Theories Of Learning mod


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Theories Of Learning mod

  1. 1. Theories of Learning and Teaching “ The hard bits” made easy
  2. 2. Every teacher operates to a theory or theories of learning <ul><li>May be </li></ul><ul><li>Consciously held </li></ul><ul><li>Referenced to published theory </li></ul><ul><li>May be </li></ul><ul><li>Operated on unknowingly </li></ul><ul><li>No reference to any public theory </li></ul><ul><li>An ‘espoused’ theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major public theories of learning <ul><li>Try to assess whether they lend support to or are supported by </li></ul><ul><li>Central government policy (e.g. the national curriculum) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>How far do the models favoured by teachers match the models favoured by government? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Which Theories?
  5. 5. Who’s Hot? <ul><li>Writers who have </li></ul><ul><li>Support of or are supported by the dominant discourses in teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Most obviously embedded in classroom practice </li></ul><ul><li>Offer the best routes to exploration of key issues (e.g. student centred/teacher led) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who’s not? <ul><li>Theories where there is insufficient evidence to judge their influence </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated learning </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative curricula </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skinner’s Law of “Positive Reinforcement” Burrhus Frederic!
  8. 8. Skinner’s Law of Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Right responses lead to rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes……. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential of reward leads to right response </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Extrinsic Rewards </li></ul>
  9. 9. Skinner’s Law of Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Mistakes demoralise and demotivate </li></ul><ul><li>Materials should be error free </li></ul><ul><li>Students should not be over - faced </li></ul><ul><li>Success builds on success </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jean Piaget Active Learning
  11. 11. Piaget: Active Learning <ul><li>Two interactive processes </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation – learner incorporates physical world into his world </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation – human beings adapt their understandings to the realities of the world </li></ul>
  12. 12. Piaget: Active Learning <ul><li>Staged Development </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory motor period (birth to eighteen months) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-operational (2 – 7 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete operational (7 – 11 years ) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal operational (11 years onwards) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Piaget: Active Learning <ul><li>Piaget’s influence on education </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of formal schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Key stages of the national curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching methods </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vytgotsky: Social Learning
  15. 15. Vytgotsky: Social Learning <ul><li>Learning is a “meaning making process” </li></ul><ul><li>Moves through stages </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between everyday concepts and “scientific” (deliberately taught) concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between real and rote learning </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vytgotsky: Social Learning <ul><li>Human learning is social in nature </li></ul><ul><li>We grow into the intellectual life of those around us (Cognitive Apprenticeship) </li></ul><ul><li>Thought development is determined by language </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual growth is contingent upon the development of the social key of language </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vytgotsky: Social Learning The Zone of Proximal Development
  18. 18. The Zone of Proximal Development WHAT STUDENTS CAN ACHIEVE BY THEMSELVES WHAT A STUDENT CAN ACHIEVE WITH TEACHING ZPD- the gap between what students can achieve by themselves and what they can achieve with ‘SCAFFOLDING’
  19. 19. Vytgotsky: Learning across the Curriculum <ul><li>Transferability of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Development of higher functions </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking the confines of a particular subject </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious learning </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate mastery </li></ul>
  20. 20. Jerome Bruner The Cultural Context
  21. 21. Bruner: The Cultural Context <ul><li>Three significant developments </li></ul><ul><li>Spiralling </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the home </li></ul><ul><li>Links and mismatches between learning inside and outside formal education </li></ul>
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>Skinner – behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget –stages </li></ul><ul><li>Vytgotsky – social learning </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner – the role of culture </li></ul>
  23. 23. SO WHAT? <ul><li>Gives us ideas of </li></ul><ul><li>Why the curriculum looks the way it does </li></ul><ul><li>Why we teach the way we do </li></ul><ul><li>Some other ways that you might teach </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul>