Ozone in Minnesota

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Ozone in Minnesota

  1. 1. Kari  Palmer  Clean  Air  Dialogues  WG2   May  11,  2012  
  2. 2. What  is  Ozone?  •  A  naturally-­‐occurring  consAtuent  of  the  upper   atmosphere  protecAng  the  earth  from  UV  radiaAon  •  When  formed  at  ground-­‐level  it  causes  human   health  and  environmental  problems  
  3. 3. Health  &  Environmental  Effects  of   Ozone   •  High  levels  of  ozone  can  have  an  adverse   impact  on  the  lungs   •  Airway  inflammaAon,  shortness  of  breath,   coughing,  aggravaAon  of  asthma,  emphysema,   bronchiAs   •  Results  in  increased  medicine  use,  doctor  visits   and  hospital  admissions   •  ParAcularly  older  adults,  children,  people  who   exercise  outside   •  Damages  vegetaAon,  trees  and  crops  
  4. 4. Trends  in  Ozone:    Twin  CiAes  Metro,  1999-­‐2011   120% 100% Standard   Percent  of  standard 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
  5. 5. MN  Ozone  ConcentraAons  (2009-­‐2011)   80 Standard   70 65   62   63   63   62   62   60   61   60   60   59   59   58   58   60 54   Ozone  ConcentraAon  (ppb)   49   50 40 30 20 10 0
  6. 6. 2011  Twin  CiAes  Air  Quality  Index  Days   Ozone   PM2.5  
  7. 7. Ozone  ConcentraAons  Across  the  U.S.,  2010  
  8. 8. Ground-­‐Level  Ozone  FormaAon  in  MN  •  A  chemical  reacAon  between  nitrogen  oxides  (NO   and  NO2),  oxygen,  and  volaAle  organic  compounds   (VOCs)  •  Sunlight  fuels  the  reacAon  -­‐  at  night  ozone  levels   decrease  •  Hot  days  above  85˚F  •  Winds  can  transport  ozone  and  precursors  
  9. 9. Ozone  
  10. 10. Ozone  Chemistry  •  OH  radical  is  central  to   ozone  and  secondary  PM   chemistry  •  OH  iniAates  reacAons  of   VOCs  (and  CO)  that  produce   radicals  •  Radicals  interact  with  NOx   (NO  and  NO2)  in  sunlight  to   form  ozone    •  Ozone  requires  both   NOx  and  VOC   precursors  
  11. 11. Ozone  FormaAon   Normal  ozone  cycle   NO2  +  sunlight  =  NO  +  O   O  +  O2  =  O3   NO  +  O3  =  NO2  +  O2   Ozone  cycle  disrupted   by  VOCS   VOC  +  OH  =  RO2  +  H2O   RO2  +  NO  =  NO2  +  RO    
  12. 12. June  6,  2011  Ozone  Exceedance  
  13. 13. June  6,  2011  Ozone  Event  Time  Lapse  
  14. 14. Hourly  Ozone  ConcentraAons  Across  Minnesota   June  5-­‐June  7  
  15. 15. Locally  Influenced  Ozone  Event   6/25/2009-­‐6/27/2009  
  16. 16. 2008  Emissions  of  Ozone  Precursors   VOCs   Other  fuel   Petroleum   combusAon   storage  and   2%   Other   tranport  •  VegetaAon-­‐55%   2%   1%  •  Miscellaneous-­‐17%   Solvent  use   7%  •  Off-­‐highway-­‐8%   Highway   vehicles   •  Snowmobiles,  boats,   8%   ATVs,  etc.   Off-­‐highway   equipment   Natural   8%  •  Highway  vehicles-­‐8%   vegetaAon   55%   •  Gasoline  vehicles   Miscellaneous   17%  •  Solvent  Use-­‐7%   EPA  NaAonal  Emissions  Inventory,  2008  version  2  
  17. 17. 2008  Emissions  of  Ozone  Precursors   Nitrogen  Oxides   Fuel   Fuel   combusion   Other  •  Highway  vehicles-­‐39%   combusion   other   3%   industrial   3%   5%   •  Gasoline  vehicles  •  Off-­‐highway-­‐23%   Metals   processing   VegetaAon   6%   6%   •  Railroads,  agricultural,   Highway   construcAon  and   vehicles   39%   recreaAonal  equipment   Fuel  •  Electric  uAlity  fuel   combusAon   from  electrical   uAliAes   combusAon-­‐15%   15%   Off-­‐highway   equipment   23%   EPA  NaAonal  Emissions  Inventory,  2008  version  2  
  18. 18. • Slide  #19.    Very  Important!    If  you  Atle  this  slide  “What  emissions  decreases  maoer”?  Include  the  wrioen  answer,  “We  don’t  know”.    And  then  say,  the  Agency   Area  of  ozone  formaAon  that  is  VOC-­‐limited  shrinks  through  the  day   10  am   12  pm   4  pm   July  14,  2005  
  19. 19. What  Emissions  Decreases  Maoer?   •  We  aren’t  sure   •  Photochemical  modeling  can  help   Area  of  ozone  formaAon  that  is  VOC-­‐limited  shrinks  through  the  day   10  am   12  pm   4  pm  July  14,  2005  
  20. 20. MN  Point  Source  NOX  Emission  Trends   150,000 125,000 100,000Tons 75,000 50,000 25,000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Other Pulp & paper Refineries Mining Electric utilities Manufacturing
  21. 21. Take  Away  Messages  •  Ozone  causes  serious  health  and  environmental  damage  •  ConcentraAons  are  currently  below  standards  and  have  been   decreasing.  •  Ozone  chemistry  is  complex   •  Non-­‐linear  reacAons  of  NOx  and  VOCs  •  Main  sources  are  fuel  combusAon   •  On  and  off-­‐highway  equipment,     •  Electric  uAliAes   •  Natural  sources  are  important  •  NOx  and  VOC  reducAons  may  be  important  
  22. 22. Thanks  to  •  Cassie  McMahon  •  Margaret  McCourtney  •  Catherine  Neuschler  

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