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IoT [Internet of Things]

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Subject : Internet of Things
Semester : VII
By: Arpit Kumar Sharma
1
1. Definition and characteristics of IoT
2. Design of IOT: Physical design of IOT
3. Logical Design of IOT- Functional Blocks
4. communication models
5. communication APIs
6. IOT enabling Technologies- Wireless Sensor Networks
7. Cloud computing
8. big data analytics
9. embedded systems
10. IOT Levels and deployment templates
Contents of UNIT – 1st 2
3
Definition and characteristics of IoT
Definition : The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing
devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided
with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a
network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
Characteristics of IoT :
 Intelligence
 Connectivity
 Dynamic Nature
 Enormous scale
 Sensing
 Heterogeneity
 Security
4
Connectivity
Connectivity empowers Internet of Things by bringing together everyday objects. Connectivity of these
objects is pivotal because simple object level interactions contribute towards collective intelligence in IoT
network. It enables network accessibility and compatibility in the things. With this connectivity, new market
opportunities for Internet of things can be created by the networking of smart things and applications.
Intelligence
IoT comes with the combination of algorithms and computation, software & hardware that makes it smart.
Ambient intelligence in IoT enhances its capabilities which facilitate the things to respond in an intelligent way
to a particular situation and supports them in carrying out specific tasks. In spite of all the popularity of smart
technologies, intelligence in IoT is only concerned as means of interaction between devices, while user and
device interaction is achieved by standard input methods and graphical user interface.
5
Enormous scale
The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be much larger
than the devices connected to the current Internet. The management of data generated from these devices and
their interpretation for application purposes becomes more critical. Gartner (2015) confirms the enormous
scale of IoT in the estimated report where it stated that 5.5 million new things will get connected every day
and 6.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide in 2016, which is up by 30 percent from 2015. The
report also forecasts that the number of connected devices will reach 20.8 billion by 2020.
Dynamic Nature
The primary activity of Internet of Things is to collect data from its environment, this is achieved with the
dynamic changes that take place around the devices. The state of these devices change dynamically,
example sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including
temperature, location and speed. In addition to the state of the device, the number of devices also changes
dynamically with a person, place and time.
6
Heterogeneity
Heterogeneity in Internet of Things as one of the key characteristics. Devices in IoT are based on different
hardware platforms and networks and can interact with other devices or service platforms through different
networks. IoT architecture should support direct network connectivity between heterogeneous networks. The
key design requirements for heterogeneous things and their environments in IoT are scalabilities, modularity,
extensibility and interoperability.
Sensing
IoT wouldn’t be possible without sensors which will detect or measure any changes in the environment to
generate data that can report on their status or even interact with the environment. Sensing technologies
provide the means to create capabilities that reflect a true awareness of the physical world and the people in it.
The sensing information is simply the analogue input from the physical world, but it can provide the rich
understanding of our complex world.

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IoT [Internet of Things]

  • 1. Subject : Internet of Things Semester : VII By: Arpit Kumar Sharma 1
  • 2. 1. Definition and characteristics of IoT 2. Design of IOT: Physical design of IOT 3. Logical Design of IOT- Functional Blocks 4. communication models 5. communication APIs 6. IOT enabling Technologies- Wireless Sensor Networks 7. Cloud computing 8. big data analytics 9. embedded systems 10. IOT Levels and deployment templates Contents of UNIT – 1st 2
  • 3. 3 Definition and characteristics of IoT Definition : The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. Characteristics of IoT :  Intelligence  Connectivity  Dynamic Nature  Enormous scale  Sensing  Heterogeneity  Security
  • 4. 4 Connectivity Connectivity empowers Internet of Things by bringing together everyday objects. Connectivity of these objects is pivotal because simple object level interactions contribute towards collective intelligence in IoT network. It enables network accessibility and compatibility in the things. With this connectivity, new market opportunities for Internet of things can be created by the networking of smart things and applications. Intelligence IoT comes with the combination of algorithms and computation, software & hardware that makes it smart. Ambient intelligence in IoT enhances its capabilities which facilitate the things to respond in an intelligent way to a particular situation and supports them in carrying out specific tasks. In spite of all the popularity of smart technologies, intelligence in IoT is only concerned as means of interaction between devices, while user and device interaction is achieved by standard input methods and graphical user interface.
  • 5. 5 Enormous scale The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be much larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. The management of data generated from these devices and their interpretation for application purposes becomes more critical. Gartner (2015) confirms the enormous scale of IoT in the estimated report where it stated that 5.5 million new things will get connected every day and 6.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide in 2016, which is up by 30 percent from 2015. The report also forecasts that the number of connected devices will reach 20.8 billion by 2020. Dynamic Nature The primary activity of Internet of Things is to collect data from its environment, this is achieved with the dynamic changes that take place around the devices. The state of these devices change dynamically, example sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including temperature, location and speed. In addition to the state of the device, the number of devices also changes dynamically with a person, place and time.
  • 6. 6 Heterogeneity Heterogeneity in Internet of Things as one of the key characteristics. Devices in IoT are based on different hardware platforms and networks and can interact with other devices or service platforms through different networks. IoT architecture should support direct network connectivity between heterogeneous networks. The key design requirements for heterogeneous things and their environments in IoT are scalabilities, modularity, extensibility and interoperability. Sensing IoT wouldn’t be possible without sensors which will detect or measure any changes in the environment to generate data that can report on their status or even interact with the environment. Sensing technologies provide the means to create capabilities that reflect a true awareness of the physical world and the people in it. The sensing information is simply the analogue input from the physical world, but it can provide the rich understanding of our complex world.
  • 7. 7 Security IoT devices are naturally vulnerable to security threats. As we gain efficiencies, novel experiences, and other benefits from the IoT, it would be a mistake to forget about security concerns associated with it. There is a high level of transparency and privacy issues with IoT. It is important to secure the endpoints, the networks, and the data that is transferred across all of it means creating a security paradigm.
  • 8. 8 Design of IOT: Physical design of IOT Physical Design of IoT refers to IoT Devices and IoT Protocols. Things are Node device which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. Communication established between things and cloud based server over the Internet by various IoT protocols. The IoT architecture is multi-layered with delicate components intricately connected to each other. It starts with sensors, which are the source of data being collected. Sensors pass data onto an adjacent edge device, which converts data into readable digital values and stores these temporarily.
  • 9. 9 Physical Design of IoT Things Basically Things refers to IoT Devices which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. Things are is main part of IoT Application. IoT Devices can be various type, Sensing Devices, Smart Watches, Smart Electronics appliances, Wearable Sensors, Automobiles, and industrial machines. These devices generate data in some forms or the other which when processed by data analytics systems leads to useful information to guide further actions locally or remotely.
  • 10. 10
  • 11. 11 IoT Protocols IoT protcols help to establish Communication between IoT Device (Node Device) and Cloud based Server over the Internet. It help to sent commands to IoT Device and received data from an IoT device over the Internet. An image is given below. By this image you can understand which protocols used.
  • 12. 12 Link Layer Link layer protocols determine how data is physically sent over the network’s physical layer or medium (Coxial calbe or other or radio wave). This Layer determines how the packets are coded and signaled by the hardware device over the medium to which the host is attached (eg. coxial cable). Example of Link Layer Protocol: • 802.11 – WiFi • 802.16 – Wi-Max • 802.15.4 -LR-WPAN • 2G/3G/4G- Mobile Communication
  • 13. 13 Network Layer Responsible for sending of IP datagrams from the source network to the destination network. Network layer performs the host addressing and packet routing. We used IPv4 and IPv6 for Host identification. IPv4 and IPv6 are hierarchical IP addressing schemes. Example of Network Layer • IPv4 • IPv6 • 6LoWPAN
  • 14. 14 Transport Layer This layer provides functions such as error control, segmentation, flow control and congestion control. So this layer protocols provide end-to-end message transfer capability independent of the underlying network. Example of Transport Layer: • TCP • UDP
  • 15. 15 Application Layer Application layer protocols define how the applications interface with the lower layer protocols to send over the network. Example of Application Layer • HTTP • CoAP • WebSocket • MQTT • XMPP • DDS • AMQP
  • 16. 16 Logical Design of IoT | IoT Communication Models & APIs Logical Design of IoT In this slide we discuss Logical design of Internet of things. Logical design of IoT system refers to an abstract representation of the entities & processes without going into the low- level specifies of the implementation. For understanding Logical Design of IoT, we describes given below terms. •IoT Functional Blocks •IoT Communication Models •IoT Communication APIs
  • 17. 17IoT Functional Blocks An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication and management. functional blocks are: Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions. Communication: Handles the communication for the IoT system. Services: services for device monitoring, device control service, data publishing services and services for device discovery. Management: this blocks provides various functions to govern the IoT system.
  • 18. 18 Security: this block secures the IoT system and by providing functions such as authentication , authorization, message and content integrity, and data security. Application: This is an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. Application also allow users to view the system status and view or analyze the processed data.
  • 19. 19IoT Communication Models Request-Response Model Request-response model is communication model in which the client sends requests to the server and the server responds to the requests. When the server receives a request, it decides how to respond, fetches the data, retrieves resource representation, prepares the response, and then sends the response to the client. Request-response is a stateless communication model and each request-response pair is independent of others. HTTP works as a request-response protocol between a client and server. A web browser may be the client, and an application on a computer that hosts a web site may be the server. Example: A client (browser) submits an HTTP request to the server; then the server returns a response to the client. The response contains status information about the request and may also contain the requested content.
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21 Publish-Subscribe Model Publish-Subscribe is a communication model that involves publishers, brokers and consumers. Publishers are the source of data. Publishers send the data to the topics which are managed by the broker. Publishers are not aware of the consumers. Consumers subscribe to the topics which are managed by the broker. When the broker receive data for a topic from the publisher, it sends the data to all the subscribed consumers.
  • 22. 22 Push-Pull Model Push-Pull is a communication model in which the data producers push the data to queues and the consumers Pull the data from the Queues. Producers do not need to be aware of the consumers. Queues help in decoupling the messaging between the Producers and Consumers. Queues also act as a buffer which helps in situations when there is a mismatch between the rate at which the producers push data and the rate rate at which the consumer pull data.
  • 23. 23 Exclusive Pair Model Exclusive Pair is a bidirectional, fully duplex communication model that uses a persistent connection between the client and server. Connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection. Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup. Exclusive pair is stateful communication model and the server is aware of all the open connections.
  • 24. 24 IoT Communication APIs Generally we used Two APIs For IoT Communication. These IoT Communication APIs are: •REST-based Communication APIs •WebSocket-based Communication APIs REST-based Communication APIs: Representational state transfer (REST) is a set of architectural principles by which you can design Web services the Web APIs that focus on systems’s resources and how resource states are addressed and transferred. REST APIs that follow the request response communication model, the rest architectural constraint apply to the components, connector and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system.
  • 25. 25 The rest architectural constraint are as follows: Client-server – The principle behind the client-server constraint is the separation of concerns. for example clients should not be concerned with the storage of data which is concern of the serve. Similarly the server should not be concerned about the user interface, which is concern of the clien. Separation allows client and server to be independently developed and updated. Stateless – Each request from client to server must contain all the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. The session state is kept entirely on the client.
  • 26. 26 Cache-able – Cache constraints requires that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly leveled as cache-able or non cache-able. If a response is cache-able, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that repsonse data for later, equivalent requests. caching can partially or completely eliminate some instructions and improve efficiency and scalability. Layered system – layered system constraints, constrains the behavior of components such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with they are interacting. For example, the client cannot tell whether it is connected directly to the end server or two an intermediaryalong the way. System scalability can be improved by allowing intermediaries to respond to requests instead of the end server, without the client having to do anything different. A RESTful web service is a ” Web API ” implemented using HTTP and REST principles. REST is most popular IoT Communication APIs.
  • 27. 27 WebSocket based communication API Websocket APIs allow bi-directional, full duplex communication between clients and servers. Websocket APIs follow the exclusive pair communication model. Unlike request- response model such as REST, the WebSocket APIs allow full duplex communication and do not require new coonection to be setup for each message to be sent. Websocket communication begins with a connection setup request sent by the client to the server. The request (called websocket handshake) is sent over HTTP and the server interprets it is an upgrade request. If the server supports websocket protocol, the server responds to the websocket handshake response. After the connection setup client and server can send data/mesages to each other in full duplex mode.
  • 28. 28 Websocket API reduce the network traffic and letency as there is no overhead for connection setup and termination requests for each message. Websocket suitable for IoT applications that have low latency or high throughput requirements. So Web socket is most suitable IoT Communication APIs for IoT System.
  • 29. 29IoT Enabling Technologies • Wireless Sensor Network • Cloud Computing • Big Data Analytics • Embedded Systems
  • 30. 30Wireless Sensor Network •Distributed Devices with sensors used to monitor the environmental and physicalconditions Or •It is a network formed by large no. of sensor nodes to detect light, heat , pressure ect. i.e. used to monitor environmental and physical conditions. •Each node can have several sensors attached to it. • Each node can also acts as a routers • Coordinator collects data from all nodes •Coordinator acts as gateway that connects WSN to the internet.
  • 31. 31Examples ofWSNs • Indoor Air Quality Monitoringsystem • Weather Monitoring System • Soil Moisture Monitoring System • Survelliance Systems • Health Monitoring Systems Protocols used WSNs are enabled by wireless communication protocols such as IEEE802.15.4 Zigbee is one of the most popular wireless technology used by WSNs. Zigbee specifications are based on IEEE802.15.4 which is used for low powered devices. Data rate: up to 250KBps. Range: upto 100 Meters
  • 32. 32 Cloud Computing • Deliver applications and services over internet Provides computing, networking and storage resources on demand Cloud Computing is a way of making use of virtual computer world wide using the same personalized experience. Types of Cloud computing services 1. IaaS(Infrastructure as a Service), 2. PaaS(Platform as a Service and 3. SaaS(Software as a Services) Internet based Vs local storage computing
  • 33. 33 •Saas : Clients can access and use software at remote location using a web browser. Ex: Google documents • Paas : Clients can install, build and modify or control applications. Ex: App cloud, Google App Engine IaaS: Clients can use storage to install and manage operating systems and any desired applications.( i.e Virtual machines + virtual storage) Ex: Web Hosting.
  • 34. 34Big DataAnalytics • Collection of data whose volume, velocity or variety is too large and difficult to store, manage, process and analyze the data using traditional databases. Big data Analytics involves Data cleansing Data munging (Data Wrangling) Data Processing and Data Visualization Correcting Removing Replacing Converting data from one format to other
  • 35. 35Embedded Systems • A microcontroller-based, software-driven, reliable, real- time control system, designed to perform a specific task.. • It can be thought of as a computer hardware system having software embedded in it. •An embedded system can be either an independent system or a part of a large system.
  • 36. 36Key Components •Microprocessor or micro controller •Memory (RAM, ROM ect.) •Storage ( Flash Memory) •Networking units(Ethernet, Wifi adaptors ) •I/O units ( Keyboard, display ect) Some Embedded systems have •DSP(Digital Signal Processor) •Graphics Processor •App Specific Processor •Embedded systems run embedded OS Ex: RTOS(Real Time OS)(like symbian, Vxworks , Windows embedded compact ect.)
  • 37. IoT Levels and Deployment Templates An IoT system comprises the following components: Device, Resource, Controller Service, Database, Web service,Analysis Device : An IoT device allows identification, remote sensing, monitoring capabilities. remote Resource: • Software components on the IoT device for -accessing, processing and storing sensor information, -controlling actuators connected to the device. - enabling network access for the device. Controller Service: • Controller service is a native service that runs on the device and interacts with the web services. •It sends data from the device to the web service and receives commands from the application (via web services) for controlling thedevice. Component and Application.
  • 38. Database •Database can be either local or in the cloud and stores the data generated by the IoT device. Web Service: •Web services serve as a link between the IoT device, application, database and analysis components. •It can be implemented using HTTP and REST principles (REST service) or using the WebSocket protocol (WebSocketservice). Analysis Component: •Analysis Component is responsible for analyzing the IoT data and generating results in a form that is easy for the user to understand. Application: •IoT applications provide an interfacethatthe users canuse to control and monitor various aspects of the IoTsystem. •Applications also allow users to view the system status and the processed data.
  • 39. IoT Level-1 A level-1 IoT system has a single node/device that performs sensing and/or actuation, stores data, performs analysis and hosts the application. Level-1 IoT systems are suitable for modelling low- cost and low-complexity solutions where the data involved is not big and the analysis requirements are not computationally intensive.
  • 40. IoT – Level 1 Example :Home Automation System
  • 41. IoT Level-2 •A level-2 IoT system has a single node that performs sensing and/or actuation and local analysis. Data is stored in the cloud and the application is usually cloud-based. •Level-2 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where the data involved is big; however, the primary analysis requirement is not computationally intensive and can be done locally.
  • 42. IoT – Level 2 Example: Smart Irrigation
  • 43. IoT Level-3 A level-3 IoT system has a single node. Data is stored and analyzed in the cloud and the application is cloud- based. Level-3 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where the data involved is big and the analysis requirements are computationally intensive.
  • 44. IoT – Level 3 Example: Tracking Package Handling Sensors used Accelrometer sense movement or vibrations Gyroscope Gives orientation info Websocket service is used because sensor data can be sent in real time.
  • 45. IoT Level-4 A level-4 IoT system has multiple nodes that perform local analysis. Data is stored in the cloud and the application is cloud- based. Level-4 contains local and cloud- based observer nodes which can subscribe and receive information collected in the cloud from IoT devices. Level-4 IoT systems are suitable for solutions where multiple nodes are required, the data involved is big and the analysis requirements are computationally intensive.
  • 46. IoT – Level 4 Example: NoiseMonitoring Sound Sensors are used
  • 47. IoT Level-5 •A level-5 IoT system has multiple end nodes and one coordinator node. •The end nodes perform sensing and/or actuation. •The coordinator node collects data from the end nodes and sends it to the cloud. •Data is stored and analyzed in the cloud and the application is cloud- based. Level-5 IoT systems are suitable for solutions based on wireless sensor networks, in which the data involved is big and the analysis requirements are computationally intensive.
  • 48. IoT – Level 5 Example: Forest FireDetection Detect forest fire in early stages to take action while the fire is still controllable. Sensors measure the temperature, smoke, weather, slope of the earth, wind speed, speed of fire spread, flame length
  • 49. IoT Level-6 •A level-6 IoT system has multiple independent end nodes that perform sensing and/or actuation and send data to the cloud. •Data is stored in the cloud and the application is cloud-based. •The analytics component analyzes the data and stores the results in the cloud database. •The results are visualized with the cloud-based application. •The centralized controller is aware of the status of all the end nodes and sends control commands to the nodes.
  • 50. IoT – Level 6 Example: Weather MonitoringSystem Sensors used Wind speed and direction Solar radiation Temperature (air, water, soil) Relative humidity Precipitation Snow depth Barometric pressure Soil moisture
  • 51. IoT Issues and Challenges Security • Cyber Attacks, Data Theft Privacy • Controlling access and ownership of data. InterOperability • Integration Inflexibility Legality and Rights • Data Protection laws be followed, Data Retention and destruction policies Economy and Development • Investment Incentives, Technical Skill Requirement