Hansel & Droessler - Update on Changing Federal NAAQS & What They Mean for You

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Hansel & Droessler - Update on Changing Federal NAAQS & What They Mean for You

  1. 1. Update on Changing Federal AQ Standards (And What They Mean to You!) Minnesota’s Clean Air Dialogue May 2, 2012 Duluth, MN
  2. 2. A Brief History of the Clean Air Act•  To understand AQ Standards, need a bit of history•  1955  Air  Pollu,on  Act   –  Research  on  cause  and  effect  of   Pollu2on  •  1963  Clean  Air  Act   –  States  primarily  responsible  
  3. 3. A Brief History of the Clean Air Act•  1967  Air  Quality  Act     –  States  designate  Air  Quality  Control  Regions  (AQCRs)   –  States  develop  standards     –  States  have  primacy  within  AQCR’s,  Feds  between   –  Progress?   •  Less  than  36  AQCR’s  adopted  by  1970     –  (7  in  MN,  most  of  the  rest  in  CA,  NY)   •  No  state  had  full  pollu2on  control  plan     –  (MN,  CA,  NY  and  PiOsburgh  were  closest)   •  First  Earth  Day,  1970,  provided  impetus  for  passage   –  (Yes  I  was  too  there!)    
  4. 4. A Brief History of the Clean Air Act•  1970 Clean Air Act –  Federal Government now has primary responsibility for developing standards –  US EPA created to take on those responsibilities –  US EPA develops standards for six criteria pollutants: •  Particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and lead –  States designate areas as attaining standards or not attaining standards –  States develop plans (State Implementation Plans or SIPs) to “attain and maintain” the NAAQS.
  5. 5. A Brief History of the Clean Air Act•  1977 Clean Air Act Amendments –  NAAQS •  Extended deadlines for re-designation –  New Permit Program for New Sources •  New Source Review or NSR •  For sources over 250 tpy, or 100 tpy for listed sources •  Non-attainment NSR –  LAER, offsets, demonstrate progress •  Prevention of Significant Deterioration –  BACT, increments –  Added new “NAAQS” •  Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) •  E.g. visibility in Class I areas
  6. 6. A Brief History of the Clean Air Act•  1990 Clean Air Act Amendments –  Designated levels of non-attainment •  For Ozone, CO and PM •  Marginal, moderate, serious, severe, extreme •  Different timeframes for each level –  SIPs & SIP elements more prescriptive •  RACM/RACT, I/M, Conformity –  Regional Haze SIPs to address Visibility in Class I areas
  7. 7. Structure of CAA•  There are NAAQS•  You’re in attainment or you’re not•  If you’re not in attainment: –  SIP & schedule to attain & maintain NAAQS –  New & modified sources must obtain permits –  Install LAER, obtain offsets, demonstrate progress –  Other requirements
  8. 8. Structure of CAA•  If you are in attainment: –  May be subject to maintenance SIP –  May need to get permit –  May have to install BACT/LAER –  May have modeling limitations –  May have limitations to avoid BACT/LAER •  Synthetic minor
  9. 9. MN History of Non-attainment•  Current – lead – Eagan•  Past (maintenance SIPs) –  CO •  Twin Cities, Duluth, St. Cloud –  TSP •  Twin Cities, Duluth –  PM10 •  Rochester, Ramsey County –  SO2 •  Twin Cities, (refineries),Rochester,
  10. 10. U.S. EPA has been very, very busy revising NAAQS•  To date: −  2006: 24-hr PM2.5 −  2008: Lead −  2010: NO2, SO2 −  2008-2011: Ozone −  2011: CO•  More to come: −  2012-2013: PM2.5 −  2013-2014: Ozone
  11. 11. PM2.5 Air Quality Standard•  Annual standard – 15 µg/m3, annual mean averaged over a three year period•  24-hour standard- 35 µg/m3, 98th percentile averaged over a three year period•  Anticipate revised standard proposed in 2012 and finalized in 2013.•  24-hour standard could be lowered to 30 µg/m3•  Annual standard could be lowered to 11-12 µg/m3
  12. 12. Daily PM2.5 NAAQS Design Values 2008-2010 40   37   36   Current  NAAQS   35   31   31   31   Future  NAAQS?   30   29   29  PM2.5  Concentra2on  (µg/m3)   26   25   22   21   20   17   15   10   5   0  
  13. 13. Estimated Daily PM2.5 NAAQS Design Values 2009-2011* 40 35 33.7 30 32.9 Future  NAAQS?   30.5 29.6 29.2 Concentration (µg/m3) 31.1 27.9 26.7 25 24.3 20 21.1 19.3 15 16.5 10 5 Dark blue: 1:3 day sampling 2 high values to reach max 0 Light Blue: Daily Sampling 6 high values to reach max 98th Percentile Max observed NAAQS*  Through  September  30,  2011.  Preliminary  and  subject  to  change  
  14. 14. PM2.5 – Where does it come from? Vehicle Exhaust Direct Wood PM2.5 Burning Emissions Power Plants Ambient Vehicle PM 2.5 Exhaust Secondary Wood PM2.5 Formation Burning (from NOx + SO2 Ag. +NH3+…) Fertilization Power Plants
  15. 15. Requirements for PM2.5 NA Areas - CAAA•  The required SIP elements for PM2.5 nonattainment areas are: –  Emissions Inventory –  PM2.5 RACM/RACT –  PM2.5 Nonattainment Area NSR Program –  PM2.5 RFP –  PM2.5 Attainment Demonstration –  PM2.5 Contingency Measures
  16. 16. Emission Inventory•  Must include: –  Direct PM2.5 –  SO2 –  NOx•  May need to include –  VOC –  NH3•  From: –  Mobile Sources –  Area Sources –  Stationary Sources
  17. 17. PM2.5 RACM/RACT•  RACM = Reasonably Available Control Measures•  RACT = Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT is subset of RACM)•  Need to investigate for: –  Direct PM2.5, SO2, NOx•  May need to investigate for: –  VOC, NH3, …•  Need to investigate for all EI Sources –  Mobile, Area and Stationary
  18. 18. PM2.5 RACM/RACT (continued)•  No tonnage threshold for RACT•  Screening assessments can inform choice of sources/measures to evaluate•  Need to evaluate sources throughout the nonattainment area for available controls•  Guiding principle for analysis: –  show that selected RACT/RACM does not exclude any group of reasonable controls (including controls on smaller sources) that together could advance the attainment date
  19. 19. PM2.5 RACM/RACT (continued)•  The following were the source categories initially selected for further consideration (New Jersey): –  Boilers – serving electric generating units (EGUs) firing No. 6 fuel oil and coal, –  and industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) fossil fuel-fired units; –  Fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCUs) at petroleum refineries; –  Furnaces – such as glass, and iron and steel; –  Municipal waste combustors (MWCs); –  Stationary diesel engines; and –  Fugitive Dust Sources.
  20. 20. PM2.5 RACM/RACT (continued)•  Other potential sources (Maryland): –  Automobile Refinishing –  Expandable Polystyrene Products –  Yeast Manufacturing & Commercial Bakery Ovens –  Municipal Landfills –  Surface Cleaning/Degreasing –  Screen Printing & Graphic Arts –  Reformulated Gasoline? –  I/M?? (or remote sensing?)
  21. 21. Example Control Measures•  Diesel retrofits (trucks, school •  Year-round measures to reduce buses, stationary engines) VMT (Commuter Choice, carpooling•  Diesel idling (trucks, trains, port incentives, etc.) equipment, etc.) •  Open burning laws and better•  Programs to reduce emissions from enforcement poorly maintained vehicles •  Programs to reduced emissions•  New or improved direct PM and from residential wood combustion precursor controls on stationary and back yard barrel burning sources •  Smoke management plans•  Year-round operation of seasonal •  Improved monitoring techniques stationary source NOx controls and more frequent monitoring on•  Increase use of alternative fuel, sources with control devices hybrid vehicles •  Reducing emissions of volatile•  Buy-back programs for small aromatic compounds (surface engines (boats, vehicles, coatings, gasoline, solvents, etc.) equipment)
  22. 22. PM2.5 Nonattainment Area NSR Program•  Applies to sources >100 tpy (not 250 tpy)•  Same modification threshold (15 tpy)•  Requires LAER – Lowest Achievable Emission Reduction•  Requires modeled demonstration of direct PM2.5 attainment –  May require modeled demonstration of secondary formation (photochemical modeling)•  Requires Offsets (likely 1:1)
  23. 23. PM2.5 Attainment Demonstration•  Modeled demonstration of direct PM2.5 and secondary formation –  photochemical models•  Geographic range of SO2 and NOx emission sources included in RFP plan could extend up to 200 km beyond nonattainment area boundary•  Not just Twin Cities!!
  24. 24. Overview of CAA Ozone Planning & Control Mandates by Classification NSR Major offset source ratio threshold 1.5 : 1 10 TRAFFIC  CONTROLS  DURING  CONGESTION   Extreme EXTREME   CLEAN  FUELS  REQUIREMENT  FOR  BOILERS 1.3 : 1 25 (20  years  to  aCain) PENALTY  FEE  PROGRAM  FOR  MAJOR  SOURCES   LOW  VOC  REFORMULATED  GAS Severe SEVERE   VMT  GROWTH  OFFSET;   1.2 : 1 50 (15/17  years  to  aCain)   VMT  DEMONSTRATION  (&  TCMs  IF  NEEDED) NSR  REQUIREMENTS.  FOR    EXISTING  SOURCE  MODS Serious ENHANCED  I/M CLEAN  FUELS  PROGRAM  (IF  APPLICABLE)   MILESTONE  CONTINGENCY   MODELED  DEMO  OF  ATTAINMENT MEASURES  FOR  RFP SERIOUS   18%  RFP  OVER  6  YEARS ENHANCED  MONITORING  PLAN (9  years  to  aCain) STAGE  II  GASOLINE  VAPOR  RECOVERY 1.15 : 1 100 BASIC  I/M CONTINGENCY  MEASURES  FOR  FAILURE  TO  ATTAIN   Moderate 15%  RFP  OVER  6  YEARS MODERATE   MAJOR  SOURCE  VOC/NOx  RACT ATTAINMENT  DEMONSTRATION (6  years  to  aCain) TRANSPORTATION  CONFORMITY  DEMONSTRATION 1.1 : 1 100 NEW  SOURCE  REVIEW  PROGRAM MAJOR  SOURCE  EMISSION  STATEMENTS Marginal MARGINAL   BASELINE  EMISSION  INVENTORY  (EI) PERIODIC  EMISSION  INVENTORY  UPDATES(3  years  to  aCain)
  25. 25. Sanctions•  As a result of failure to submit a SIP or implement a SIP.•  Within 18 months of a finding one of two offsets can be imposed; the second within 2 years.•  A ratio of at least 2:1 emissions reductions within the nonattainment area for new or modified major facilities undergoing NSR.•  Highway funding sanctions. FHWA is required to impose funding moratorium for all but exempt projects (safety, mass transit). 25  
  26. 26. Other Issues•  Improved source monitoring•  Transportation conformity•  General conformity
  27. 27. Voluntary Measures•  We’ve already done a bunch –  Clean Air MN (I) –  Project Green Fleet•  Other options ?
  28. 28. Voluntary Measures•  Ozone Advance –  EPA website: http://www.epa.gov/ozoneadvance/ –  Basic Information –  Eligibility –  Participation –  Ozone Flex –  Resources –  Frequent Questions
  29. 29. Voluntary Measures•  Ozone Advance (PM2.5 prototype?) –  State, tribal, and/or local governments can participate in Ozone Advance if they meet the basic program eligibility criteria: –  The area(s) designated is/are not designated nonattainment for either the 1997 8-hour or the 2008 ozone NAAQS. –  Identify and report on the air monitor(s) that reflect the air quality in the area(s). –  Emissions inventory reporting must have occurred prior to participation in Ozone Advance.
  30. 30. Voluntary Measures•  Ozone Advance –  promotes local actions to reduce ozone precursors in attainment areas to help these areas continue to maintain the ozone NAAQS. –  To apply for participation in Ozone Advance, an area should submit a brief sign-up letter. This letter should express the areas willingness to coordinate with EPA, state, tribal and/or local stakeholders and to quickly implement measures to reduce ozone. Each of the program eligibility criteria should be addressed. –  Specific measures do not need to be identified in the letter of intent, although if the applicant would like to highlight any existing measures and programs, they are welcome to do so. The letter should be signed by the appropriate state, tribal and/or local officials with the authority to implement the program and assist in leveraging staff and program funds as needed.
  31. 31. Clean Construction•  Score requirements –  Fleet average –  Self-reporting by contractor
  32. 32.           Rail Partnership  • Variable  opera2ons  • Mul2ple  types  of  vehicles   • Switchers   • Hostlers   • Cranes     • Li_s   • Trucks    • Idling   Modeling  by  LADCO   resourceful. naturally.
  33. 33. Voluntary Measures•  EPA’s Voluntary Residential Wood Smoke Reduction Initiative –  Great American Woodstove Changeout Campaign (Main focus) –  Outdoor Wood-fired hydronic heaters –  Voluntary Fireplace Emission Standard –  “Burn Wise” National Education and Outreach Campaign
  34. 34. Voluntary Measures•  Wood Stove Change out•  Voluntary, incentive-based (e.g., cash rebates, vouchers) effort to encourage owners of old, inefficient woodstoves to replace with a cleaner burning hearth appliance, like:•  Gas stoves•  Wood pellet stoves•  EPA-certified wood stoves
  35. 35. Thanks!!•  Mike Hansel –  Barr Engineering –  mhansel@barr.com –  952.832.2878•  Bill Droessler –  Environmental Initiative –  bdroessler@environmental-initiative.org –  612-334-3388 ext. 103

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