The Environment Institute
                         Where ideas grow




 Professor David Richardson
 50 years of invasion ...
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton

                    David M. Richardson
Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern), Florida
Mimosa pigra, northern Australia
Acacia saligna             Acacia cyclops




                  South
                 African
                 fynbos



...
Nile perch, Lates niloticus,
       Lake Victoria
(2000) BioScience
Global human population
     Global human population




                               Source: Wikipedia
Kareiva et al. (2007) Science
International shipping has increased by a
  factor of 10 over the last few decades
Totally new vectors & pathways
Air transport
          Billion passenger km


3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

  0
   1950         1970         1990
Massive habitat transformations and
alterations to prevailing disturbance regimes
Afforestation with alien trees
  (including agroforestry)
Increasing use of alien plants in horticulture…
    the never-ending search for novelties




          Nurseries - new ar...
Pet trade!!
Residence time
Propagule pressure
Factors implicated in global amphibian declines
WHAT IS INVASION ECOLOGY?
• The study of the human-mediated introduction
  of organisms, especially introductions to areas...
INVASION ECOLOGY – KEY PHASES


•Pre-Elton (<1950)
•Elton (1950s – early 1980s)
•Scope (mid 1980s – late 1990s)
•Today (>2...
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)




„… floras gain by naturalization,
proportionally with the number of the
native genera and s...
Pyšek et al. (2008) Diversity and Distributions




Invasion rate of Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic.
Billion passenger km
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
  0
   1950    1970    1990
1926




       1958




       Charles Elton (1900-1992)
Whytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK




 “Investigations of the role of competition, predation, and abiotic stress in
 shaping ...
“Biotic resistance”
Robert M. May (1936 - )




Robert H. MacArthur (1930 – 1972)
International Conference on Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MEDECOS)
                  Stellenbosch, South Africa 1980
International Programme on the Ecology
 and Management of Biological Invasions

Three main questions:
1) Which species inv...
Jim Brown
                Simon Levin

Mick Crawley
                                Paul Ehrlich




                     ...
1989
Mark Williamson



                  1996
The Norway/UN
           Conference on Alien
           Species
           Trondheim, Norway
           July 1996



     ...
The Global Invasive Species Programme (Phase 1)
Naturalized/
Introduced
               invasive
Status of taxa
                                           GEOGRAPHIC




                                           ENVIRO...
Status of taxa
                                             GEOGRAPHIC




                                             EN...
The naturalization – invasion process




                                                                                ...
The naturalization – invasion process




                                                                                ...
Beginning with Elton
                                     (1958), community
                                     susceptib...
The naturalization – invasion process




                                                                                ...
Rejmánek et al. (2005)




Marcel Rejmanek   Pulling together the threads – towards a causal explanation for invasiveness
•Invading species must have
                      access to available resources
                      (light, nutrients, w...
Elton’s legacy?
Elton’s legacy?


“To us, the overriding feature of Elton‟s book, and the primary reason for its landmark
status in invasi...
Elton’s legacy?


“Elton and his monograph, in fact, had
limited influence on the development of
invasion biology – he was...
BROW – Silky smooth




                       EYES – Wide open




                    MOST IMPORTANT –
                 ...
SCIENCE
               Improved
              conceptual
             frameworks

                           Naturalized/
...
SCIENCE
                              Better global
                               coverage




Trends in Ecology & Evolut...
Conflict resolution

Most pressing                                  Eradication?
management
                              ...
Needed!
    New
partnerships




                    SCIENCE
               Better links with a
               wide range ...
Consideration of management options – firmly grounded in
             risk-analysis/risk-management
ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS)




                                                                                   ...
Thanks for your attention!
The Environment Institute
                          Where ideas grow




 Next Seminar: 18 September

 Professor Alan Coop...
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
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50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton

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Professor Dave Richardson will present the fifth instalment of the Science Seminar Series. Dave Richardson is Deputy Director: Science Strategy at the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB) in South Africa and is professor of ecology in Stellenbosch University’s Department of Botany and Zoology. His research focuses on the ecology of biological invasions, and in particular the dynamics of plant invasions, especially trees.

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50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton

  1. 1. The Environment Institute Where ideas grow Professor David Richardson 50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton
  2. 2. 50 years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton David M. Richardson
  3. 3. Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern), Florida
  4. 4. Mimosa pigra, northern Australia
  5. 5. Acacia saligna Acacia cyclops South African fynbos Pinus pinaster Hakea sericea
  6. 6. Nile perch, Lates niloticus, Lake Victoria
  7. 7. (2000) BioScience
  8. 8. Global human population Global human population Source: Wikipedia
  9. 9. Kareiva et al. (2007) Science
  10. 10. International shipping has increased by a factor of 10 over the last few decades
  11. 11. Totally new vectors & pathways
  12. 12. Air transport Billion passenger km 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1950 1970 1990
  13. 13. Massive habitat transformations and alterations to prevailing disturbance regimes
  14. 14. Afforestation with alien trees (including agroforestry)
  15. 15. Increasing use of alien plants in horticulture… the never-ending search for novelties Nurseries - new arrivals originate from a wider source www.tubsandshrubs.co.uk http://www.plantnurseries.us area than early introductions & they tend to arrive via more direct routes and in bigger numbers than in the past http://www.mountainmeadowfarm.org Image: Jeff Greenberg
  16. 16. Pet trade!!
  17. 17. Residence time Propagule pressure
  18. 18. Factors implicated in global amphibian declines
  19. 19. WHAT IS INVASION ECOLOGY? • The study of the human-mediated introduction of organisms, especially introductions to areas outside the potential range of given organisms as defined by their natural dispersal mechanisms and biogeographical barriers. • Addresses all aspects relating to the introduction of organisms, their ability to establish, naturalize and invade in the target region & their interactions with resident organisms in their new location. • Considers costs and benefits of their presence and abundance with reference to human value systems.
  20. 20. INVASION ECOLOGY – KEY PHASES •Pre-Elton (<1950) •Elton (1950s – early 1980s) •Scope (mid 1980s – late 1990s) •Today (>2000) Ricciardi & MacIsaac (2008)
  21. 21. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) „… floras gain by naturalization, proportionally with the number of the native genera and species far more in new genera than in new species‟ (Darwin 1859). (Darwin 1839)
  22. 22. Pyšek et al. (2008) Diversity and Distributions Invasion rate of Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic.
  23. 23. Billion passenger km 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1950 1970 1990
  24. 24. 1926 1958 Charles Elton (1900-1992)
  25. 25. Whytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK “Investigations of the role of competition, predation, and abiotic stress in shaping natural communities were a staple for previous generations of ecologists”. [Bruno et al. (2003) Trends in Ecology and Evolution].
  26. 26. “Biotic resistance”
  27. 27. Robert M. May (1936 - ) Robert H. MacArthur (1930 – 1972)
  28. 28. International Conference on Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MEDECOS) Stellenbosch, South Africa 1980
  29. 29. International Programme on the Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions Three main questions: 1) Which species invade? 2) Which habitats are most susceptible to invasion? 3) Do we know enough to manage #1 and #2?
  30. 30. Jim Brown Simon Levin Mick Crawley Paul Ehrlich Mark Williamson Dan Simberloff Hal Mooney Stuart Pimm
  31. 31. 1989
  32. 32. Mark Williamson 1996
  33. 33. The Norway/UN Conference on Alien Species Trondheim, Norway July 1996 GISP •Human dimensions •Ecology of introductions •International pathways •Management tools •Country case studies (1998) •Where to from here?
  34. 34. The Global Invasive Species Programme (Phase 1)
  35. 35. Naturalized/ Introduced invasive
  36. 36. Status of taxa GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCAL) casual REPRODUCTIVE alien DISPERSAL ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS) naturalized ENVIRONMENTAL (NATURAL HABITATS) invasive Richardson et al. (2000) Diversity and Distributions
  37. 37. Status of taxa GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCAL) Traits of the organism casual REPRODUCTIVE The naturalization – invasion process alien DISPERSAL ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS) naturalized “Invasiveness” ENVIRONMENTAL (NATURAL HABITATS) invasive
  38. 38. The naturalization – invasion process ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS) ENVIRONMENTAL (NATURAL HABITATS) Traits of the organism “Invasiveness” ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCAL) REPRODUCTIVE GEOGRAPHIC Features of the environment DISPERSAL “Invasibility” alien naturalized Status of taxa casual invasive
  39. 39. The naturalization – invasion process ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS) ENVIRONMENTAL (NATURAL HABITATS) Traits of the organism “Invasiveness” ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCAL) REPRODUCTIVE GEOGRAPHIC Features of the environment DISPERSAL “Invasibility” alien naturalized Status of taxa casual invasive
  40. 40. Beginning with Elton (1958), community susceptibility to invasion has largely been treated as a yes/no issue: communities are either deterministically resistant or susceptible to the invasion of a particular species (A). Realistically, however, communities vary continuously in their susceptibility to invasion, making invasion success a probabilistic process (B) D‟Antonio et al. (2001) Journal of Mediterranean Ecology
  41. 41. The naturalization – invasion process ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS) ENVIRONMENTAL (NATURAL HABITATS) ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCAL) Pollinators REPRODUCTIVE GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL Seed dispersers! Morella faya invading lava flows; Hawaii alien Mycorrhizal naturalized Status fungi of taxa Nitrogen-fixing bacteria casual invasive
  42. 42. Rejmánek et al. (2005) Marcel Rejmanek Pulling together the threads – towards a causal explanation for invasiveness
  43. 43. •Invading species must have access to available resources (light, nutrients, water, etc) Fluctuating resource •An invading species will be availability theory more successful at invading a of invasibility community if it does not encounter intense competition (Davis et al. 2000) for these resources from resident species. •Experiments and long-term monitoring studies - fluctuation in resource availability = the key factor controlling invasibility
  44. 44. Elton’s legacy?
  45. 45. Elton’s legacy? “To us, the overriding feature of Elton‟s book, and the primary reason for its landmark status in invasion ecology, is simply that it brought together previously disparate themes (biogeography, conservation biology, epidemiology, human history, population ecology, and others) to show the true global scale and the severe and escalating implications of biological invasions for life on earth. He placed the phenomenon in the context of ecological understanding of the time, and provided a map for new research directions.”
  46. 46. Elton’s legacy? “Elton and his monograph, in fact, had limited influence on the development of invasion biology – he was a prophet rather than a founder...” Dan Simberloff (in press)
  47. 47. BROW – Silky smooth EYES – Wide open MOST IMPORTANT – Big baby cheeks NOSE – Long and straight LIPS – Juicy but not too much JAW – Defined and angular SKIN – Plumped; nothing taut OVERALL – Heart-shape effect
  48. 48. SCIENCE Improved conceptual frameworks Naturalized/ Introduced invasive
  49. 49. SCIENCE Better global coverage Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23 237-244 (2008)
  50. 50. Conflict resolution Most pressing Eradication? management Early detection Restoration issues Prevention Containment, control & mitigation Monitoring Integrated land management MISMATCH! SCIENCE Tenuous links Besides a better between current understanding of the research output and “nuts & bolts”, a greater most pressing focus research on key management issues management issues Vectors Homoclime Autecology Population Impact assessment & analysis (biocontrol) dynamics “Invasion pathways Control & restoration ecology ecology” Bioclimatic modelling alien Landscape ecology Cost-benefit analysis naturalized Status of taxa casual invasive
  51. 51. Needed! New partnerships SCIENCE Better links with a wide range of other disciplines
  52. 52. Consideration of management options – firmly grounded in risk-analysis/risk-management
  53. 53. ENVIRONMENTAL (DISTURBED HABITATS) ENVIRONMENTAL (NATURAL HABITATS) COMPONENTS OF THE LAG PHASE DISPERSAL PATHWAYS ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCAL) REPRODUCTIVE GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL IMPACTS Pollinators DISPERSAL PATHWAYS alien naturalized Status of taxa casual invasive
  54. 54. Thanks for your attention!
  55. 55. The Environment Institute Where ideas grow Next Seminar: 18 September Professor Alan Cooper Environmental genomics

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