Sanchez soto session 3 presentation

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Sanchez soto session 3 presentation

  1. 1. The Role of U.S. Migration and Remittances on the Educational attainment of Youth In Mexico Gabriela Sanchez-Soto, Brown University
  2. 2. Linking Education and Migration  Importance of family background for educational attainment   Migrant remittances and household economy   Conflicting explanations   Migration may have a positive effect on education because of increased family resources   Migration may discourage education and create an orientation towards U.S. labor markets.
  3. 3. Education in Mexico   Education up to 9th grade is mandatory, though there is high drop out after 6th grade   Important expansion of schooling in the past 50 years   Inequality in access for indigenous, rural population and women Year Percent attending school Mean years of schooling (ages 6-14) (ages 15+) 1970 64% 3.4 1990 86% 6.6 2000 97% 7.6
  4. 4. Data and Methods   2000 Mexican Census of Population and Housing   Sample of youth 13 to 20 years old, with at least one parent living in the household (1.3 million)   Municipality level measures from Consejo Nacional de Poblacion   Outcomes:   Completed 6th grade(ages 13-17)   Completed 9th grade, conditional on finishing 6th (ages 16-17)   Completed 12th grade, conditional on finishing 9th (ages 19-20)
  5. 5. Covariates   Migration   Father has U.S. migration experience   Family has other U.S. migrants   Household receives U.S. remittances   Background   Age   Ethnicity   Highest parental education   Father in the household   Context   Economic development index   Migration Intensity index
  6. 6. Sample Characteristics: Youth ages 13-20 Boys Girls Indigenous 5.9% 5.5% Parents’ education (years) 7.0(4.6) 6.9(4.6) Father is U.S. migrant 0.3% 0.3% Father not in household 16.3% 17.1% Household has international migrants 6.7% 7.5% Household receives remittances 4.1% 4.7% Source: 2000 Mexican Census Subsample, IPUMS International Weighted frequencies
  7. 7. Odds of School Completion Completed 6th Completed 9th Completed 12th Grade Grade Grade Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Age Age Age Age Age Age 13-17 13-17 13-17 13-17 13-17 13-17 Household’s Migration Characteristics Father is U.S. migrant 1.028 1.161 1.005 1.020 1.258 0.926 HH has migrants 1.216 *** 1.258 *** 1.000 1.082 ** 0.875 *** 0.910 * HH received remittances 1.130 *** 1.131 *** 1.034 1.071 * 1.054 0.915 * Context Characteristics Development level 1.243 *** 1.320 *** 1.180 *** 1.301 *** 1.015 1.040 * Migration intensity 0.989 1.066 *** 0.881 *** 0.874 *** 0.945 ** 0.899 *** * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.005 *** p < 0.001 Models control for age, ethnicity, father’s household membership, and parents’ education, SEs adjusted for clustering Source: 2000 Mexican Census Subsample, IPUMS International
  8. 8. Impact of migration is stronger in poorer places Completed 6th Completed 9th Completed 12th Grade Grade Grade Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Age 13-17 Age 13-17 Age 13-17 Age 13-17 Age 19-20 Age 19-20 Interactions with Development Level Father is U.S. migrant 0.851 * 0.915 0.792 * 0.753 * No significant HH has migrants 0.916 *** 0.907 *** 0.906 *** 0.865 *** interactions HH received remittances 0.881 *** 0.882 *** 0.912 ** 0.836 *** * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.005 *** p < 0.001 Models control for age, ethnicity, father’s household membership, and parents’ education, SEs adjusted for clustering Each interaction was tested in a separate model Source: 2000 Mexican Census Subsample, IPUMS International
  9. 9. Log Odds of 6th Grade Completion by Level of Development and Father Status (boys ages 13-17) 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 Log odds -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 -3.4 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.4 Level of Development Father not Migrant Father U.S. Migrant Father not in Household Source: 2000 Mexican Census Subsample, IPUMS International
  10. 10. Boys’ Work and School Status, Mexico, 2000 100% Inactive 90% 80% School and work 70% 60% Percent 50% 40% Working only 30% 20% 10% In school only 0% 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Age
  11. 11. Girls’ School and Work Status, Mexico, 2000 100% 90% 80% Inactive 70% 60% School and work Percent 50% 40% Working only 30% 20% 10% In school only 0% 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Age
  12. 12. Conclusions   Migration keeps girls in school… but not for long   Negative impact at higher levels of schooling   Children do not complete schooling in places with greater proportions of migrants   The positive impacts of migration in the household are stronger in poorer places   Evidence of girls idleness   Migration’s impact is more complex than previously acknowledged and has important negative implications for girls
  13. 13. Thank you!

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