The Environment Institute
                    Where ideas grow




   Dr Leigh Simmons
   Sperm competition and sexual sel...
Sperm Competition and
   Sexual Selection




      Leigh W Simmons
Centre for Evolutionary Biology,
University of Western...
The Origin of Species, 1859


“…… [sexual selection] depends, not
on a struggle for existence in
relation to other organic...
The Decent of Man and Selection
in Relation to Sex, Darwin 1871
Sperm Competition and
               its Evolutionary
               Consequences in the
               Insects, Parker 19...
Sperm Competition and
                   its Evolutionary
                   Consequences in the
                   Insect...
• Behaviour
Sperm displacement and
optimal copula duration in the
yellow dung fly, Scatophaga
stercoraria




  • Image fr...
• Behaviour
Sperm displacement and
optimal copula duration in the
yellow dung fly, Scatophaga
stercoraria

               ...
• Behaviour
Sperm displacement and
optimal copula duration in the
yellow dung fly, Scatophaga
stercoraria

               ...
• Physiology

   Modelling the ESS ejaculate expenditure

       Total
    Reproductive
    Expenditure           expendit...
• Physiology

                            Modelling the ESS ejaculate expenditure
                            0.50
       ...
• Physiology
 Evolution of ejaculate expenditure


   .8

   .6

   .4

   .2

    0

   -.2

   -.4

   -.6
     -1.2 -1 ...
• Physiology
 Evolution of ejaculate expenditure

  2.2

          A
  2.0



  1.8



  1.6



  1.4



  1.2            ...
• Physiology
                                                    Sperm competition games
                                 ...
• Physiology
Behavioural
biology of
onthophagine
dung beetles
Testis size variation across alternative
mating tactics of dung beetles
 .1 5                                             ...
Experimental evolution: breeding regimes

           Mating        Brooding   Incubation   Maturation
Px3




      10    ...
• Physiology
 Evolution of ejaculate expenditure
   0.12

            Sperm competition
   0.08


   0.04


   0.00


   -...
• Physiology
 Evolution of ejaculate quality

 Mating regime:    Monogamous      polygamous
   1.5
         A
          • ...
• Morphology

Evolution of male genital morphology among
Onthophagines




                                               ...
• Morphology

Evolution of male genital morphology among
Onthophagines




                                          1


 ...
• Morphology

Evolution of male genital morphology among
Onthophagines




                               • Curr. Biol., 1...
• Morphology

Evolution of male genital morphology among
Onthophagines

                           1.00




              ...
• Morphology

Evolution of male genital morphology among
Onthophagines                  0.8

                             ...
Acknowledgements

• Clarissa House
• John Hunt
• Paco García-González
• Joseph Tomkins
• Michael Werner
• Phil Byrne
• Mar...
The Environment Institute
                       Where ideas grow




   Next Seminar: 13 November
   Dr Damien Fordham
  ...
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Sperm competition and sexual selection

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Leigh Simmons from the Centre for Evolutionary Biology at the University of Western Australia presents the tenth installment of the Environment Institute's Science Seminar Series at the University of Adelaide. The presentation is titled: Sperm competition and sexual selection.

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Sperm competition and sexual selection

  1. 1. The Environment Institute Where ideas grow Dr Leigh Simmons Sperm competition and sexual selection
  2. 2. Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection Leigh W Simmons Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia
  3. 3. The Origin of Species, 1859 “…… [sexual selection] depends, not on a struggle for existence in relation to other organic beings or to external conditions, but on a struggle between the individuals of one sex, generally the males, for the possession of the other sex. The result is not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring.” (chapter iv)
  4. 4. The Decent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin 1871
  5. 5. Sperm Competition and its Evolutionary Consequences in the Insects, Parker 1970 • behaviour • morphology • physiology
  6. 6. Sperm Competition and its Evolutionary Consequences in the Insects, Parker 1970 300 Number of publications 200 100 • ISI July 2009 70’s 80’s 90’s 00’s Year
  7. 7. • Behaviour Sperm displacement and optimal copula duration in the yellow dung fly, Scatophaga stercoraria • Image from Hosken 1999 • Parker 1970
  8. 8. • Behaviour Sperm displacement and optimal copula duration in the yellow dung fly, Scatophaga stercoraria Large males P2 Small males • Image from Hosken 1999 156.5 min tl* ts* • Evolution, 46, 366
  9. 9. • Behaviour Sperm displacement and optimal copula duration in the yellow dung fly, Scatophaga stercoraria 200 Copula duration (min) 180 t* 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 • Image from Hosken 1999 0 -20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Hind tibia length 3 • Evolution, 54, 924
  10. 10. • Physiology Modelling the ESS ejaculate expenditure Total Reproductive Expenditure expenditure on gaining matings n matings W = n.v gain v per mating ejaculate expenditure, x • Parker 1998
  11. 11. • Physiology Modelling the ESS ejaculate expenditure 0.50 A ESS ejaculate expenditure r =1.0 0.40 0.30 r =0.5 0.20 r =0.1 0.10 r =0.01 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Probability of double mating, q • Parker et al 1997
  12. 12. • Physiology Evolution of ejaculate expenditure .8 .6 .4 .2 0 -.2 -.4 -.6 -1.2 -1 -.75 -.5 -.25 0 .25 .5 .75 1 1.25 Crinia georgiana Contrasts in sperm competition index • J. Evol. Biol., 15, 347
  13. 13. • Physiology Evolution of ejaculate expenditure 2.2 A 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 Crinia georgiana 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 log Maximum male density • unpublished
  14. 14. • Physiology Sperm competition games between sneaks and guards ESS Ejaculate expenditure 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Probability of a sneak mating
  15. 15. • Physiology Behavioural biology of onthophagine dung beetles
  16. 16. Testis size variation across alternative mating tactics of dung beetles .1 5 1 .1 .8 .0 5 .6 0 .4 .2 -.0 5 0 -.1 -.2 -.1 5 -.4 -.2 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 -.4 -.3 -.2 -.1 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 • Evolution, 61, 2684
  17. 17. Experimental evolution: breeding regimes Mating Brooding Incubation Maturation Px3 10 10 X6 50 Ne ~ 106 Mx3 X 60 50 Ne = 100
  18. 18. • Physiology Evolution of ejaculate expenditure 0.12 Sperm competition 0.08 0.04 0.00 -0.04 -0.08 Enforced monogamy -0.12 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Generation • Evolution, 62, 2580
  19. 19. • Physiology Evolution of ejaculate quality Mating regime: Monogamous polygamous 1.5 A • % motile 1.0 • VAP • Longevity 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 monogamy Monogamous polygyny Polygamous Selection history • Evolution in press
  20. 20. • Morphology Evolution of male genital morphology among Onthophagines O. furcus O. taurus O. sticticus O. punctatus O. hirtus O. vacca
  21. 21. • Morphology Evolution of male genital morphology among Onthophagines 1 5 • Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 93, 257
  22. 22. • Morphology Evolution of male genital morphology among Onthophagines • Curr. Biol., 19, 1442
  23. 23. • Morphology Evolution of male genital morphology among Onthophagines 1.00 0.50 0.00 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 Aedeagus shape (PC2) • Curr. Biol., 19, 1442
  24. 24. • Morphology Evolution of male genital morphology among Onthophagines 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 1 2 3 1 2 3 Monogamy Polygamy • Curr. Biol., 19, 1442
  25. 25. Acknowledgements • Clarissa House • John Hunt • Paco García-González • Joseph Tomkins • Michael Werner • Phil Byrne • Martin Dziminski • Dale Roberts • Renée Firman • Maxine Beveridge
  26. 26. The Environment Institute Where ideas grow Next Seminar: 13 November Dr Damien Fordham Predicting ecological turmoil: modelling the dynamics of global change on biodiversity

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