PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE Philosophy Science means means love of knowledge (Lt. knowledge Scio= I know) (Gr.φίλος+σοφία)
HOW CAN PHILOSOPHY ANDPSYCHOLOGY WORK TOGETHER?
PHENOMENOLOGY AND HUMAN SCIENCE Phenomenology is a philosophical approach applied to psychology Both philosophy and psychology are human sciences Study of phaenomenon (Gr. Φαίνω, What appears to us)
HUMAN AND NATURAL SCIENCEThe word science is not a univocal termScientia comes from Latin scire and refersto the outcome of inquiry within acommunity of knowersThe meanings of science have beendebated for millennia
THE LANGUAGE THAT NATURE SPEAKS [The universe] cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. -Opere Il Saggiatore, p. 171
HOW CAN YOU PROVE THE EXISTENCE OFTHINGS IF YOU DON’T FIRST PROVE YOUROWN EXISTENCE?
RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650,FRANCE) “I think, therefore I am” (Je pense, donc je suis or Cogito ergo sum) Res Cogitans andRes Cogitans (I Res Extensa (I am Res Extensa think - Mind) - Body ) interact through the pineal gland
JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704, ENGLAND)Founder of Empirical scienceNature speaks in the language ofexperienceReliable knowledge is grounded in theevidence of sensory experience andestablished by means of experimentation
DO WE SPEAK THE SAME LANGUAGE ASNATURE? IS HUMAN SCIENCE THE SAMEAS NATURAL SCIENCE?
AUGUSTE COMTE (1798-1857, ENGLAND) Founder of positivism Human science can be studied using the methods of the natural sciences Natural Science is a positive science Positive comes from Latin positum
ARE WE OBJECTS? HOW CAN OUR LIVED-EXPERIENCE BE INVESTIGATED?
WILHELM DILTHEY (1833-1911,GERMAN)The human science movement arose in the 19thcentury as an alternative to positivism, which hadbecome the dominant philosophy of scienceHuman science argues that meanings, not just facts,are critical in understanding human phenomena:Dilthey was a founder of this movementGeistes- Naturwissenschaften (Human and Naturalscience) have to use the same objectivistic method
PHENOMEOLOGY Works : Crisis of European Science Founder: Edmund and the Husserl (1859- Amsterdam 1938) Lectures on Phenomenological Pyschology
IS SCIENCE OBJECTIVE AND UNBIASED?IS IT REALLY POSSIBLE TO SPEAK THELANGUAGE OF NATURE?
CRISIS OF EUROPEAN SCIENCE (1936)Objectivism of Mathematical the Human and Empirical and Natural Science is All our language Transcendental Sciences led always knowledge alienated us SubjectivismEurope toward subjective come from us from our a “deluge of lifeworld skepticism”
HUSSERL: If man loses this faith, it means nothing less than the loss of faith "in himself," in his own true being. This true being is not something he always already has, with the self-evidence of the "I am," but something he only has and can have in the form of the struggle for his truth, the struggle to make himself true. True being is everywhere an ideal goal, a task of episteme or "reason," as opposed to being which through doxa is merely thought to be, unquestioned and "obvious."
HUSSERL: As men of the present, having grown up in this development, we find ourselves in the greatest danger of drowning in the skeptical deluge and thereby losing our hold on our own truth. As we reflect in this plight, we gaze backward into the history of our present humanity. We can gain self -understanding, and thus inner support, only by elucidating the unitary meaning which is inborn in this history from its origin through the newly established task [of the Renaissance], the driving force of all [modern] philosophical attempts.
MERLEAU-PONTY (1908-1961, FRANCE)Phenomenology of PerceptionHumans are more than a chain of factsThere is no objective and higher languageof nature to be excluded fromAll our knowledge begins with the act ofperception