Stewart - Reducing Emissions in the Marine Transportation Sector
Reducing Emissions in the Marine TransportaAon Sector Richard D. Stewart, Ph.D., CTL May 02, 2012 www.glmri.org
Oil: The marine fuel of the future! From 1880s unAl 1950s coal was the principal fuel for Great Lakes vessels. Special built coal docks were common around the Great Lakes. A fuel oil supply chain had to be developed to provide oil to the vessels.
Vessel conversion to use oil was expensive and Ame consuming At the start of 1954 the William G. Mather entered the shipyards of Manitowoc Shipbuilding. The vessel s coal-‐ﬁred boilers and quadruple expansion steam engine were removed and replaced by a steam turbine engine. Her steam auxiliaries were replaced with electric ones along with the enAre electrical system being updated. Installing new fuel oil storage tanks in the SS William G. Mather At the same Ame building new coal ﬁred vessels! SS Badger and SS Spartan
Common Methods to Reduce Emissions in TransportaAon Systems • Modal shiX to more energy eﬃcient mode – Supply chain issues ~ speed, unit size – Infrastructure issues • Larger loads to reduce energy per ton-‐mile – Supply chain issues ~ speed, unit size – not air – Infrastructure issues • Reduce speed = reduced energy consumpAon – Supply chain issues ~ speed • Clean what comes out of the stack – CatalyAc converters, scrubbers ~ waste, costs, eﬃciency • Change the fuel type that goes into the engine – Availability, BTU content, cost
EPA Clean Diesel Grant • EPA Clean Diesel Grant $750,000 • First repowering of a Great Lakes vessel – Two 9.7 thousand Signiﬁcantly reduced NOX, SOX, CO, horse power main engines parAculate emissions! • $14.5 Million match from Key Lakes 1, Inc. • $15 Million plus vessel repowering in Bay Ship Sturgeon Bay, WI. • Completed ahead of schedule M/V Edwin H. Go:
Lower BTU = more to go same distance Just one factor to consider!
What is Natural Gas? Most gases except Methane stripped out as they have value:
Boiling Point of Gases not the same This makes it easy to strip out non-‐methane gases with liquefacAon
So what does the Methane Number mean? Supplier delivers what you need for your engines: 70 MN considered minimum for most internal combusAon engines
Do I use CNG or LNG???? • Compressed natural gas – Unlikely for vessels – Must be compressed – cost – ini9al and long term – High pressure containment – 4500 PSI – Lower BTU content for same volume – High pressure, asphyxiant and ﬂammability safety issues • Liqueﬁed natural gas – Must be liqueﬁed –cost-‐ ini9al and long term – Cryogenic Stored at Minus 160 degrees cen9grade – Stored at low pressure 3.6 – 6 PSI – Higher BTU content for same volume – Cryogenic, asphyxiant, however non toxic not ﬂammable as a liquid – The selecAon of CNG or LNG is very case speciﬁc!
LNG Cost Breakdown (February 2012) Commodity TransportaAon LiquefacAon These percentages can vary depending on locaAon and volume .
What about Engines? Two Types • Dual Fuel • Fuel Flexibility Diesel, Gas, HFO or mix • Requires more sophisticated controls • Fuel savings limited by need for diesel • Durability similar to diesel• Spark Ignited • Expected to meet Tier 4 standards without after treatment • Simple and proven engine controls • Durability better than diesel • Slower response than diesel • Needs a reliable gas supply
Europe has been using LNG fueled ships for a decade! $15 Million US for LNG Supply Chain Study
Some of the New LNG vessels Fueling an LNG vessel: hTp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQ3tqifW9nA&feature=related
US Flag LNG Powered Oﬀshore Supply Vessels Building four U.S. ﬂag vessels: 2-‐ 2,700KW Internal CombusAon Engines: Total LNG fueled engines 7,500 KW LOA 302 , DraX 20 4.5 Beam 64
U.S. Natural Gas Fuel Projects and Studies • Motor Carriers starAng to use LNG and CNG as a primary fuel on appropriate routes. • Clean Energy invesAng $150 million for truck fuel staAons. • Washington State Ferries study use of LNG as a primary fuel. • In late 2011 a $3.4 Million grant Federal Highway AdministraAon grant to convert Staten Island Ferry
U.S. Natural Gas Fuel Projects and Studies • Two LNG-‐Powered Ferries for Tadoussac, Quebec, to be built in Quebec. Delivery is planned for the fall of 2013 and spring of 2014. • Lake Michigan Car Ferry studied the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a fuel for the SS Badger. • Great Lake MariAme Research InsAtute (GLMRI) in collaboraAon with MARAD and the mariAme industry is engaged in feasibility studies on using natural gas as a primary fuel. SS Badger
BNSF Main Line LNG Powered Engines 1991-‐1996 Conversions worked 1600 mile coal route -‐ 800 mile range 1. Economical 1. BN determined that natural gas to provide a 10% to 20% cost savings over DO 2. Es9mated it could save $200 million a year in fuel if it converted its en9re locomo9ve ﬂeet of engines 3. Using natural gas reduces engine maintenance costs 4. It is es9mated that engine life cycle can be improved by as much as 40 percent 5. engines can go 2 to 3 9mes as long between lubrica9ons, oil, and ﬁlter changes. 2. Not adopted because LNG supply chain not mature 3. Experiments done prior to current discovery of natural gas reserves
Short Haul Locomo9ve Paciﬁc Harbor Line Inc. Long Beach/LA Why it worked well… Why it didn t work so well… • LNG locomo9ve cost • Logis9cs & mechanical issues approximately 23% less to fuel on associated with fueling an energy-‐equivalent basis nega9vely impacted the • EmiTed an es9mated 81% less locomo9ve s service capability oxides of nitrogen (NOx) & 57% – Needed to be refueled every 3 days less par9culate maTer (PM) compared to once a week compared to new Tier 2 – Lacked a reliable fuel gauge locomo9ve – Diﬃcult requirements imposed by the local ﬁre department • Extra labor during fueling • Fee paid to LAPD for ﬁre inspector – Out of service approximately 15-‐20% more oien than the diesel ﬂeet due to refueling – Low main air pressure, failed spark plug transformer Experiments on 1200 HP Switch Engine 2008-2009
Mining Industry Conversion of Trucks Converts CAT 777C to 60% Liqueﬁed Natural Gas – 2010 Bi-‐Fuel conversion system Operates in coal mines Harlan County, KY Preparing to convert ﬂeet for KY and WV
LNG Truck sta9on Seville, OH Par9ally funded by OH grants Clean Energy InvesAng $150 Million in LNG staAons in the US. Kwik Trip Sets Up 3-State Natural GasFueling a truck Fuelling Infrastructurehsp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-‐8zCUPoxu0&feature=related http://www.ngvglobal.com/kwik-trip-sets-up-3-state-natural-gas-fuelling-infrastructure-0424
LiquefacAon Plant in the Twin Ports • Community open to industrial development • ExisAng Peakshaving liquefacAon plant within 40 miles in Wrenshall, MN • Natural gas pipelines in place • TransportaAon hub • Mining industry heavy user of diesel • Skilled workforce and industrial base • Market of 4.3 million people within 250 miles
Twin Ports LNG Terminal MarkeAng Region Transit Trucking Pipeline 4.3 Million People Marine Transportation Mining Rail250-‐Mile Radius of Duluth and Chicago
LiquefacAon Plant in the Twin Ports • PotenAal customer base: 1. Marine fueling 2. Rail yards – switch engines 3. City busses 4. Mining industry 5. Trucking industry 6. Delivery to other communiAes by truck, rail or water
BalAc using marine LNG supply chain European Union Spent $15 Million on marine LNG Supply Chain study
MARAD ﬁve year funding with Lake Carriers and industry support • A feasibility study to look at fuel alternaAves (natural gas – primarily LNG, with consideraAons for CNG) for repowering the Great Lakes vessels. • A demonstraAon project to consider engineering design implicaAons for a selected ship. (S.S. Badger – car and passenger ferry with service between Manitowoc, WI and Ludington, MI)
• Literature review of studies related to natural gas fueling of transportaAon assets in general and speciﬁcally the marine mode. • Study to look at converAng the ten exisAng Great Lakes steam-‐powered ships to reduce air emissions and fuel consumpAon. • Engineering study to assess the tradeoﬀ between a CNG and a LNG conversion for the S.S. Badger • Study to look at the transportaAon modeling of the S.S. Badger route to evaluate fuel usage, air emissions, and other environmental factors.
• Supply Chain Study of regional gas availability, and accessibility, liquefacAon faciliAes and capacity, transportaAon and rouAng of gas supplies in the Great Lakes region. • Research into the regulatory requirements for fueling vessels with LNG and CNG at terminals, docks and midstream. • EducaAon and Outreach with Industry-‐ – Great Lakes Waterways Conference, hosted an LNG studies panel – Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers meeAng, 2-‐day agenda – Twin CiAes TransportaAon Club – InsAtute of Supply Management – Twin Ports Propeller Club – CSCMP – Green Bay, WI
Acknowledgement for InformaAon My ﬁeld is transportaAon educaAon and transportaAon management not LNG. Material for this PresentaAon came from the following experts and researchers. • Gary Van Tassel & Frank Duﬃeld– Agent Marine • Dr. Mike Parsons – U of Michigan • Bob Kamb, Mys9c River Partners -‐ Clean Energy Fuels • Claus Emmer -‐ Chart Industries – • Odd Magne Horgen, Rolls-‐Royce Engines • Jonas Nyberg -‐ Caterpillar Inc., • Tony Teo – DNV • Stephen Gumpel – ABS • Peter Jacobs (Wartsila) • Chad Varret (VP –Harvey Gulf) • Student Researchers: Kenneth Chong, Brady Peterson, Hiroko Tada
www.glmri.org Research -‐ Natural Gas Re-‐Powering Study