-perceptual systems. Its invariants are tautologies, functorial relationships of sentential variables that are always true (conceivable and perceivable) regardless of the truth of the sentential variables themselves. Thus, they function as guideposts in the search for truth. Because reality theory applies the truth concept to the cognitive-perceptual system called “reality”, it must be based on a “supertautological” extension of the tautology concept. Supertautology
  23. 23. A logical tautology possess three distinctive properties: it is comprehensive (descriptively universal), closed under recursive self- composition, and consistent on the syntactic and semantic levels. Since logic is the theory of truth, the way to construct a valid theory is to start with logic, adjoin tautological rules under which truth is heritable, and logically extract the implications. A theory of reality constructed in this way is called a supertautology. The 3 C’s
  24. 24. In a supertautological theory of reality, it is unnecessary to assume the uniformity of nature with respect to certain kinds of generalization. Instead, such generalizations can be mathematically deduced. In conjunction with certain other principles, supertautology can be regarded as correspondent to Wheeler’s It from Bit criterion.
  25. 25.  Since any perfectly self-contained reality is without an external background or array against which to evolve either geometrically or like a discrete cellular automaton, generative grammar is the model of necessity…specifically, a self-contained kind of generative grammar which includes its own processors. Such a grammar is called a  grammar, and the language it generates is called SCSPL (for Self-Configuring Self-Processing Language). Self-Configuring Self-Processing Language
  26. 26.  SCSPL, the ultimate intrinsic language, is defined to possess certain important features required of reality theory. All of its syntactic and semantic functions, including generation, configuration, (read/write) processing, reference, attribution, definition, description, explanation and interpretation, are intrinsic to it; its terms and other ingredients are coupled in a closed network connected to nothing external.  SCSPL syntax is hologically distributed.  In SCSPL, that which is described is what does the describing. SCSPL processors produce expressions consisting of their own states, and SCSPL grammatical events coincide with interactions among processors.  SCSPL can be conveniently factored into “sublanguages” LO and LS which can be regarded as respectively objective and subjective, simulated and simulative, or spatial and (spatio)temporal.  SCSPL can be regarded as correspondent to Wheeler’s Self-Excited Circuit criterion. Self-Configuring Self-Processing Language
  27. 27.  grammar incorporates a 2-phase process called conspansion, a grammatical alternation between an interactive “production” phase (inner expansion) and an actualizative “selection” phase (requantization). While we usually see reality “from the inside out”, conspansion “turns reality outside in”, inverting it so that evolution occurs within the evolving objects themselves. Conspansion puts spacetime in extended self- contact or “superposition”. Conspansive Duality and Extended Superposition
  28. 28. Conspansive spacetime resembles a layering of Venn diagrams on which its geometry is “self- simulatively displayed”. The fact that successive states of objects are in direct and persistent contact permits the formation of stratified, spatiotemporally-extended causal relationships. Conspansive duality, through which reality inwardly and interactively “observes itself”, can be regarded as corresponding to Wheeler’s Participatory Universe criterion. Conspansive Spacetime
  29. 29. Just as a perfectly self-contained language must be self-processing, so must the information of which it consists. This leads to the concept of self- processing information. Self-processing information is another implication of Wheeler’s It from Bit criterion; where “It” is dynamic, and “Bit” is its source, “Bit” must be dynamic as well. Reality thus consists of a single “substance”, infocognition, with two aspects corresponding to transduction and being transduced. Describing reality as infocognition thus amounts to dual aspect monism. Infocognitive Monism
  30. 30. Retooling the information concept for reality- theoretic application consists of three steps: 1. Equip it with the means of its own transduction or transformative processing, thus reposing it in SCSPL infocognitive syntactic operators. 2. Extend its bit structure to accommodate logic as a whole, including predicate logic, model theory and language theory, broadly including the theories of mathematical languages, metalanguages and generative grammars. 3. Generalize it to an ultimate ancestral medium, telesis or infocognitive potential, from which cognitive syntax and its informational content are cross-refined by telic feedback.
  31. 31.  The Telic Principle, a logical extension of the anthropic principle appropriate for a supertautology, asserts that the universe must provide itself with the wherewithal to self- select from UBT.  It is accompanied by supporting principles and models which show that the universe possesses the necessary degree of circularity, particularly with respect to time. In order to function as a selection principle, it generates a generalized global selection parameter analogous to self-utility, which it then seeks to maximize. The Telic Principle
  32. 32. Certain properties of the reflexive, self-contained language of reality – that it is syntactically self- distributed, self-reading, and coherently self-configuring and self-processing – respectively correspond to the traditional theological properties omnipresence, omniscience and omnipotence. Because the physical (directly observable) part of reality is logically inadequate to explain its own genesis, maintenance, evolution or consistency, it alone is incapable of properly containing the intelligent supraphysical Being whose existence is implied by these properties. The 3 O’s
  33. 33. Time and causality have been problematic concepts throughout the history of science and philosophy. Just two kinds of causality have been theoretically utilized: extrinsic and/or random. But extrinsic causality requires an appeal to something outside that which is caused, while randomness is no causality at all; a random event or property is just another unacceptable instance of “spontaneous generation”. A truly self-contained universe must utilize a third option: self-determinacy. Self-Determinacy
  34. 34. Telic recursion occurs in two stages, primary and secondary (global and local). In the primary stage, universal (distributed) laws are formed in juxtaposition with the initial distribution of matter and energy, while the secondary stage consists of material and geometric state-transitions expressed in terms of the primary stage. Telic recursion, which lets reality refine itself from a primitive realm of infocognitive potential called unbound telesis or UBT, permits the realization of Wheeler’s Law Without Law criterion and is essential to observer-participation. Telic Recursion
  35. 35. The message of the CTMU regarding evolution is “meta-Darwinian”: the universe evolves by hological self-replication, self-evaluation and self- selection, but at the same time is intelligently self- designed. In the CTMU, design and selection are generative and restrictive duals associated with alternating phases of conspansion. It is this coupling of self-selection and self-design that yields nature. Biological evolution is simply a reflection of the evolution of reality itself, a process of telic recursion mirroring that of the universe as a whole. The CTMU and ID
  36. 36. The meta-cybernetic mechanism of evolution is telic recursion, an atemporal process which sets up a stratified dialectic between the biological syntax of an organism and its state relative to the environment. Though subject to noise, interference and competition, this process tends to maximize the utility of the universe and its inhabitants according to the Telic Principle. Instead of passing the explanatory buck to some future reduction, the CTMU places evolutionary biology in a fundamental, self-contained model of reality No Explanatory Debt
  37. 37. • The CTMU is a reality-theoretic extension of 2- valued logic possessing logical truth. • The CTMU is a necessary formulation of teleology in an analytically self-contained reality. • The CTMU explains otherwise inexplicable observations, e.g. accelerating cosmic expansion. • The CTMU is in excellent accord with reality- theoretic criteria advanced by (arguably) the world’s senior physicist. • *The CTMU can be viewed as a theory of the mathematical structure of a new mathematical object, SCSPL, which provides a basis for explicating the relationship between science and mathematics. Summary (Part I)
  38. 38. • The CTMU embeds current models of reality to the extent that these models have not already been pushed beyond their explanatory capacities. Meanwhile, it extends them in such a way as to make room for teleology and thus for Intelligent Design while offering a reconciliation between Intelligent Design and an enlightened version of natural selection. • In parsimoniously eliminating semantic separation on the syntactic level of SCSPL, the CTMU places mind in contact with reality and thereby eliminates the severe problems associated with Cartesian mind-matter dualism. • The CTMU uses model-theoretic concepts to unite science and spirituality, not so much by “bridging the gap” between them as by simply eliminating the separation. Accordingly, the CTMU is the basis of a new logical strain of theology. (And so on.) Summary (Part II)
  39. 39. For more information, please visit:
  40. 40. Mankind’s Role in the Self- Actualization of the Universe How come existence?
  41. 41. Syndiffeonic Relation
  42. 42. ERSU
  43. 43. USRE
  44. 44. .
  45. 45. .
  46. 46. .
  47. 47. Determinacy, Indeterminacy and the Third Option
  48. 48. . The Boundary of a Boundary is Zero
  49. 49. Syndiffeonic Relation
  50. 50. Syndiffeonic Relation
  51. 51. Syndiffeonic Relation
  52. 52. Syndiffeonic Relation
  53. 53. Syndiffeonic Relation
  54. 54. . SCSPL Global Operator-Designer
  55. 55. Mind = Reality
  56. 56. Multiplex Unity
  57. 57. Metaphysical Autology Principle
  58. 58. Telic Recursion
  59. 59. Ex_Nihilo_Abiogenesis_Spontan eous_Creation_Ex_Nihilo_Abiog enesis_Spontaneous_Generation Creation_Ex_Nihilo_Abiogenesi s_Spontaneous_Generation_Cre ation_Ex_Nihilo_Abiogenesis_S pontaneous_Generation_Creatio n_Ex_Nihilo_Abiogenesis_Spont aneous_Generation_Creation_E
  60. 60. What is Reality? 001101010101010101010100111001001010101010101100010011010101111010010110101010 010110101000101101100101001101010101010101010100111001001010101010101100010011 111101001011010101010101010110101000101101100101001101010101101010101010101101 110100101101010101010101011010100010110110010100110101010110101010101011100100 010101011000100110101011110100101101010101010101011010100010110110010010101011 001011011001010011010101010101010101010111001001010101010101100010011001001010 101011000100110101011110100101101010101010101011010100010110110010010101011010 011011001010011010101010101010101010111001001010101010101100010011010101111010 100101010101010110001001101010111101001011010101010101010110101000101101100101 101010101010101010011100100101010101010110001001101010111101001011010101010101 010100010110110010100110101010101010101010011100100101010110110101010101010101 000101101100101001101010101010101010101011100100101010101010110001001101010111 101101010101010101011010100010110110010100110101010101010101010101110010010101 010111010101010101010111001001010101010101110101010101010101110010010101010101 101010101011100100101010101010111010101010101010110111001001010101010101100010 010111101001011010101010101010110101000101101100101001101010101010101010100111 101010101010110001001101010111101001011010101010101010110101000101101100101001 010101010101010011100100101010101010110001001101010111101001011010101010101010 100010110110010100110101010110101010101011100100101010101010110001001101010111 101101010101010101011010100010110110010100101010101101010001011011001010011010 010101010100111001001010101010101100010010101101010001011011001010011010101010 101010101110010010101010101011000100111011100100101010101010110001001101010111 101101010101010101011010100010110110101110010010101010101011000100110101110001 101011110100101101010101010101011010100010110110010100110101010110101010101011 010101010101011000100110101011110100101101010101010101011010100010110110010100
  61. 61. To my mind, there must be at the bottom of it all, not an utterly simple equation, but an utterly simple IDEA. And to me that idea, when we finally discover it, will be so compelling, and so inevitable, so beautiful, we will say to each other, 'How could it have ever been otherwise?' - John Archibald Wheeler